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Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.

Development and Validation of an Ultrasensitive Single Molecule Array Digital Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay for Human Interferon-α

1Immunobiology of Dendritic Cells, Institut Pasteur, 2INSERM U1223, 3Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Neuroinflammation, INSERM UMR1163, Institut Imagine, 4MRC Human Genetics Unit, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, 5Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, University of Manchester

JoVE 57421

 Immunology and Infection

Use of Interferon-γ Enzyme-linked Immunospot Assay to Characterize Novel T-cell Epitopes of Human Papillomavirus

1Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 3Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

JoVE 3657

 Immunology and Infection

Cell-mediated Immune Responses

JoVE 10896

The cell-mediated immune system is the host’s primary response against invasive bacteria and viruses that cause intracellular infections. It is also essential for fighting against and destroying cancer cells. Furthermore, the cell-mediated immune system plays a role in the rejection of organ transplants or graft tissue.

Phagocytic cells of the innate immune system, such as macrophages or dendritic cells, are the first to recognize a foreign particle. These cells engulf the foreign particle and digest it. Small molecules of the foreign particle, called antigens, remain intact and are presented at the surface of the phagocytic cell. The presentation is facilitated by proteins of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which binds the antigen and protrude from the cell. The phagocytic cell is therefore also called an antigen presenting cell (APC). The MHC-antigen complex activates cells of the adaptive immune system, which eventually fight the source of the foreign particle. T cells are a type of lymphocyte that are named after their location of maturation—the thymus. In the thymus, precursor T cells differentiate into two main types, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These cell types are named after the surface receptor that determines the cell’s function. All T cells carry T-cell receptors, but the coreceptor CD4

 Core: Biology

Vasodilation of Isolated Vessels and the Isolation of the Extracellular Matrix of Tight-skin Mice

1Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Clement J. Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Research Institute, 4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, 5Deptarment of Anesthesiology, Clement J Zblocki Veteran Affairs Medical Center, 6Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Medical College of Wisconsin

JoVE 55036

 Immunology and Infection

Overexpressing Long Noncoding RNAs Using Gene-activating CRISPR

1Vatche and Tamar Manoukian Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 2Vatche and Tamar Manoukian Division of Digestive Diseases, Integrated Molecular Technologies (IMT) Core, Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 3Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles

JoVE 59233

 Genetics
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