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Sinoatrial Node: The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (Vena cava, Superior) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (Heart atrium) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (Bundle of his) to the ventricle (Heart ventricle).

The Cardiac Cycle

JoVE 10887

The heart beats rhythmically in a sequence called the cardiac cycle—a rapid coordination of contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole).

Electrical signals—sent from the sinoatrial (SA) node in the right atrial wall to the atrioventricular (AV) node between the right atrium and right ventricle—cause both atria to simultaneously contract. When the signal reaches the AV node, it pauses for approximately a tenth of a second, allowing the atria to contract and empty blood into the ventricles before they contract. The electrical impulses are then conducted by the bundle of His and propagated to the left and right bundle branches. The signal is then conducted by Purkinje fibers in the ventricular walls, inducing ventricular contraction and pumping blood out of the heart. During diastole (relaxation), the heart fills with blood, and the cycle is repeated.

 Core: Biology

Acquisition and Analysis of an ECG (electrocardiography) Signal

JoVE 10473

Source: Peiman Shahbeigi-Roodposhti and Sina Shahbazmohamadi, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut


An electrocardiograph is a graph recorded by electric potential changes occurring between electrodes placed on a patient's torso to demonstrate cardiac activity. An ECG signal…

 Biomedical Engineering

Optocardiography and Electrophysiology Studies of Ex Vivo Langendorff-perfused Hearts

1Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children's National Hospital, 2Children's National Heart Institute, Children's National Hospital, 3Center for Neuroscience Research, Children's National Hospital, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 5Department of Pediatrics, Department of Pharmacology & Physiology, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, George Washington University

JoVE 60472

 Medicine

Preparation and Utilization of Freshly Isolated Human Detrusor Smooth Muscle Cells for Characterization of 9-Phenanthrol-Sensitive Cation Currents

1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 2Department of Urology, Medical University of South Carolina, 3Department of Urology, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 4Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center

JoVE 59884

 Immunology and Infection

Data Acquisition and Analysis In Brainstem Evoked Response Audiometry In Mice

1Experimental Neuropsychopharmacology, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices, 2KBRwyle GmbH, 3Cognitive Neurophysiology, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cologne, 4Molecular and Cellular Cognition, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), 5Institute of Neurophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cologne, 6Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM), 7Thescon GmbH

JoVE 59200

 Neuroscience

Autonomic Function Following Concussion in Youth Athletes: An Exploration of Heart Rate Variability Using 24-hour Recording Methodology

1Concussion Centre, Bloorview Research Institute, Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, 2Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Toronto, 3Rehabilitation Sciences Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 4Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto

JoVE 58203

 Medicine
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