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DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including Complementary dna; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure Dna-dna homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.

DNA Gel Electrophoresis

JoVE 5057

DNA gel electrophoresis is a technique used for the detection and separation of DNA molecules. An electric field is applied to a gel matrix comprised of agarose, and within the gel, charge particles will migrate and separate based on size. The negatively charged phosphates of the DNA backbone cause DNA fragments to move toward the anode - a positively charged electrode.


The video…

 Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA)

JoVE 5694

The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) is a biochemical procedure used to elucidate binding between proteins and nucleic acids. In this assay a radiolabeled nucleic acid and test protein are mixed. Binding is determined via gel electrophoresis which separates components based on mass, charge, and conformation.


This video shows the concepts of EMSA and a general procedure, …

 Biochemistry

Enzyme Assays and Kinetics

JoVE 5692

Enzyme kinetics describes the catalytic effects of enzymes, which are biomolecules that facilitate chemical reactions necessary for living organisms. Enzymes act on molecules, referred to as substrates, to form products. Enzyme kinetic parameters are determined via assays that directly or indirectly measure changes in substrate or product concentration over time. 


This video…

 Biochemistry

Detecting Reactive Oxygen Species

JoVE 5654

Reactive oxygen species are chemically active, oxygen-derived molecules capable of oxidizing other molecules. Because of their reactive nature, there are many deleterious effects associated with unchecked ROS production, including structural damage to DNA and other biological molecules. However, ROS can also be mediators of physiological signaling. There is accumulating…

 Cell Biology

Expression Profiling with Microarrays

JoVE 5547

Microarrays are important tools for profiling gene expression, and are based on complementary binding between probes that are attached to glass chips and nucleic acids derived from samples. Using these arrays, scientists can simultaneously evaluate the expression of thousands of genes. In addition, the expression profiles of different cells or tissue types can be compared, …

 Genetics

Whole-Mount In Situ Hybridization

JoVE 5330

Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WMISH) is a common technique used for visualizing the location of expressed RNAs in embryos. In this process, synthetically produced RNA probes are first complementarily bound, or "hybridized," to the transcripts of target genes. Immunohistochemistry or fluorescence is then used to detect these RNA hybrids, revealing spatial and temporal patterns of…

 Developmental Biology

PCR: The Polymerase Chain Reaction

JoVE 5056

The polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, is a technique used to amplify DNA through thermocycling – cyles of temperature changes at fixed time intervals. Using a thermostable DNA polymerase, PCR can create numerous copies of DNA from DNA building blocks called dinucleoside triphosphates or dNTPs. There are three steps in PCR: denaturation, annealing, and elongation. Denaturation is the …

 Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

RNA Analysis of Environmental Samples Using RT-PCR

JoVE 10104

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Bradley Schmitz


Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) involves the same process as conventional PCR — cycling temperature to amplify nucleic acids. However, while conventional PCR only amplifies…

 Environmental Microbiology
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