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Death: Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.

The Periodic Table and Organismal Elements

JoVE 10655

Elements are the smallest units of matter that cannot be broken down further by chemical processes. There are 118 known elements, but not all of these are naturally-occurring, and fewer still are essential for life. Living matter is composed primarily of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen, with smaller amounts of other elements like calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur. Other elements are also necessary for life but only in trace amounts. The periodic table organizes elements based on their physical and chemical properties. The atomic number of an element corresponds to the number of protons found in its nucleus, and each square in the periodic table also provides the full name, chemical symbol, and atomic weight of an element. The number of protons provides information about the size of an element, but it is not the only organizational principle underlying the structure of the periodic table. Elements are organized into columns (groups) and rows (periods) based on other physical and chemical properties, such as reactivity, the location of their outermost electrons, and the ability to make certain types of bonds. Elements in the same group (i.e., column) vary in size but have many chemical properties in common with one another. By contrast, elements in the same period (i.e., row) are more similar in size and have their electrons located in a simi

 Core: Biology

Eusociality and Division of Labor- Concept

JoVE 10617

Social Organization

Varying levels of social organization are observed within the animal kingdom, ranging from simple to highly complex. These systems can greatly enhance the survival and reproductive success of an individual or a population. Of these, eusociality is the highest level of social organization, involving divisions of labor based on social castes. However, this system …

 Lab Bio

Yeast Maintenance

JoVE 5095

Research performed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has significantly improved our understanding of important cellular phenomona such as regulation of the cell cycle, aging, and cell death. The many benefits of working with S. cerevisiae include the facts that they are inexpensive to grow in the lab and that many ready-to-use strains are now commercially available. Nevertheless,…

 Biology I

Bacterial Growth Curve Analysis and its Environmental Applications

JoVE 10100

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Luisa Ikner


Bacteria are among the most abundant life forms on Earth. They are found in every ecosystem and are vital for everyday life. For example, bacteria affect what people eat, drink, and breathe, and there are actually more…

 Environmental Microbiology

Anesthesia Induction and Maintenance

JoVE 10263

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals ("The Guide") states that pain assessment and alleviation are integral components of the veterinary care of laboratory animals.1 The definition of anesthesia is the loss …

 Lab Animal Research

Evaluating the Heat Transfer of a Spin-and-Chill

JoVE 10440

Source: Michael G. Benton and Kerry M. Dooley, Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA


The Spin-and-Chill uses heat transfer and fluid flow fundamentals to chill beverages from room temperature to 38 °F in as little as 2 min. It would take a refrigerator approximately 240 min and an ice chest…

 Chemical Engineering

An Introduction to Caenorhabditis elegans

JoVE 5103

Caenorhabditis elegans is a microscopic, soil-dwelling roundworm that has been powerfully used as a model organism since the early 1970’s. It was initially proposed as a model for developmental biology because of its invariant body plan, ease of genetic manipulation and low cost of maintenance. Since then C. elegans has rapidly grown in popularity and is now utilized…

 Biology I

Compound Administration II

JoVE 10388

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN



Compound administration is often an integral component of an animal study. Many factors need to be evaluated to ensure that the compound is delivered correctly. The route of administration affects the mechanisms of…

 Lab Animal Research

Working with Hot and Cold Sources

JoVE 10366

Source: Robert M. Rioux & Suprita Jharimune, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA


Working with extreme temperatures, both high and low, is an integral part of many laboratory operations. For many, mentioning a laboratory instantly evokes the mental picture of a Bunsen burner. Bunsen burners and hot plates are used…

 Lab Safety
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