Login processing...

Trial ends in Request Full Access Tell Your Colleague About Jove
Click here for the English version


Insekt styrd robot: en mobil robot plattform att utvärdera Lukt-tracking förmågan hos en insekt

doi: 10.3791/54802 Published: December 19, 2016


Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Male adult silkmoth (Bombyx mori) Rear from eggs, or purchase as pupae.
Incubator Panasonic MIR-254 Store pupae or adult silkmoths at a constant temperature, 238 L.
Plastic box Sunplatec O-3 Store pupae or adult silkmoths, 299 × 224 × 62 mm L × W × H.
Copper wire 2-mm diameter for the attachment. Any rigid bar can be used as an alternative for making the attachment to tether a silkmoth. 
Plastic sheet Kokuyo VF-1420N Sold as overhead projector film with thickness of 0.1 mm. Use at the tip of the attachment.
Forceps As one 5SA Remove scales on the thorax.
Adhesive Konishi G17 Bond a silkmoth to the attachment.
Insect-controlled robot Custom Bearing an air-supported treadmill, an optical sensor, custom-built AVR-based microcontroller boards, and two DC brushless motors. It is powered by 8 × AA and 3 × 006P batteries.
Microcontroller Atmel ATMEGA8 A component of the insect-controlled robot.
DC blower Nidec A34342-55 A component of the insect-controlled robot for floating a ball in an air-supported treadmill. 
DC fan Minebea 1606KL-04W-B50 A component of the insect-controlled robot for suctioning air containing an odor.
Optical mouse sensor Agilent technologies HDNS-2000 A component of the insect-controlled robot, obtained from an optical mouse (M-GUWSRSV, Elecom, Japan).
Brushless motor Maxon EC-45 A component of the insect-controlled robot for driving a wheel.
White polystyrene ball A component of the insect-controlled robot. Diameter 50 mm, mass approximately 2 g.
Shin-Etsu chemical Custom synthesis.
n-hexane Wako 085-00416 Solvent for bombykol.
Wind tunnel Custom Pulling-air type, sized 1,800 × 900 × 300 mm L × W × H.
BioSignal program Custom A program to establish serial communication between the insect-controlled robot and a PC via Bluetooth. Used for sending commands to start/stop the robot or configuring its motor properties. 
Camcorder Sony HDR-XR520V Capture robot movements.



  1. Murlis, J., Jones, C. D. Fine-scale structure of odor plumes in relation to insect orientation to distant pheromone and other attractant sources. Physiol Entomol. 6, 71-86 (1981).
  2. Vergassola, M., Villermaux, E., Shraiman, B. I. 'Infotaxis' as a strategy for searching without gradients. Nature. 445, 406-409 (2007).
  3. Kowadlo, G., Russell, R. A. Robot Odor Localization: A Taxonomy and Survey. The International Journal of Robotics Research. 27, 869-894 (2008).
  4. Hernandez Bennetts, V., Lilienthal, A. J., Neumann, P. P., Trincavelli, M. Mobile robots for localizing gas emission sources on landfill sites: is bio-inspiration the way to go. Frontiers in neuroengineering. 4, 20 (2011).
  5. Vickers, N. J. Mechanisms of animal navigation in odor plumes. Biol Bull. 198, 203-212 (2000).
  6. Willis, M. A. Chemical plume tracking behavior in animals and mobile robots. Navigation. 55, 127-135 (2008).
  7. Carde, R. T., Willis, M. A. Navigational strategies used by insects to find distant, wind-borne sources of odor. J Chem Ecol. 34, 854-866 (2008).
  8. Frye, M. A. Multisensory systems integration for high-performance motor control in flies. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 20, 347-352 (2010).
  9. Russell, R. A. Survey of robotic applications for odor-sensing technology. The International Journal of Robotics Research. 20, 144-162 (2001).
  10. Russell, R. A., Bab-Hadiashar, A., Shepherd, R. L., Wallace, G. G. A comparison of reactive robot chemotaxis algorithms. Robot Auton Syst. 45, 83-97 (2003).
  11. Ishida, H., Nakamoto, T., Moriizumi, T., Kikas, T., Janata, J. Plume-tracking robots: a new application of chemical sensors. Biol Bull. 200, 222-226 (2001).
  12. Webb, B., Harrison, R. R., Willis, M. A. Sensorimotor control of navigation in arthropod and artificial systems. Arthropod Struct Dev. 33, 301-329 (2004).
  13. Kanzaki, R. How does a microbrain generate adaptive behavior. Int Congr Ser. 1301, 7-14 (2007).
  14. Kanzaki, R., Ando, N., Sakurai, T., Kazawa, T. Understanding and reconstruction of the mobiligence of insects employing multiscale biological approaches and robotics. Adv Robotics. 22, 1605-1628 (2008).
  15. Ravel, N., et al. Multiphasic on/off pheromone signalling in moths as neural correlates of a search strategy. Plos One. 8, 61220 (2013).
  16. Emoto, S., Ando, N., Takahashi, H., Kanzaki, R. Insect-controlled robot-evaluation of adaptation ability. J Robot Mechatronics. 19, 436-443 (2007).
  17. Ando, N., Emoto, S., Kanzaki, R. Odour-tracking capability of a silkmoth driving a mobile robot with turning bias and time delay. Bioinspir Biomim. 8, 016008 (2013).
  18. Gatellier, L., Nagao, T., Kanzaki, R. Serotonin modifies the sensitivity of the male silkmoth to pheromone. J Exp Biol. 207, 2487-2496 (2004).
  19. Ando, N., Kanzaki, R. A simple behaviour provides accuracy and flexibility in odour plume tracking - the robotic control of sensory-motor coupling in silkmoths. J. Exp. Biol. 218, 3845-3854 (2015).
  20. Kaissling, K. E. Insect olfaction. Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. 4. Beidler, L. M. Springer-Verlag. 351-431 (1971).
  21. Kanzaki, R., Sugi, N., Shibuya, T. Self-generated zigzag turning of Bombyx mori males during pheromone-mediated upwind walking. Zool Sci. 9, 515-527 (1992).
  22. Takasaki, T., Namiki, S., Kanzaki, R. Use of bilateral information to determine the walking direction during orientation to a pheromone source in the silkmoth Bombyx mori. J Comp Physiol. A. 198, 295-307 (2012).
  23. Kanzaki, R. Coordination of wing motion and walking suggests common control of zigzag motor program in a male silkworm moth. J Comp Physiol A. 182, 267-276 (1998).
  24. Pansopha, P., Ando, N., Kanzaki, R. Dynamic use of optic flow during pheromone tracking by the male silkmoth, Bombyx mori. J Exp Biol. 217, 1811-1820 (2014).
  25. Loudon, C., Koehl, M. A. R. Sniffing by a silkworm moth: Wing fanning enhances air penetration through and pheromone interception by antennae. J. Exp. Biol. 203, 2977-2990 (2000).
  26. Lebedev, M. A., Nicolelis, M. A. L. Brain-machine interfaces: past, present and future. Trends Neurosci. 29, 536-546 (2006).
  27. Ejaz, N., Peterson, K. D., Krapp, H. G. An experimental platform to study the closed-loop performance of brain-machine interfaces. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE. (2011).
  28. Minegishi, R., Takashima, A., Kurabayashi, D., Kanzaki, R. Construction of a brain-machine hybrid system to evaluate adaptability of an insect. Robot Auton Syst. 60, 692-699 (2012).
  29. Martinez, D., Arhidi, L., Demondion, E., Masson, J. B., Lucas, P. Using insect electroantennogram sensors on autonomous robots for olfactory searches. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE. e51704 (2014).
  30. Ortiz, L. I. A mobile electrophysiology board for autonomous biorobotics. The University of Arizona. MS thesis (2006).
  31. Bohil, C. J., Alicea, B., Biocca, F. A. Virtual reality in neuroscience research and therapy. Nat Rev Neurosci. 12, 752-762 (2011).
  32. Dombeck, D. A., Reiser, M. B. Real neuroscience in virtual worlds. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 22, 3-10 (2012).
  33. Roth, E., Sponberg, S., Cowan, N. J. A comparative approach to closed-loop computation. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 25, 54-62 (2014).
  34. Leinweber, M., et al. Two-photon calcium imaging in mice navigating a virtual reality environment. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE. e50885 (2014).
  35. Takalo, J., et al. A fast and flexible panoramic virtual reality system for behavioural and electrophysiological experiments. Sci Rep. 2, 324 (2012).
  36. Bahl, A., Ammer, G., Schilling, T., Borst, A. Object tracking in motion-blind flies. Nat Neurosci. 16, 730-738 (2013).
  37. Bellmann, D., et al. Optogenetically Induced olfactory stimulation in Drosophila larvae reveals the neuronal basis of odor-aversion behavior. Front Behav Neurosci. 4, 27 (2010).
  38. Gaudry, Q., Hong, E. J., Kain, J., de Bivort, B. L., Wilson, R. I. Asymmetric neurotransmitter release enables rapid odour lateralization in Drosophila. Nature. 493, 424-428 (2013).
  39. Tabuchi, M., et al. Pheromone responsiveness threshold depends on temporal integration by antennal lobe projection neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110, 15455-15460 (2013).
  40. Schulze, A., et al. Dynamical feature extraction at the sensory periphery guides chemotaxis. Elife. 4, 06694 (2015).
  41. Duistermars, B. J., Chow, D. M., Frye, M. A. Flies require bilateral sensory input to track odor gradients in flight. Curr Biol. 19, 1301-1307 (2009).
  42. Gomez-Marin, A., Duistermars, B. J., Frye, M. A., Louis, M. Mechanisms of odor-tracking: multiple sensors for enhanced perception and behavior. Front Cell Neurosci. 4, 6 (2010).
  43. Sakurai, T., et al. A single sex pheromone receptor determines chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth Bombyx mori. Plos Genet. 7, (2011).
  44. Tripathy, S. J., et al. Odors pulsed at wing beat frequencies are tracked by primary olfactory networks and enhance odor detection. Front Cell Neurosci. 4, 1 (2010).
  45. Daly, K. C., Kalwar, F., Hatfield, M., Staudacher, E., Bradley, S. P. Odor detection in Manduca sexta is optimized when odor stimuli are pulsed at a frequency matching the wing beat during flight. Plos One. 8, 81863 (2013).
  46. Szyszka, P., Gerkin, R. C., Galizia, C. G., Smith, B. H. High-speed odor transduction and pulse tracking by insect olfactory receptor neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 111, 16925-16930 (2014).
  47. Harvey, D., Lu, T. F., Keller, M. Odor sensor requirements for an insect inspired plume tracking mobile robot. Proceedings of'The 2006 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics. 130-135 (2006).
Play Video

Cite this Article

Ando, N., Emoto, S., Kanzaki, R. Insect-controlled Robot: A Mobile Robot Platform to Evaluate the Odor-tracking Capability of an Insect. J. Vis. Exp. (118), e54802, doi:10.3791/54802 (2016).More

Ando, N., Emoto, S., Kanzaki, R. Insect-controlled Robot: A Mobile Robot Platform to Evaluate the Odor-tracking Capability of an Insect. J. Vis. Exp. (118), e54802, doi:10.3791/54802 (2016).

Copy Citation Download Citation Reprints and Permissions
View Video

Get cutting-edge science videos from JoVE sent straight to your inbox every month.

Waiting X
Simple Hit Counter