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Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.

Inflammation

JoVE 10902

In response to tissue injury and infection, mast cells initiate inflammation. Mast cells release chemicals that increase the permeability of adjacent blood capillaries and attract additional immune cells to the wound or site of infection. Neutrophils are phagocytic leukocytes that exit the bloodstream and engulf invading microbes. Blood clotting platelets seal the wound and fibers create a scaffold for wound healing. Macrophages engulf aging neutrophils to end the acute inflammatory response. Tissue injury and infection are the primary causes of acute inflammation. Inflammation protects the body by eliminating the cause of tissue injury and initiating the removal of cell debris resulting from the initial damage and related immune cell activity. Inflammation involves mediators of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Proper regulation of inflammation is crucial to clear the pathogen and remove cell debris without overly damaging healthy tissue in the process. If inflammatory processes are not properly regulated, chronic inflammation can arise that is often fatal. Mast cells are the first to respond to tissue injury, as they are primarily located in areas that have contact with the exterior: the skin, gut, and airways. Mast cells have an arsenal of receptors on their cell surface and can hence be activated by a wide variety of stimuli, such as mi

 Core: Biology

Paracrine Signaling

JoVE 10716

Paracrine signaling allows cells to communicate with their immediate neighbors via secretion of signaling molecules. The signal only triggers a response in nearby target cells as the signal molecules degrade quickly or are inactivated by nearby cells if not taken up. Prominent examples of paracrine signaling include nitric oxide signaling in blood vessels, synaptic signaling of neurons, the blood clotting system, tissue repair/wound healing, and local allergic skin reactions. One of the essential paracrine signaling molecules is the gas nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide is produced by a family of enzymes known as nitric oxide synthases. Blood vessels contain several layers of cells. The innermost layer of cells is the endothelium. Endothelial cells have nitric oxide synthase, which produces nitric oxide that diffuses in all directions. The nitric oxide that reaches the blood does not contribute to signaling but immediately reacts with biochemicals, such as hemoglobin. Nitric oxide molecules that diffuse in the opposite direction, towards the next layer of the blood vessel, participate in some important signaling. The layer just exterior to the endothelium is made up of smooth muscle cells. The function of smooth muscle cells is to contract. When these cells contract, they clamp down on the blood vessel, narrowing its diameter and consequently rais

 Core: Biology

Bone Structure

JoVE 10864

Within the skeletal system, the structure of a bone, or osseous tissue, can be exemplified in a long bone, like the femur, where there are two types of osseous tissue: cortical and cancellous.

Covering the cortical, or compact bone, is a membrane called the periosteum, which contains connective tissue, capillaries, and nerves. The outer, solid layer—found along the diaphysis, the shaft—forms a dense protective shell around the medullary canal—the cavity that stores yellow bone marrow, composed primarily of fat cells. This space is also covered in a thin lining—the endosteum in which bone growth, remodeling, and repair occur. Within the dense layer of cortical bone are osteons—structural units, arranged in concentric rings called lamellae, that contain osteoblasts—cells critical for bone formation and growth. These cells eventually mature into osteocytes in the hollow space, the lacuna. Through the center of each osteon runs the Haversian canal, which contains more blood and lymphatic vessels, as well as nerve fibers. Towards the rounded ends of the long bone, the epiphyses is the second type of osseous tissue, known as the cancellous, or spongy, bone. This inner layer is composed of a honeycomb-like network of trabeculae—grouped arrangements that form along the lines of stress points to maximize strengt

 Core: Biology

High-frequency Ultrasound Imaging of the Abdominal Aorta

JoVE 10397

Source: Amelia R. Adelsperger, Evan H. Phillips, and Craig J. Goergen, Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


High-frequency ultrasound systems are used to acquire high resolution images. Here, the use of a state-of-the-art system will be demonstrated to image the morphology and …

 Biomedical Engineering

Novel Protocol for Generating Physiologic Immunogenic Dendritic Cells

1Department of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Dermatology Department, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 3Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine

JoVE 59370

 Immunology and Infection
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