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Categories and Inductive Inferences

JoVE 10109

Source: Laboratories of Nicholaus Noles and Judith Danovitch—University of Louisville


It might be possible for the human brain to keep track of each individual person, place, or thing encountered, but that would be a very inefficient use of time and cognitive resources. Instead, humans develop categories. Categories are mental…

 Developmental Psychology

Aggregates for Concrete and Asphaltic Mixes

JoVE 10419

Source: Roberto Leon, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA


Concrete and asphalt are by far the most common construction materials used today. Concrete is a composite material consisting of cement, water, air, coarse aggregate, and fine aggregates. Fine aggregates are typically sands and…

 Structural Engineering

Misattribution of Arousal and Cognitive Dissonance

JoVE 10333

Source: Peter Mende-Siedlecki & Jay Van Bavel—New York University


A host of research in psychology suggests that feelings of psychological arousal may be relatively ambiguous, and under certain circumstances, can lead us to make inaccurate conclusions about our own mental states. Much of this work flows from seminal research…

 Social Psychology

Combined SPECT and CT Imaging to Visualize Cardiac Functionality

JoVE 10396

Source: Alycia G. Berman, James A. Schaber, and Craig J. Goergen, Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


Here we will demonstrate the fundamentals of single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging using mice. The technique involves injecting a…

 Biomedical Engineering

Enthalpy

JoVE 10344

Source: Ketron Mitchell-Wynne, PhD, Asantha Cooray, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, School of Physical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA


When a pot of water is placed on a hot stove, heat is said to "flow" from the stove to the water. When two or more objects are placed into thermal contact with each…

 Physics I

Knee Exam

JoVE 10203

Source: Robert E. Sallis, MD. Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA


The knee is a hinged joint that connects the femur with the tibia. It is the largest joint in the body, and due to its location in the middle of the lower leg, it is subjected to a variety of traumatic and degenerative forces. Examination of the knee can be quite…

 Physical Examinations III

What Are Osmoregulation and Excretion?

JoVE 11001

Organisms must keep bodily fluids at a constant temperature and pH while maintaining specific solute concentrations in order to support life functions. Osmoregulation is the process that balances solute and water levels.

Osmosis is the tendency of water to move from solutions with lower ion concentrations, or osmolarities, to those with higher ion concentrations. Osmosis occurs in response to differences in the molecular concentrations of solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane. Bodily fluids, which are separated by such membranes, contain water, non-electrolytes, and electrolytes—solutes that dissolve into ions in water. Both electrolytes and non-electrolytes influence osmotic balance. However, since the more important factor to osmosis is solute number, rather than size, the contribution of electrolytes is more significant. Unlike water, electrolytes cannot diffuse passively through membranes but rely on facilitated diffusion and active transport. In facilitated diffusion, protein-based channels move solutes across membranes. Conversely, energy is used to move ions against concentration gradients in active transport. When animals ingest food, material that cannot be used is excreted from the body. Excretory systems in nature involve tradeoffs between conserving energy and water. Nitrogen is among the most signific

 Core: Biology

Physiology of the Circulatory System - Prep Student

JoVE 10569

Measuring Blood Pressure
To prepare for the blood pressure exercise, simply place the appropriate number of alcohol swabs, sphygmomanometers, and stethoscopes at the front of the classroom.
Be sure to check over each of the component parts of the sphygmomanometers, including the tubing, cuff, manometer, and bulb to ensure they are undamaged.…

 Lab Bio

SEM Imaging of Biological Samples

JoVE 10492

Source: Peiman Shahbeigi-Roodposhti and Sina Shahbazmohamadi, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut


A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is an instrument that uses an electron beam to nondestructively image and characterize conductive materials in a vacuum. As an analogy, an…

 Biomedical Engineering

Focused Ion Beams

JoVE 10482

Source: Sina Shahbazmohamadi and Peiman Shahbeigi-Roodposhti-Roodposhti, School of Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT


As electron microscopes become more complex and widely used in research labs, it becomes more of a necessity to introduce their capabilities. Focused ion beam (FIB) is an instrument that can be employed in…

 Materials Engineering
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