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Vapor Pressure: The contribution to barometric Pressure of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.

Simple Distillation- Concept

JoVE 11201

Distillation of a Miscible Mixture

Some liquids will evaporate entirely over time if left in an open container at room temperature. However, this evaporation process can be significantly accelerated if the liquid is heated. As the liquid is heated, the molecules within it gain the energy to escape the liquid phase and transition into the gas phase in the form of bubbles. …

 Lab: Chemistry

Vapor-liquid Equilibrium

JoVE 10425

Source: Michael G. Benton and Kerry M. Dooley, Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA


Vapor-liquid equilibrium is paramount in engineering applications such as distillation, environmental modeling, and general process design. Understanding the interactions of components in a mixture is very…

 Chemical Engineering

Steam Distillation- Concept

JoVE 11204

Steam Distillation

Steam distillation is a separation technique that harnesses the low boiling point property of immiscible mixtures. It is predominately used to separate temperature-sensitive organic molecules from a non-volatile contaminant. The organic molecule must be immiscible in water.


In steam distillation, the immiscible mixture is heated to…

 Lab: Chemistry

Boiling Points- Concept

JoVE 11192

Boiling Point Determination


Similar to the melting point, the boiling point is a physical property. If the sample is a pure compound, then the boiling point can be used to determine the identity of the compound. Ultimately, experimentally determining the exact boiling point is challenging. Like melting points, experimental boiling points are given as a range and…

 Lab: Chemistry

Ideal Gas Law - Student Protocol

JoVE 11148

Source: Smaa Koraym at Johns Hopkins University, MD, USA



Determining the Mass of the Unknown Liquid

According to the ideal gas law for a given pressure, temperature, and volume, the number of moles of gas in that volume is always the same. In this lab, you will use that relationship to calculate the molar mass of an unknown…

 Lab: Chemistry

Ideal Gas Law- Concept

JoVE 11147

Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law


Gases are a fundamental state of matter. A gas is a collection of molecules that have a significant distance between their molecules. Due to this distance, colorless gases are invisible to the human eye and are studied using four measurable parameters: pressure (P), volume (V), number of moles (n), and temperature (T). The ideal gas …

 Lab: Chemistry

Simple Distillation - Student Protocol

JoVE 11202

Source: Lara Al Hariri at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA, USA



Simple Distillation

In this lab, you will use simple distillation to separate a mixture of cyclohexane and toluene.




Before you start the lab, put on the appropriate personal protective equipment, including a lab coat, safety…

 Lab: Chemistry

Boiling Points - Student Protocol

JoVE 11193

Source: Lara Al Hariri at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA, USA



Boiling point determination of acetone and ethanol

The temperature at which a pure organic substance changes from the liquid phase to the gas phase is known as the boiling point. A liquid's boiling point can be determined using the capillary method,…

 Lab: Chemistry

Introduction to Refrigeration

JoVE 10387

Source: Alexander S Rattner and Christopher J Greer; Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA


This experiment demonstrates the principles of vapor compression refrigeration. The vapor compression cycle is the dominant refrigeration technology, found in most refrigerators,…

 Mechanical Engineering
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