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Antibody Formation: The production of Antibodies by proliferating and differentiated B-Lymphocytes under stimulation by Antigens.

Humoral Immune Responses

JoVE 10897

The humoral immune response, also known as the antibody-mediated immune response, targets pathogens circulating in “humors,” or extracellular fluids, such as blood and lymph. Antibodies target invading pathogens for destruction via multiple defense mechanisms, including neutralization, opsonization, and activation of the complement system. Patients that are impaired in the production of antibodies suffer from severe and frequent infections by common pathogens and unusual pathogens. B lymphocytes, also called B cells, detect pathogens in the blood or lymph system. Although B cells originate in the bone marrow, their name is derived from a specialized organ in birds in which B cells were first discovered, the bursa of Fabricius. After release from the bone marrow, B cells mature in secondary lymphoid tissues, such as the spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue throughout the body. B cells bind to specific parts of a pathogen, called antigens, via their B cell receptors. In addition to antigen binding, B cells require a second signal for activation. This signal can be provided by helper T cells or, in some cases, by the antigen itself. When both stimuli are present, B cells form germinal centers, where they proliferate into plasma cells and memory B cells. All cells that are derived from a common ancestral B c

 Core: Biology

Chromatin Immunoprecipitation

JoVE 5551

Histones are proteins that help organize DNA in eukaryotic nuclei by serving as “scaffolds” around which DNA can be wrapped, forming a complex called “chromatin”. These proteins can be modified through the addition of chemical groups, and these changes affect gene expression. Researchers use a technique called chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to …

 Genetics

Identification of Mouse and Human Antibody Repertoires by Next-Generation Sequencing

1Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 2Center for Influenza Virus Research, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 3School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 4Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 5Division of Infectious Diseases Pathology, Department of Global Infectious Diseases, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 6Division of Molecular Pathobiology, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, 7Division of Collaboration and Education, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, 8Global Station for Zoonosis Control, GI-CoRE, Hokkaido University, 9Department of Immunology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 10Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba

JoVE 58804

 Immunology and Infection

Studying Organelle Dynamics in B Cells During Immune Synapse Formation

1Laboratory of Immune Cell Biology, Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 2Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 3Centro de Investigaciones en Biología Celular y Biomedicina, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad San Sebastián

JoVE 59621

 Immunology and Infection

Adult Mouse Digit Amputation and Regeneration: A Simple Model to Investigate Mammalian Blastema Formation and Intramembranous Ossification

1Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, 2Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, 3Department of Neurosurgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center

JoVE 59749

 Developmental Biology
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