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Cyclin D: A cyclin subtype that is specific for Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and Cyclin-dependent kinase 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.

Positive Regulator Molecules

JoVE 10763

To consistently produce healthy cells, the cell cycle—the process that generates daughter cells—must be precisely regulated.

Internal regulatory checkpoints ensure that a cell’s size, energy reserves, and DNA quality and completeness are sufficient to advance through the cell cycle. At these checkpoints, positive and negative regulators promote or inhibit a cell’s continuation through the cell cycle. Positive regulators include two protein groups that allow cells to pass through regulatory checkpoints: cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). These proteins are present in eukaryotes, ranging from yeast to humans. Cyclins can be categorized as G1, G1/S, S, or M cyclins based on the cell cycle phase or transition they are most involved in. Generally, levels of a given cyclin are low during most of the cell cycle but abruptly increase at the checkpoint they most contribute to (G1 cyclins are an exception, as they are required throughout the cell cycle). The cyclin is then degraded by enzymes in the cytoplasm and its levels decline. Meanwhile, cyclins needed for the next checkpoints accumulate. To regulate the cell cycle, cyclins must be bound to a Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)—a type of enzyme that attaches a phosphate group to modify the activity of a target protein.

 Core: Biology

Analysis of Combinatorial miRNA Treatments to Regulate Cell Cycle and Angiogenesis

1School of Basic Pharmaceutical and Toxicological Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana Monroe, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center

JoVE 59460

 Cancer Research

Identification of Nucleolar Factors During HIV-1 Replication Through Rev Immunoprecipitation and Mass Spectrometry

1Molecular and Cellular Biology Department, Beckman Research Institute at the City of Hope, 2Irell & Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences, 3Department of Molecular Immunology, Beckman Research Institute and the City of Hope

JoVE 59329

 Immunology and Infection
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