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Diaphyses: The shaft of long bones.

Bone Structure

JoVE 10864

Within the skeletal system, the structure of a bone, or osseous tissue, can be exemplified in a long bone, like the femur, where there are two types of osseous tissue: cortical and cancellous.

Covering the cortical, or compact bone, is a membrane called the periosteum, which contains connective tissue, capillaries, and nerves. The outer, solid layer—found along the diaphysis, the shaft—forms a dense protective shell around the medullary canal—the cavity that stores yellow bone marrow, composed primarily of fat cells. This space is also covered in a thin lining—the endosteum in which bone growth, remodeling, and repair occur. Within the dense layer of cortical bone are osteons—structural units, arranged in concentric rings called lamellae, that contain osteoblasts—cells critical for bone formation and growth. These cells eventually mature into osteocytes in the hollow space, the lacuna. Through the center of each osteon runs the Haversian canal, which contains more blood and lymphatic vessels, as well as nerve fibers. Towards the rounded ends of the long bone, the epiphyses is the second type of osseous tissue, known as the cancellous, or spongy, bone. This inner layer is composed of a honeycomb-like network of trabeculae—grouped arrangements that form along the lines of stress points to maximize strengt

 Core: Biology

Novel Diagnostics in Revision Arthroplasty: Implant Sonication and Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

1Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, 2Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Bonn, 3Division of EU Cooperation/Microbiology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institute

JoVE 55147

 Medicine

High-Throughput, Multi-Image Cryohistology of Mineralized Tissues

1Department of Reconstructive Sciences, University of Connecticut Health Center, 2Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Connecticut Health Center, 4Department of Orthopaedics, University of Rochester

JoVE 54468

 Biology

Automated Quantification of Hematopoietic Cell – Stromal Cell Interactions in Histological Images of Undecalcified Bone

1Immunodynamics, German Rheumatism Research Center, a Leibniz Institute, 2Biophysical Analytics, German Rheumatism Research Center, a Leibniz Institute, 3Max-Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, 4Wimasis GmbH, 5Immunodynamics and Intravital Imaging, Charité - University of Medicine

JoVE 52544

 Developmental Biology

A Mini-Invasive Internal Fixation Technique for Studying Immobilization-Induced Knee Flexion Contracture in Rats

1Department of Joint and Trauma Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 2Department of Plastic Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 3Department of Bone Surgery, Tungwah Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 4Department of Othopaedic Surgery, The Eighth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University

JoVE 59260

 Developmental Biology

Synergizing Antegrade Endoscopic with Bridging Vein Harvesting for Improvement of Great Saphenous Vein Graft Quality from the Lower Leg

1Department of Cardiac Surgery, Heart Center Rostock, Rostock University Medical Center, University of Rostock, 2Institute of Pathology, Rostock University Medical Center, University of Rostock, 3Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Faculty of Health Science, University of the Free State

JoVE 59009

 Medicine
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