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Mutations

JoVE 10793

Mutations are changes in the sequence of DNA. These changes can occur spontaneously or they can be induced by exposure to environmental factors. Mutations can be characterized in a number of different ways: whether and how they alter the amino acid sequence of the protein, whether they occur over a small or large area of DNA, and whether they occur in somatic cells or germline cells.

Mutations that occur at a single nucleotide are called point mutations. When point mutations occur within genes, the consequences can vary in severity depending on what happens to the encoded amino acid sequence. A silent mutation does not change the amino acid identity and will have no effect on an organism. A missense mutation changes a single amino acid, and the effects might be serious if the change alters the function of the protein. A nonsense mutation produces a stop codon that truncates the protein, likely rendering it nonfunctional. Frameshift mutations occur when one or more nucleotides are inserted into or deleted from a protein-coding DNA sequence, affecting all of the codons downstream of the location of the mutation. The most drastic type of mutation, chromosomal alteration, changes the physical structure of a chromosome. Chromosomal alterations can include deletion, duplication, or inversion of large stretches of DNA within a single chromosome, or integration o

 Core: Biology

Competitive Genomic Screens of Barcoded Yeast Libraries

1Banting and Best Department of Medical Research and Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, 2Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, 3Donnelly Sequencing Centre, University of Toronto, 4Genetics and Molecular Biology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, 5Stanford Genome Technology Center, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, 6Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto

JoVE 2864

 Biology

Chromatin Interaction Analysis with Paired-End Tag Sequencing (ChIA-PET) for Mapping Chromatin Interactions and Understanding Transcription Regulation

1Genome Institute of Singapore, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore, 2A*STAR-Duke-NUS Neuroscience Research Partnership, Singapore, 3Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore

JoVE 3770

 Biology
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