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Death: Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.

Identification of Intracellular Signaling Events Induced in Viable Cells by Interaction with Neighboring Cells Undergoing Apoptotic Cell Death

1Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, 2Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Jesse Brown Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3Department of Biology, Kutztown University of Pennsylvania, 4Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, 5Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago

JoVE 54980

 Biology

Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting (Propensity Score) using the Military Health System Data Repository and National Death Index

1Cardiovascular Division, Washington University School of Medicine, 2General Medical Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, 3Center for Advancing Population Science, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Cardiology Service, Department of Medicine, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center

JoVE 59825

 Medicine

Annexin V and Propidium Iodide Labeling

JoVE 5650

Staining with annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) provides researchers with a way to identify different types of cell death—either necrosis or apoptosis. This technique relies on two components. The first, annexin V, is a protein that binds certain phospholipids called phosphatidylserines, which normally occur only in the inner, cytoplasm-facing leaflet of a…

 Cell Biology

Urea Cycle

JoVE 10892

The urea cycle describes how liver cells convert ammonia to urea. Ammonia is a toxic waste product of protein catabolism. Land animals must convert ammonia into the less toxic urea which can be safely eliminated by the kidneys through urine. Marine animals excrete ammonia directly, and the surrounding water dilutes the ammonia to safe levels.

There are five basic steps in the urea cycle: the conversion of ammonia (NH3) to carbamoyl phosphate the introduction of ornithine in the transformation of carbamoyl phosphate to citrulline the transformation of citrulline into arginosuccinate involving aspartate and chemical energy (ATP) the conversion of arginosuccinate into arginine with fumarate as a by-product the formation of urea and ornithine from arginine Notice that ornithine is used in the second step and is regenerated in the last step. Since ornithine is recycled, the urea cycle is sometimes referred to as the ornithine cycle. Elevated levels of blood ammonia, or hyperammonemia, results from an interruption of the urea cycle. This can occur at the organ level where scar tissue blocks the blood supply to the liver. Scar tissue, or cirrhosis, can result from chronic alcohol abuse, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C infection. Within the liver cells, disruption of the urea c

 Core: Biology

Species Distribution and Biogeography- Concept

JoVE 10603

Species Distribution

Biogeography is the study of species distribution across geographic space and the processes that shape these distributions. This discipline is based on the assumption that each species within a location must have immigrated from another geographic area or evolved from a local species. Within each habitat, a variety of biotic and abiotic factors act on…

 Lab Bio

Cell Division- Concept

JoVE 10571

Cell division is fundamental to all living organisms and required for growth and development. As an essential means of reproduction for all living things, cell division allows organisms to transfer their genetic material to their offspring. For a unicellular organism, cellular division generates a completely new organism. For multicellular organisms, cellular division produces new cells for…

 Lab Bio

The TUNEL Assay

JoVE 5651

One of the hallmarks of apoptosis is the nuclear DNA fragmentation by nucleases. These enzymes are activated by caspases, the family of proteins that execute the cell death program. TUNEL assay is a method that takes advantage of this feature to detect apoptotic cells. In this assay, an enzyme called terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase catalyzes the addition of dUTP…

 Cell Biology

Serial Dilutions and Plating: Microbial Enumeration

JoVE 10507

Source: Jonathan F. Blaize1, Elizabeth Suter1, and Christopher P. Corbo1
1 Department of Biological Sciences, Wagner College, 1 Campus Road, Staten Island NY, 10301


Quantitative assessment of prokaryotes can be onerous given their abundance, propensity for exponential proliferation, species diversity within a population, and specific …

 Microbiology

Electrical Safety Precautions and Basic Equipment

JoVE 10114

Source: Ali Bazzi, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.


Electric machines and power electronics experiments involve electrical currents, voltages, power, and energy quantities that should be handled with extreme diligence and care. These may include three-phase AC voltage (208 V, 230 V, or 480 V), up …

 Electrical Engineering
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