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Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding Axons in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (Schwann cells in the peripheral and Oligodendroglia in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in Demyelinating diseases is a serious clinical problem.

Purification of Mouse Brain Vessels

1Collège de France, Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology (CIRB), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7241, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, 2Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Biologie, 3MEMOLIFE Laboratory of Excellence and Paris Science, Lettre Research University, 4Université Paris Descartes, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Paris Diderot

JoVE 53208


 Neuroscience

Transplantation of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells to Evaluate Functional Recovery after Peripheral Nerve Injury

1UPRES EA3830, Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, University of Rouen, 2Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 3Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Department, Rouen University Hospital, 4Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Department, Amiens University Hospital

JoVE 50590


 Neuroscience

Action Potentials

JoVE 10844

Overview

Neurons communicate by firing action potentials—the electrochemical signal that is propagated along the axon. The signal results in the release of neurotransmitters at axon terminals, thereby transmitting information in the nervous system. An action potential is a specific “all-or-none” change in membrane potential that results in a rapid spike in…


 Core: Nervous System

Glial Cells

JoVE 10843

Overview

Glial cells are one of the two main types of cells in the nervous system. Glia cells comprise astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and ependymal cells in the central nervous system, and satellite and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. These cells do not communicate via electrical signals like neurons do, but they contribute to virtually every other aspect …


 Core: Nervous System

Neuron Structure

JoVE 10842

Overview

Neurons are the main type of cell in the nervous system that generate and transmit electrochemical signals. They primarily communicate with each other using neurotransmitters at specific junctions called synapses. Neurons come in many shapes that often relate to their function, but most share three main structures: an axon and dendrites that extend out from a cell…


 Core: Nervous System

Histological Staining of Neural Tissue

JoVE 5206

In order to examine the cellular, structural and molecular layout of tissues and organs, researchers use a method known as histological staining. In this technique, a tissue of interest is preserved using chemical fixatives and sectioned, or cut into very thin slices. A variety of staining techniques are then applied to provide contrast to the visually uniform sections. In …


 Neuroscience

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