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October, 2006
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Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.


JoVE 11094

Plant morphogenesis—the development of a plant’s form and structure—involves several overlapping developmental processes, including growth and cell differentiation. Precursor cells differentiate into specific cell types, which are organized into the tissues and organ systems that make up the functional plant.

Plant growth and cell differentiation are under complex hormonal control. Plant hormones regulate gene expression, often in response to environmental stimuli. For example, many plants form flowers. Unlike stems and roots, flowers do not grow throughout a plant’s life. Flowering involves a change in the identity of meristems—regions of the plant containing actively-dividing cells that form new tissues. In addition to internal signals, environmental cues—such as temperature and day length—trigger the expression of meristem identity genes. Meristem identity genes enable the conversion of the shoot apical meristem into the inflorescence meristem, allowing the meristem to produce floral rather than vegetative structures. The inflorescence meristem produces the floral meristem. Cells in the floral meristem differentiate into one of the flower organs—sepals, petals, stamens, or carpels—according to their radial position, which dictates the expression of organ identity genes. The ABC hypo

 Core: Biology

The C. elegans Intestine As a Model for Intercellular Lumen Morphogenesis and In Vivo Polarized Membrane Biogenesis at the Single-cell Level: Labeling by Antibody Staining, RNAi Loss-of-function Analysis and Imaging

1Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Developmental Biology and Genetics Core, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2College of Life Sciences, Jilin University, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau

JoVE 56100

 Developmental Biology

The C. elegans Excretory Canal as a Model for Intracellular Lumen Morphogenesis and In Vivo Polarized Membrane Biogenesis in a Single Cell: labeling by GFP-fusions, RNAi Interaction Screen and Imaging

1Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Developmental Biology and Genetics Core, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, 2College of Life Sciences, Jilin University, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau

JoVE 56101

 Developmental Biology

Plant Hormones

JoVE 11114

Plant hormones—or phytohormones—are chemical molecules that modulate one or more physiological processes of a plant. In animals, hormones are often produced in specific glands and circulated via the circulatory system. However, plants lack hormone-producing glands.

Instead, plant hormones are often produced in regions of active growth, like the tips of roots and shoots. Additionally, even very low concentrations of plant hormones can have a profound effect on growth and development processes. For instance, auxins are produced predominantly in shoot tips and transported from cell to cell down the stem. Auxins mediate a plethora of plant responses, such as cell elongation, fruit development, and phototropism—a plant’s movement toward or away from light. The classical plant hormones include auxins, gibberellins (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins (CK), and ethylene (ET). More recently-discovered hormones include jasmonates (JA), brassinosteroids (BR), and peptides. These chemical compounds mediate crucial signaling cascades that ultimately lead to key processes associated with root and shoot development, flowering, fruit ripening, and plant morphogenesis. For example, auxins and cytokinins are mediators of plant cell division, elongation, and differentiation. Ethylene, which is the only gaseous hormone in plants, mediates f

 Core: Biology

Zebrafish Reproduction and Development

JoVE 5151

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a popular model for studying genetics and developmental biology. The transparency of these animals at early developmental stages permits the direct visualization of tissue morphogenesis at the cellular level. Furthermore, zebrafish are amenable to genetic manipulation, allowing researchers to determine the effect of gene expression on the…

 Biology II

Whole-Mount In Situ Hybridization

JoVE 5330

Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WMISH) is a common technique used for visualizing the location of expressed RNAs in embryos. In this process, synthetically produced RNA probes are first complementarily bound, or "hybridized," to the transcripts of target genes. Immunohistochemistry or fluorescence is then used to detect these RNA hybrids, revealing spatial and temporal patterns of…

 Developmental Biology

Explant Culture for Developmental Studies

JoVE 5329

Explant culture is a technique in which living cells or tissues are removed from an embryo for continued development outside of the organism. This ex vivo approach allows researchers to manipulate and observe developing tissues in ways that are not possible in vivo. Once established, explant culture is frequently used to understand the role of genes and signaling molecules in …

 Developmental Biology

An Introduction to Developmental Genetics

JoVE 5325

Development is the complex process through which a single-celled embryo transforms into a multicellular organism. Developmental processes are guided by information encoded in an organism's DNA, and geneticists are trying to understand how this information leads to a fully formed organism.

This video reviews seminal research in the field of developmental biology, including the…

 Developmental Biology
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