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Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Balmer Series - Student Protocol

JoVE 11166

Spectral Emission Lines of Hydrogen, Helium, and Neon

In this experiment, you will use a spectrophotometer to measure the distinct wavelengths of light emitted in the UV and visible range by electron relaxation in hydrogen, helium, and neon. Before starting the lab, make a table in your lab notebook for the elements that you will analyze, the color…

 Lab: Chemistry

Balmer Series - Prep Student

JoVE 11164

Preparation of the Laboratory

Here, we show the laboratory preparation for 10 students working in pairs, with some excess. Please adjust quantities as needed.




To set up for this lab experiment, wear the appropriate personal protective equipment, including a lab coat, chemical splash goggles, and gloves.

 Lab: Chemistry

Gas Chromatography (GC) with Flame-Ionization Detection

JoVE 10187

Source: Laboratory of Dr. B. Jill Venton - University of Virginia


Gas chromatography (GC) is used to separate and detect small molecular weight compounds in the gas phase. The sample is either a gas or a liquid that is vaporized in the injection port. Typically, the compounds analyzed are less than 1,000 Da, because it is difficult to…

 Analytical Chemistry

Porosimetry of a Silica Alumina Powder

JoVE 10383

Source: Kerry M. Dooley and Michael G. Benton, Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA


Surface area and pore size distribution are attributes used by adsorbent and catalyst manufacturers and users to ensure quality control and to determine when products are at the end of their useful lives. The…

 Chemical Engineering

Carbon and Nitrogen Analysis of Environmental Samples

JoVE 10012

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University


Elemental Analysis is a method used to determine elemental composition of a material. In environmental samples such as soils, scientists are particularly interested in the amounts of two ecologically important elements, nitrogen and carbon. Elemental analysis by …

 Environmental Science

Balmer Series- Concept

JoVE 11165

The Bohr Model


Niels Bohr proposed a model for the hydrogen atom in 1913 that described discrete energy states are associated with a fixed electron orbit around the nucleus. Importantly, an atom cannot discharge energy while its electrons are in stationary states. An electron can only emit energy by changing energy states. To change energy states, an electron must …

 Lab: Chemistry

Isotopes

JoVE 10663

Elements have a set number of protons that determines their atomic number. For example, all atoms with eight protons are oxygen. However, the number of neutrons can vary for an atom of the same element. These variations of elements, with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons, are called isotopes.

The mass number is the sum of protons and neutrons. Hence, isotopes of an element have the same atomic number, but different mass numbers. An element’s atomic mass, or atomic weight, is a weighted average of the masses of the element’s isotopes. The average is said to be weighted because it reflects the relative abundance of the different isotopes in the sample. In other words, the masses of the most common isotopes contribute most strongly to the average. Several elements exist as multiple isotopes in nature, including carbon, potassium, and uranium. On the periodic table, the atomic mass of an element reflects the relative abundance of their naturally-occurring isotopes on Earth. Isotopes are often discussed in the context of radioactivity. A radioactive element is essentially an element with an unstable nucleus. Most radioactive elements have atomic numbers of 84 or higher. Other elements have isotopes that are non-radioactive and, in most cases, at least one radioactive isotope, a radioisotope. To become more sta

 Core: Biology

Interference and Diffraction

JoVE 10424

Source: Yong P. Chen, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, College of Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN


Interference and diffraction are characteristic phenomena of waves, ranging from water waves to electromagnetic waves such as light. Interference refers to the phenomenon of when two waves of the same kind overlap to…

 Physics II

Glovebox and Impurity Sensors

JoVE 10317

Source: Tamara M. Powers, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University 


The glovebox provides a straightforward means to handle air- and moisture-sensitive solids and liquids. The glovebox is what it sounds like: a box with gloves attached to one or more sides, which allows the user to perform manipulations within the glovebox under an inert…

 Inorganic Chemistry

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy

JoVE 5680

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Henrik Sundén – Chalmers University of Technology



Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a vital analysis technique for organic chemists. With the help of NMR, the work in the organic lab has been facilitated tremendously. Not only can it provide information about the structure…

 Organic Chemistry
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