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The Cardiac Cycle

JoVE 10887

The heart beats rhythmically in a sequence called the cardiac cycle—a rapid coordination of contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole).

Electrical signals—sent from the sinoatrial (SA) node in the right atrial wall to the atrioventricular (AV) node between the right atrium and right ventricle—cause both atria to simultaneously contract. When the signal reaches the AV node, it pauses for approximately a tenth of a second, allowing the atria to contract and empty blood into the ventricles before they contract. The electrical impulses are then conducted by the bundle of His and propagated to the left and right bundle branches. The signal is then conducted by Purkinje fibers in the ventricular walls, inducing ventricular contraction and pumping blood out of the heart. During diastole (relaxation), the heart fills with blood, and the cycle is repeated.

 Core: Biology

Ophthalmoscopic Examination

JoVE 10146

Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA


The simplest ophthalmoscopes consist of an aperture to look through, a diopter indicator, and a disc for selecting lenses. The ophthalmoscope is primarily used to examine the fundus, or the…

 Physical Examinations II

Optical Materialography Part 2: Image Analysis

JoVE 10433

Source: Faisal Alamgir, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA


The imaging of microscopic structures of solid materials, and the analysis of the structural components imaged, is known as materialography. Often, we would like to quantify the internal three-dimensional microstructure of a…

 Materials Engineering

High Resolution Quantitative Synaptic Proteome Profiling of Mouse Brain Regions After Auditory Discrimination Learning

1Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology (LIN), 2Institute of Experimental Internal Medicine, Medical School, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, 3Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical School, Otto von Guericke University

JoVE 54992

 Neuroscience

Modified Roller Tube Method for Precisely Localized and Repetitive Intermittent Imaging During Long-term Culture of Brain Slices in an Enclosed System

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Molecular, Cellular and Integrated Neuroscience Program, Colorado State University, 2IBMC-Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, i3S-Instituto de Investigaçãoe Inovação em Saúde, ICBAS, Universidade do Porto, 3Denali Therapeutics

JoVE 56436

 Neuroscience
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