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In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.

Whole-Mount In Situ Hybridization

JoVE 5330

Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WMISH) is a common technique used for visualizing the location of expressed RNAs in embryos. In this process, synthetically produced RNA probes are first complementarily bound, or "hybridized," to the transcripts of target genes. Immunohistochemistry or fluorescence is then used to detect these RNA hybrids, revealing spatial and temporal patterns of…

 Developmental Biology

Understanding Early Organogenesis Using a Simplified In Situ Hybridization Protocol in Xenopus

1Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, 2Children's Health Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, 3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, 4Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, 5Department of Paediatrics, University of Western Ontario

JoVE 51526

 Developmental Biology

Cytogenetics

JoVE 5545

Cytogenetics is the field of study devoted to chromosomes, and involves the direct observation of a cell’s chromosomal number and structure, together known as its karyotype. Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with disease. Each chromosome in a karyotype can be stained with a variety of dyes to give unique banding patterns. More recent techniques, including …

 Genetics

An Overview of Epigenetics

JoVE 5549

Since the early days of genetics research, scientists have noted certain heritable phenotypic differences that are not due to differences in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Current evidence suggests that these “epigenetic” phenomena might be controlled by a number of mechanisms, including the modification of DNA cytosine bases with methyl groups, the addition…

 Genetics

An Overview of Gene Expression

JoVE 5546

Gene expression is the complex process where a cell uses its genetic information to make functional products. This process is regulated at multiple stages, and any misregulation could lead to diseases such as cancer.

This video highlights important historical discoveries relating to gene expression, including the…

 Genetics

An Overview of Genetics and Disease

JoVE 5543

Many human diseases are associated with mutations or variations in genetic sequences. Some of these genetic variants are heritable, passed down from generation to generation, while others arise sporadically during an organism’s life and cause diseases such as cancer. Researchers are trying to identify and characterize these genetic alterations in the hopes of…

 Genetics
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