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Cells: The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of Cytoplasm containing various Organelles and a Cell membrane boundary.

Cell Division- Concept

JoVE 10571

Cell division is fundamental to all living organisms and required for growth and development. As an essential means of reproduction for all living things, cell division allows organisms to transfer their genetic material to their offspring. For a unicellular organism, cellular division generates a completely new organism. For multicellular organisms, cellular division produces new cells for…

 Lab Bio

Cell Structure- Concept

JoVE 10587

Background

Cells represent the most basic biological units of all organisms, whether it be simple, single-celled organisms like bacteria, or large, multicellular organisms like elephants and giant redwood trees. In the mid 19th century, the Cell Theory was proposed to define a cell, which states:



Every living organism is made up of one or more cells.
The cells…

 Lab Bio

What is the Cell Cycle?

JoVE 10757

The cell cycle refers to the sequence of events occurring throughout a typical cell’s life. In eukaryotic cells, the somatic cell cycle has two stages: interphase and the mitotic phase. During interphase, the cell grows, performs its basic metabolic functions, copies its DNA, and prepares for mitotic cell division. Then, during mitosis and cytokinesis, the cell divides its nuclear and cytoplasmic materials, respectively. This generates two daughter cells that are identical to the original parent cell. The cell cycle is essential for the growth of the organism, replacement of damaged cells, and regeneration of aged cells. Cancer is the result of uncontrolled cell division sparked by a gene mutation. There are three major checkpoints in the eukaryotic cell cycle. At each checkpoint, the progression to the next cell cycle stage can be halted until conditions are more favorable. The G1 checkpoint is the first of these, where a cell’s size, energy, nutrients, DNA quality, and other external factors are evaluated. If the cell is deemed inadequate, it does not continue to the S phase of interphase. The G2 checkpoint is the second checkpoint. Here, the cell ensures that all of the DNA has been replicated and is not damaged before entering mitosis. If any DNA damage is detected that cannot be repaired, the cell may undergo apoptosis, or

 Core: Biology

Cell-mediated Immune Responses

JoVE 10896

The cell-mediated immune system is the host’s primary response against invasive bacteria and viruses that cause intracellular infections. It is also essential for fighting against and destroying cancer cells. Furthermore, the cell-mediated immune system plays a role in the rejection of organ transplants or graft tissue.

Phagocytic cells of the innate immune system, such as macrophages or dendritic cells, are the first to recognize a foreign particle. These cells engulf the foreign particle and digest it. Small molecules of the foreign particle, called antigens, remain intact and are presented at the surface of the phagocytic cell. The presentation is facilitated by proteins of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which binds the antigen and protrude from the cell. The phagocytic cell is therefore also called an antigen presenting cell (APC). The MHC-antigen complex activates cells of the adaptive immune system, which eventually fight the source of the foreign particle. T cells are a type of lymphocyte that are named after their location of maturation—the thymus. In the thymus, precursor T cells differentiate into two main types, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These cell types are named after the surface receptor that determines the cell’s function. All T cells carry T-cell receptors, but the coreceptor CD4

 Core: Biology

Plant Cell Wall

JoVE 11084

The plant cell wall gives plant cells shape, support, and protection. As a cell matures, its cell wall specializes according to the cell type. For example, the parenchyma cells of leaves possess only a thin, primary cell wall.

Collenchyma and sclerenchyma cells, on the other hand, mainly occur in the outer layers of a plant's stems and leaves. These cells provide the plant with strength and support by either partially thickening their primary cell wall (i.e., collenchyma), or depositing a secondary cell wall (i.e., sclerenchyma). Altogether, the varying cell wall compositions determine the function of specific cells and tissues. Some plants, such as trees and grasses, deposit a secondary cell wall around mature cells. Secondary cell walls typically contain three distinct layers: the secondary wall layer 1 (S1) to the outside, the secondary wall layer 2 (S2) in the middle, and the innermost secondary wall layer 3 (S3). In each layer, the cellulose microfibrils are organized in different orientations. The S2 layer may make up to 75% of the cell wall. Regardless of composition, all plant cell walls have small holes, or pits, that allow for the transport of water, nutrients, and other molecules. In a pit, the middle lamella and primary cell wall merely form a thin membrane that separates adjacent cells.

 Core: Biology

Cell Division - Student Protocol

JoVE 10572

Observing the Cell Cycle in a Root Tip
Hypotheses: The experimental hypothesis is that in root tips slices that have been treated with nocodazole, a chemical that interferes with microtubular polymerization, all of the cells will be arrested at the same stage of the cell cycle and that in untreated onion tip slices all of the different stages of the…

 Lab Bio

Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting (MACS): Isolation of Thymic T Lymphocytes

JoVE 10495

Source: Meunier Sylvain1,2,3, Perchet Thibaut1,2,3, Sophie Novault4, Rachel Golub1,2,3
1 Unit for Lymphopoiesis, Department of Immunology, Pasteur Institute, Paris, France
2 INSERM U1223, Paris, France
3 Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Cellule Pasteur, Paris, France
4 Flow Cytometry Platfrom, Cytometry and Biomarkers UtechS, …

 Immunology

Assay for Cell Death: Chromium Release Assay of Cytotoxic Ability

JoVE 10505

Source: Frances V. Sjaastad1,2, Whitney Swanson2,3, and Thomas S. Griffith1,2,3,4
1 Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology Graduate Program, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455
2 Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455
3 Department of Urology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455
4 Masonic…

 Immunology
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