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October, 2006
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Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from Drug tolerance which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.

Bacterial Transformation- Concept

JoVE 10573


In early 20th century, pneumonia was accountable for a large portion of infectious disease deaths1. In order to develop an effective vaccine against pneumonia, Frederick Griffith set out to study two different strains of the Streptococcus pneumoniae: a non-virulent strain with a rough appearance (R-strain) and a virulent strain with a smooth appearance…

 Lab Bio

Retrovirus Life Cycles

JoVE 10825

Retroviruses have a single-stranded RNA genome that undergoes a special form of replication. Once the retrovirus has entered the host cell, an enzyme called reverse transcriptase synthesizes double-stranded DNA from the retroviral RNA genome. This DNA copy of the genome is then integrated into the host’s genome inside the nucleus via an enzyme called integrase. Consequently, the retroviral genome is transcribed into RNA whenever the host’s genome is transcribed, allowing the retrovirus to replicate. New retroviral RNA is transported to the cytoplasm, where it is translated into proteins that assemble new retroviruses. Particular drugs have been developed to fight retroviral infections. These drugs target specific aspects of the life cycle. One class of antiretroviral drugs, fusion inhibitors, prevents the entry of the retrovirus into the host cell by inhibiting the fusion of the retrovirus with the host cell membrane. Another class of antiretrovirals, reverse transcriptase inhibitors, inhibits the reverse transcriptase enzymes that make DNA copies of the retroviral RNA genome. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors are competitive inhibitors; during the process of reverse transcription, the drug molecules are incorporated into the growing DNA strand instead of the usual DNA bases. Once incorporated, the drug molecules block further progress by the r

 Core: Biology

An Affordable HIV-1 Drug Resistance Monitoring Method for Resource Limited Settings

1Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, 2Unit D11, Jembi Health Systems, 3Academic Medical Center, Department of Global Health, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD), University of Amsterdam, 4Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Centre for AIDS Research, Stanford Medical School

JoVE 51242


Whole Genome Sequencing of Candida glabrata for Detection of Markers of Antifungal Drug Resistance

1Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology-Public Health, Westmead Hospital, 2Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services, ICPMR, 3Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, The University of Sydney, 4Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Canberra Hospital and Health Services, Australian National University Medical School, 5Infection Management Services, Australian National University Medical School, 6Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, St. Vincent's Hospital, 7Department of Infectious Diseases, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre

JoVE 56714



JoVE 11056

According to obedience research, we may harm others under the forceful pressures of an authority figure (Milgram, 1974). How about if the inappropriate orders were delivered with less force? The increasing interdependence between nurses and physicians compelled Hofling and his colleagues to explore nurses’ reactions to a potentially harmful medical request made by the perceived authority …

 Core: Psychology

In-vitro Mutagenesis

JoVE 10813

To learn more about the function of a gene, researchers can observe what happens when the gene is inactivated or “knocked out,” by creating genetically engineered knockout animals. Knockout mice have been particularly useful as models for human diseases such as cancer, Parkinson’s disease, and diabetes.

Genes can be randomly knocked out, or specific genes can be targeted. To knock out a particular gene, an engineered piece of DNA called a targeting vector is used to replace the normal gene, thereby inactivating it. Targeting vectors have sequences on each end that are identical—or homologous— to the sequences flanking each side of the gene of interest. These homologous sequences allow the targeting vector to replace the gene through homologous recombination—a process that occurs naturally between DNA with similar sequences during meiosis. The targeting vector is introduced into mouse embryonic stem cells in culture, using methods such as electroporation—use of electric pulses to temporarily create pores in the cell membrane. Typically, to identify cells where the vector has properly replaced the gene, it is designed to include a positive selection marker—such as the gene for neomycin resistance (NeoR)—between the homologous regions; and a negative selection marker—such as th

 Core: Biology

Patch Clamp Electrophysiology

JoVE 5202

Neuron cell membranes are populated with ion channels that control the movement of charge into and out of the cell, thereby regulating neuron firing. One extremely useful technique for investigating the biophysical properties of these channels is called patch clamp recording. In this method, neuroscientists place a polished glass micropipette against a cell and apply…


Viral Mutations

JoVE 10827

A mutation is a change in the sequence of bases of DNA or RNA in a genome. Some mutations occur during replication of the genome due to errors made by the polymerase enzymes that replicate DNA or RNA. Unlike DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase is prone to errors because it is not capable of “proofreading” its work. Viruses with RNA-based genomes, like HIV, therefore accrue mutations faster than viruses with DNA-based genomes. Because mutation and recombination provide the raw material for adaptive evolution, RNA-based viruses can quickly evolve resistance to antiviral drugs. A major goal in modern biology is to reveal evolutionary history by comparing genome sequences. An important practical application of these analyses is the study of evolution in disease-causing viruses. Genome sequencing has become so rapid and inexpensive that it is now possible to investigate the origins and ongoing evolution of viruses during a disease outbreak. For example, in 2013, a new strain of avian influenza called H7N9 emerged in China that caused severe respiratory illness in humans. By comparing the mutations in viruses isolated from humans and several bird species, researchers were able to show that the ancestor of this flu strain probably originated in Chinese domestic duck populations before it was transmitted to chickens. The ancestral strain subsequently re

 Core: Biology
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