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Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood Monocytes. Main types are Peritoneal macrophages; Alveolar macrophages; Histiocytes; Kupffer cells of the liver; and Osteoclasts. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to Epithelioid cells or may fuse to form Foreign body giant cells or Langhans giant cells. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)

Targeting Drugs to Larval Zebrafish Macrophages by Injecting Drug-Loaded Liposomes

1Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, 2School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, 3School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland

JoVE 60198

 Immunology and Infection

Highly Efficient Transfection of Primary Macrophages with In Vitro Transcribed mRNA

1Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, 2Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, 3Cologne Cluster of Excellence on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-associated Diseases (CECAD), 4German Center for Infection Research (DZIF)

JoVE 60143

 Immunology and Infection

Inflammation

JoVE 10902

In response to tissue injury and infection, mast cells initiate inflammation. Mast cells release chemicals that increase the permeability of adjacent blood capillaries and attract additional immune cells to the wound or site of infection. Neutrophils are phagocytic leukocytes that exit the bloodstream and engulf invading microbes. Blood clotting platelets seal the wound and fibers create a scaffold for wound healing. Macrophages engulf aging neutrophils to end the acute inflammatory response. Tissue injury and infection are the primary causes of acute inflammation. Inflammation protects the body by eliminating the cause of tissue injury and initiating the removal of cell debris resulting from the initial damage and related immune cell activity. Inflammation involves mediators of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Proper regulation of inflammation is crucial to clear the pathogen and remove cell debris without overly damaging healthy tissue in the process. If inflammatory processes are not properly regulated, chronic inflammation can arise that is often fatal. Mast cells are the first to respond to tissue injury, as they are primarily located in areas that have contact with the exterior: the skin, gut, and airways. Mast cells have an arsenal of receptors on their cell surface and can hence be activated by a wide variety of stimuli, such as mi

 Core: Biology

Autocrine Signaling

JoVE 10973

Secreted signals can act on a variety of target cells. In some cases, the cell that secretes a signal also detects and responds to the signaling molecule it produces; this is called Autocrine Signaling.

Under normal physiological conditions, autocrine signaling is important for homeostasis. This process is well characterized in the macrophages of the immune system. Macrophages secrete a variety of signals including the cytokine Interleukin-1, IL-1. The secreting macrophages also possess membrane receptors for IL-1 that, when bound, can activate an intracellular signaling cascade. The resulting intracellular signals trigger the secretion of additional cytokines including more IL-1 from the target cell. Though IL-1 secreted by these macrophages can also bind to receptors on other cells and cell types, binding to the signaling cell is important in the regulation of signal production. Autocrine signaling is also a major mechanism of cancer cell proliferation. Cancerous cells secrete a variety of growth signals to themselves, through autocrine signaling, and to nearby tissues. For example, progesterone appears to act in an autocrine manner in breast cancer, whereby progesterone binds to progesterone receptors on the signaling cell, stimulating the action of growth-promoting genes. Autocrine signaling can also play a role in the development of skin cancer by stim

 Core: Biology
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