Studying Pre-formed Fibril Induced α-Synuclein Accumulation in Primary Embryonic Mouse Midbrain Dopamine Neurons
1Institute of Biotechnology, HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, 2Neuroscience Center, HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, 3Department of Brain Biochemistry, Maj Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences
When we hear a sound, our nervous system is detecting sound waves—pressure waves of mechanical energy traveling through a medium. The frequency of the wave is perceived as pitch, while the amplitude is perceived as loudness.
Sound waves are collected by the external ear and amplified as they travel through the ear canal. When sounds reach the junction between the outer and middle ear, they vibrate the tympanic membrane—the eardrum. The resulting mechanical energy causes the attached ossicles—a set of small bones in the middle ear—to move. The ossicles vibrate the oval window, the outermost part of the inner ear. In the labyrinth of the inner ear, the sound wave energy is transferred to the cochlea—a coiled structure in the inner ear—causing the fluid within it to move. The cochlea contains receptors that transduce mechanical sound waves into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the brain. Sounds within the hearing range vibrate the basilar membrane in the cochlea and are detected by hair cells on the organ of Corti, the site of transduction. Along the primary auditory pathway, the signals are sent through the auditory nerve to the cochlear nuclei in the brainstem. From here, they travel to the inferior colliculus of the midbrain and up to the thalamus, and then to the primary auditory cortex. Along this pat…
Consequences play a major role in controlling our behavior. If the consequence is a reward, then it encourages the associated behavior. Rewards can come in many forms such as a pleasant feeling, money, or food. However, sometimes an individual engages in compulsive behavior despite of negative consequences, and this state is known as addiction. Administration of addictive substances is…
Isolation and Culture of Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Spinal Motor Neurons from Prenatal Islmn:GFP Transgenic Mice
1Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, 2FM Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children's Hospital, 3Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 4Medical Genetics Training Program, Harvard Medical School, 5Department of Ophthalmology, Boston Children's Hospital, 6Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, 7Broad Institute of M.I.T. and Harvard, 8Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 9Department of Neurology, Kokura Memorial Hospital, 10Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
1Institute for Frontier Life and Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 2Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS), Kyoto University, 3Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 4Kyoto University Graduate School of Biostudies