学习在果蝇的侵略(果蝇)

Biology

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Summary

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Mundiyanapurath, S., Certel, S., Kravitz, E. A. Studying Aggression in Drosophila (fruit flies). J. Vis. Exp. (2), e155, doi:10.3791/155 (2007).

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Abstract

侵略是一种与生俱来的行为,在保卫或取得资源的框架内发展。这个复杂的社会行为是由遗传,荷尔蒙和环境因素的影响。在许多生物体中,侵略是至关重要的生存,而且在不同环境下的控制和制止侵略,也变得越来越重要。近年来,无脊椎动物已成为越来越多地作为调查的遗传和系统的复杂的社会行为的生物学基础模型系统有用。这是因为这些生物体所表现出的行为不同剧目的一部分。在影随行,我们勾勒出一个方法,分析果蝇的设计,包括重要的生态,行为学约束的侵略。详细信息包括以下步骤:战斗室,隔离和绘画苍蝇苍蝇;加入到战斗室和录影战斗。目前正在使用这种方法确定侵略的重要候选基因,并在拟定的神经回路,侵略和其他社会行为的输出的基础。

Protocol

1。装配室的墙壁

  1. 两个普通玻璃幻灯片,标志中间的两个边和使用直为指导的一把标尺,得分与钻石切割的玻璃。
  2. 滑动的钻石切割来回几次,直到听到刮的噪音。
  3. 洗净的玻璃,并与两个以上纸巾碎玻璃插座,适用于取得一边轻柔的压力接近得分线
    面对远离你分解成两个部分幻灯片。
  4. 慷慨地应用沿一件玻璃的边缘玻璃胶和推动第二片在一个直角的玻璃对胶粘剂的第一块。放置在一个平面上(铝箔,蜡纸或普通纸),并允许设置至少一个小时。
  5. 一个小时后,重复应用胶粘剂的一步,形成一个正方形室,一夜之间,并允许变硬。

    图1

2。放置在培养皿中的墙壁

  1. 以一个培养皿的顶部,并填写至少5毫米的深度,用2%琼脂糖(微波在去离子水的琼脂糖,直到它完全溶解)加热解决方案。
  2. 等待几分钟,但同时仍然溶解,放置在盘的中心会议厅的墙壁上。培养皿的底部,它的底部的一面朝上放置。使用火焰加热的直解剖针,使一个小孔(> 1mm)的通风盘的中心。使较大的苍蝇室侧孔(〜4毫米直径)略有。将一个可移动的标签磁带的一块较大的孔。

    图2



    图3

3。制作的食品杯

  1. 一小瓶飞食品热的食物融化。使用巴斯德吸管转移填补它的顶部,形成一个平坦的表面闪烁瓶封的食品。要小心,避免气泡,并允许冷却。
  2. 干酵母和水几滴在迫击炮和杵磨少量鲜酵母膏。添加更多的酵母或水,直到一致性厚,足以让一个小的明显下降到拿起一根牙签,并适用于食品表面的中心。
  3. 食物放置在香港总商会中心的小瓶,并将其放置在培养皿的底部,所以倒,双方并不能掩盖室顶部的观点,。引入室两个3-5天老苍蝇通过较大的孔在顶部的愿望。孔用胶带和地点2厘米的洞进入了前菜切了一块黑色滤纸。
  4. 以上的会议厅中放置一个台灯,距离足够远,它不会加热室,和定位,以便它会照亮食物表面。最好应放在整个大会的环境中,与高湿度和温度22-25 ° C。

    图4

4。开始摄录通过会议厅的正面墙壁,当两个苍蝇foodsurface。

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Comments

6 Comments

  1. It would be nice to know more about the so called hard-wired "instinct" in organisms. DŒs it go all the way back to the DNA definition of the organism?
    I was amazed at the behaviour change of my dog from a tiny puppy to a grown up dog. Until age 6 months, the dog was quiet and suddenly, around the age of 6 months, the instinct to bark kicked in and the dog started barking at the sight of strangers, What triggered it??
    Also, my dog shows another behavior that makes me wonder. Keep in mind that when this behaviour started, my dog really hadn't played with dirt or had a chance to dig around. Before sitting down, the dog would pretend "dig" whether on a nice comfy bed or on carpet or couch. This behavior is similar to stray outdoor dogs in warm climates where they find a nice damp spot in shade and dig a little before sitting on it to get the cool surface, My dog just started doing that instinctively one day and hasn't stopped. Amazingly, this dog had no experience of the environment where this behavior was beneficial.

    Another one that makes me wonder is the instinct to dig and hide food. My dog one day started this behavior out of the blue as well and it is very annoying because now we find food hidden at different locations and amazingly the dog remembers where this food it hidden. When the dog wasn't hungry and had food left over (let us say a piece of bread), the dog would take it to a corner or near the foot of a table or near any other object on the carpet, sit the food on the carpet surface, pretent to dig a little with front paw (no damage to the carpet, as no real force is applied) and then move the snout in a forward motion on the surface of the carpet as if making a pile from the dirt or leaves to cover the food. Funny thing is that all of this is make believe as there is no dirt or any other material. The dog dŒs it frequently!! This makes me certain that some behavior is not learned from the environment but is part of the instinct and hard wired. It would be cool to know if this hard-wiring code is hidden in DNA as well?

    Reply
    Posted by: Anonymous
    December 20, 2007 - 7:37 PM
  2. Dog behavior should be an extremely fertile field for dissection behavior and the connection to genes. The pressures of artificial selection on dogs by humans has been extremely intense so that not we have situations where rat terriers bred to be rat killers are expected to be cute pets.

    Reply
    Posted by: Anonymous
    February 6, 2008 - 5:15 PM
  3. I'm not really convinced there are many "hard-wired instincts" in animals. Even flies show spontaneous behavior (Maye et. al. ²007), so most likely, all animals produce spontaneous behaviors and as such will always produce "new" behaviors which haven't been there before. Notwithstanding, certain behaviors can appear very stereotyped, even in animals we don't usually consider "hard-wired" at all, such as primates: complex movements such as aggressive facial patterns, defensive forelimb movements, and hand-to-mouth and reaching-and-grasping movements can be elicited as a whole by microstimulation in the brain (Stepniewska et al. ²005).Thus, the behavior of all animals arises from a more or less complex interaction between relatively stereotyped movement patterns, spontaneous variation and feedback from the environment. This has been realized by most behavioral scientists about ²5 years ago, so now the use of the word "instinct" is deprecated for this very reason.Because the interactions between the animal's genome and its environment shape every behavior, the fruit fly Drosophila, with its rich genetic repertoire, easily monitored behaviors and suberbly controllable sensory input is a perfect model system to study how the brain generates complex behaviors. The question of how the brain decides whether or not to be aggressive towards conspecifics can be asked for every single animal species - but Drosophila provides a great study case for getting at the fundamental principles of how brains accomplish this task.

    Reply
    Posted by: Bjoern B.
    February 18, 2008 - 10:26 AM
  4. What is the result of a fight between two winners? What is the result of a fight between a female and a "homosexual" fly? These are questions my posed by my high school biology class.

    Reply
    Posted by: Anonymous
    February 6, 2008 - 3:04 PM
  5. I found the results in the PNAS 103(46) paper.
    Thanks,

    Sam Clifford Round Rock TEXAS

    Reply
    Posted by: Anonymous
    February 7, 2008 - 12:34 PM

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