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Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in Immunity. They are produced by B Lymphocytes from the Immunoglobulin genes. They are comprised of two heavy (Immunoglobulin heavy chains) and two light chains (Immunoglobulin light chains) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-Cell antigen receptors) or secreted forms (Antibodies). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (Immunoglobulin a; Immunoglobulin d; Immunoglobulin e; Immunoglobulin g; Immunoglobulin m) and various subclasses.

Antibody Structure

JoVE 10898

Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins (Ig), are essential players of the adaptive immune system. These antigen-binding proteins are produced by B cells and make up 20 percent of the total blood plasma by weight. In mammals, antibodies fall into five different classes, which each elicits a different biological response upon antigen binding.

Antibodies consist of four polypeptide chains: two identical heavy chains of approximately 440 amino acids each, and two identical light chains composed of roughly 220 amino acids each. These chains are arranged in a Y-shaped structure that is held together by a combination of covalent disulfide bonds and noncovalent bonds. Furthermore, most antibodies carry sugar residues. The process of adding sugar side chains to a protein is called glycosylation. Both the light chain and heavy chain contribute to the antigen binding site at each of the tips of the Y structure. These 110-130 amino acids are highly variable to allow recognition of an almost unlimited number of antigens. This region is also called the variable region and is part of the antigen binding fragment. Each arm of the Y-shaped unit carries an identical antigen binding site. Antibodies can crosslink antigens: when one arm binds to one antigen and the other arm binds to a second, structurally identical antigen. Crosslinking is facilitated by the f

 Core: Biology

ELISPOT Assay: Detection of IFN-γ Secreting Splenocytes

JoVE 10497

Source: Tonya J. Webb1
1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine and the Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21201


ELISPOT is a standardized, reproducible assay used to detect cellular immune responses. The assay utilizes an enzyme-linked…

 Immunology

Identification of Mouse and Human Antibody Repertoires by Next-Generation Sequencing

1Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 2Center for Influenza Virus Research, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 3School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 4Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 5Division of Infectious Diseases Pathology, Department of Global Infectious Diseases, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 6Division of Molecular Pathobiology, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, 7Division of Collaboration and Education, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, 8Global Station for Zoonosis Control, GI-CoRE, Hokkaido University, 9Department of Immunology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 10Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba

JoVE 58804

 Immunology and Infection

Antigenic Liposomes for Generation of Disease-specific Antibodies

1Janssen R&D, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, 3UNC Food Allergy Initiative, University of North Carolina, 4Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina, 5Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, 6Department of Molecular Medicine, Scripps Research Institute, 7Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta

JoVE 58285

 Immunology and Infection
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