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Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the Cytosol and small structures excluding the Cell nucleus; Mitochondria; and large Vacuoles. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)

SEM Imaging of Biological Samples

JoVE 10492

Source: Peiman Shahbeigi-Roodposhti and Sina Shahbazmohamadi, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut


A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is an instrument that uses an electron beam to nondestructively image and characterize conductive materials in a vacuum. As an analogy, an…

 Biomedical Engineering

Focused Ion Beams

JoVE 10482

Source: Sina Shahbazmohamadi and Peiman Shahbeigi-Roodposhti-Roodposhti, School of Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT


As electron microscopes become more complex and widely used in research labs, it becomes more of a necessity to introduce their capabilities. Focused ion beam (FIB) is an instrument that can be employed in…

 Materials Engineering

The ATP Bioluminescence Assay

JoVE 5653

In fireflies, the luciferase enzyme converts a compound called luciferin into oxyluciferin, and produces light or “luminescence” as a result. This reaction requires energy derived from ATP in order to proceed, so researchers have exploited the luciferase-luciferin interaction to gauge ATP levels in cells. Given ATP’s role as the cell’s currency of…

 Cell Biology

Live Cell Imaging of Mitosis

JoVE 5642

Mitosis is a form of cell division in which a cell’s genetic material is divided equally between two daughter cells. Mitosis can be broken down into six phases, during each of which the cell’s components, such as its chromosomes, show visually distinct characteristics. Advances in fluorescence live cell imaging have allowed scientists to study this process in…

 Cell Biology

Genetic Engineering of Model Organisms

JoVE 5327

Transgenesis, or the use of genetic engineering to alter gene expression, is widely used in the field of developmental biology. Scientists use a number of approaches to alter the function of genes to understand their roles in developmental processes. This includes replacement of a gene with a nonfunctional copy, or adding a visualizable tag to a gene that allows the resultant fusion protein to …

 Developmental Biology

Gene Silencing with Morpholinos

JoVE 5326

Morpholino-mediated gene silencing is a common technique used to study roles of specific genes during development. Morpholinos inhibit gene expression by hybridizing to complementary mRNAs. Due to their unique chemistry, morpholinos are easy to produce and store, which makes them remarkably cost effective compared to other gene silencing methods.


This video reviews proper…

 Developmental Biology

Neuronal Transfection Methods

JoVE 5215

Transfection - the process of transferring genetic material into cells - is a powerful tool for the rapid and efficient manipulation of gene expression in cells. Because this method can be used to silence the expression of specific proteins or to drive the expression of foreign or modified proteins, transfection is an extremely useful tool in the study of the cellular and…

 Neuroscience

Histological Staining of Neural Tissue

JoVE 5206

In order to examine the cellular, structural and molecular layout of tissues and organs, researchers use a method known as histological staining. In this technique, a tissue of interest is preserved using chemical fixatives and sectioned, or cut into very thin slices. A variety of staining techniques are then applied to provide contrast to the visually uniform sections. In …

 Neuroscience

Zebrafish Reproduction and Development

JoVE 5151

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a popular model for studying genetics and developmental biology. The transparency of these animals at early developmental stages permits the direct visualization of tissue morphogenesis at the cellular level. Furthermore, zebrafish are amenable to genetic manipulation, allowing researchers to determine the effect of gene expression on the…

 Biology II

Yeast Reproduction

JoVE 5097

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast that is an extremely valuable model organism. Importantly, S. cerevisiae is a unicellular eukaryote that undergoes many of the same biological processes as humans. This video provides an introduction to the yeast cell cycle, and explains how S. cerevisiae reproduces both asexually and sexually Yeast reproduce asexually …

 Biology I
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