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Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the Cell nucleus that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (Nuclear pore).

Meiosis II

JoVE 10768

Meiosis II is the second and final stage of meiosis. It relies on the haploid cells produced during meiosis I, each of which contain only 23 chromosomes—one from each homologous initial pair. Importantly, each chromosome in these cells is composed of two joined copies, and when these cells enter meiosis II, the goal is to separate such sister chromatids using the same microtubule-based…


 Core: Meiosis

Meiosis I

JoVE 10767

Meiosis is a carefully orchestrated set of cell divisions, the goal of which—in humans—is to produce haploid sperm or eggs, each containing half the number of chromosomes present in somatic cells elsewhere in the body. Meiosis I is the first such division, and involves several key steps, among them: condensation of replicated chromosomes in diploid cells; the pairing of homologous…


 Core: Meiosis

Mitosis and Cytokinesis

JoVE 10762

In eukaryotic cells, the cell's cycle—the division cycle—is divided into distinct, coordinated cellular processes that include cell growth, DNA replication/chromosome duplication, chromosome distribution to daughter cells, and finally, cell division. The cell cycle is tightly regulated by its regulatory systems as well as extracellular signals that affect cell…


 Core: Cell Cycle and Division

Ribosomes

JoVE 10692

Ribosomes translate genetic information encoded by messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have ribosomes. Cells that synthesize large quantities of protein—such as secretory cells in the human pancreas—can contain millions of ribosomes.



Ribosomes are composed of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and proteins. Ribosomes are not surrounded by …


 Core: Cell Structure and Function

The Nucleus

JoVE 10691

The nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle that contains a eukaryotic organism’s genetic instructions in the form of chromosomal DNA. This is distinct from the DNA in mitochondria or chloroplasts that carry out functions specific to those organelles. While some cells—such as red blood cells—do not have a nucleus, and others—such as skeletal muscle cells—have…


 Core: Cell Structure and Function

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