One-step Negative Chromatographic Purification of Helicobacter pylori Neutrophil-activating Protein Overexpressed in Escherichia coli in Batch Mode

1Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Tsing Hua University, 2Department of Life Science, National Tsing Hua University
Published 6/18/2016
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Summary

A high yield method for one-step negative purification of recombinant Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) overexpressed in Escherichia coli by using diethylaminoethyl resins in batch mode is described. HP-NAP purified by this method is beneficial for the development of vaccines, drugs, or diagnostics for H. pylori-associated diseases.

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Kuo, T. Y., Hong, Z. W., Tsai, C. C., Yang, Y. C., Fu, H. W. One-step Negative Chromatographic Purification of Helicobacter pylori Neutrophil-activating Protein Overexpressed in Escherichia coli in Batch Mode. J. Vis. Exp. (112), e54043, doi:10.3791/54043 (2016).

Abstract

Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) is a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). It plays a critical role in H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation by activating several innate leukocytes including neutrophils, monocytes, and mast cells. The immunogenic and immunomodulatory properties of HP-NAP make it a potential diagnostic and vaccine candidate for H. pylori and a new drug candidate for cancer therapy. In order to obtain substantial quantities of purified HP-NAP used for its clinical applications, an efficient method to purify this protein with high yield and purity needs to be established.

In this protocol, we have described a method for one-step negative chromatographic purification of recombinant HP-NAP overexpressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) by using diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) ion-exchange resins (e.g., Sephadex) in batch mode. Recombinant HP-NAP constitutes nearly 70% of the total protein in E. coli and is almost fully recovered in the soluble fraction upon cell lysis at pH 9.0. Under the optimal condition at pH 8.0, the majority of HP-NAP is recovered in the unbound fraction while the endogenous proteins from E. coli are efficiently removed by the resin.

This purification method using negative mode batch chromatography with DEAE ion-exchange resins yields functional HP-NAP from E. coli in its native form with high yield and purity. The purified HP-NAP could be further utilized for the prevention, treatment, and prognosis of H. pylori-associated diseases as well as cancer therapy.

Introduction

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major cause of gastritis and peptic ulcer. This bacterium has also been classified as a carcinogen in humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, part of the World Health Organization, in 1994. It has been estimated that the prevalence of H. pylori infection is 70% in the developing countries and 30-40% in the industrialized countries1. Even though the infection rate of H. pylori is decreasing in the industrialized countries, the infection rate of H. pylori in the developing countries is still high2. The standard treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection consists of the administration of a proton pump inhibitor, PPI, and two antibiotics, clarithromycin plus amoxicillin or metronidazole3. However, the rise of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori-related ulcer therapy urges the development of new strategies to prevent or cure the infection. Development of preventive and/or therapeutic vaccination against H. pylori could provide an alternative approach to control H. pylori infection.

Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP), a major virulence factor of H pylori, was first identified in water extracts of H. pylori with the ability to activate neutrophils to adhere to endothelial cells and produce reactive oxygen species (ROS)4. Neutrophil infiltration of gastric mucosa found in H. pylori-infected patients with active gastritis may result in inflammation and tissue damage of the stomach. Thus, HP-NAP may play a pathological role by activating neutrophils to induce gastric inflammation, which further causes ulcer or H. pylori-associated gastric diseases. Nevertheless, HP-NAP is a potential candidate for clinical applications5,6. Due to the immunogenic and immunomodulatory properties of HP-NAP, this protein could be used to develop vaccines, therapeutic agents, and diagnostic tools. A clinical trial has been conducted for using recombinant HP-NAP as one of the components of a protein vaccine against H. pylori. This vaccine consists of recombinant HP-NAP, cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), and vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) proteins formulated with aluminum hydroxide and has further been demonstrated to be safe and immunogenic in humans7. Also, HP-NAP acts as a potent immunomodulator to trigger T helper type 1 (Th1)-polarized immune responses for cancer therapy8 and to down regulate Th2-mediated immune responses elicited by allergic reactions and parasitic infections9,10. As for diagnostics, recombinant HP-NAP-based ELISA has been applied to detect serum antibodies against HP-NAP in H. pylori-infected patients11. One study showed that the level of HP-NAP-specific antibodies in sera from H. pylori-infected patients with gastric cancer was significantly higher than that from patients with chronic gastritis12. Another study also showed that serum antibodies against HP-NAP are associated with the presence of non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma13. Thus, recombinant HP-NAP-based ELISA may be applied to detect serum antibodies against HP-NAP for prognosis of gastric cancer in H. pylori-infected patients. Taken together, the purified HP-NAP could be further utilized for the prevention, treatment, and prognosis of H. pylori-associated diseases as well as cancer therapy.

Among the several methods used for purification of recombinant HP-NAP expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) in its native form reported so far, a second purification step involving gel-filtration chromatography is needed to obtain highly pure HP-NAP14-16. Here, a method using negative mode batch chromatography with diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) ion-exchange resins is described for purification of HP-NAP overexpressed in E. coli with high yield and high purity. This purification technique was based on the binding of host cell proteins and/or impurities other than HP-NAP to the resin. At pH 8.0, almost no other proteins except HP-NAP are recovered from the unbound fraction. This purification approach using DEAE ion-exchange chromatography in negative mode is simple and time saving by allowing purification of recombinant HP-NAP via one-step chromatography through the collection of the unbound fraction. In addition to HP-NAP, several other biomolecules, such as viruses17, Immunoglobulin G (IgG)18, hemoglobin19, protein phosphatase20, and virulence factor flagellin21, have also been reported to be purified by ion-exchange chromatography in negative mode. The negative mode is preferred for ion-exchange chromatography if impurities are the minor components present in the sample subjected to be purified22. The application of negative chromatography in purification of natural or recombinant biomolecules has been recently reviewed23.

The present report provides a step by step protocol for expression of recombinant HP-NAP in E. coli, lysis of the cells, and purification of HP-NAP using negative mode batch chromatography with DEAE ion-exchange resins. If a protein desired for purification is suitable for ion-exchange chromatography in negative mode, the described protocol could also be adapted as a starting point for development of a purification process.

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Protocol

Human blood was collected from healthy volunteers with prior written informed consent and approval from the Institutional Review Board of the National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

1. Expression of Recombinant HP-NAP in E. coli

  1. Prepare the plasmid pET42a-NAP containing the DNA sequence of HP-NAP from H. pylori 26695 strain as previously described16. Prepare the plasmids containing the DNA sequence of HP-NAP with the desired point mutations as described (see Protocol, step 8).
  2. Transform 10 ng of the above DNA plasmids into E. coli BL21 (DE3) competent cells by heat shock for 45 seconds at 42 °C, streak the cells on lysogeny broth (LB) agar plates containing 50 µg/ml kanamycin, and incubate the plates at 37 °C for 16 hr.
  3. Inoculate single colonies in individual tubes containing 5 ml of LB broth with 50 µg/ml kanamycin and grow them as precultures at 37 °C for 16 hr with shaking at 170 rpm.
  4. Inoculate 2 ml of the above pre-culture cells into 200 ml of LB broth containing 50 µg/ml kanamycin in a 1 L flask. Incubate the inoculated culture flask at 37 °C for 2 hr with shaking at 170 rpm until the absorbance at 600 nm reaches approximately 0.4-0.5 detected by an UV/VIS spectrophotometer.
  5. Add 80 µl of 1 M isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) into the above culture to a final concentration of 0.4 mM to induce the expression of HP-NAP. Incubate the culture for 3 hr until the absorbance at 600 nm reaches approximately 1.6-1.7.
  6. Centrifuge the cells at 6,000 x g at 4 °C for 15 min to remove the supernatant Store the cell pellet at −70 °C until purification.

2. Preparation of the Soluble Protein Fraction Containing HP-NAP

Note: All of the following steps are carried out at 4 °C.

  1. Resuspend 50 ml of the cell pellet prepared in Protocol step 1.6 in 20 ml of 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 9.0, 50 mM NaCl containing 0.13 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), 0.03 mM N-alpha-tosyl-L-lysinyl-chloromethylketone (TLCK), and 0.03 mM N-tosyl-L-phenylalaninyl-chloromethylketone (TPCK) at 4 °C as previously described16.
  2. Disrupt the bacteria cells by passing the bacterial suspension through a high pressure homogenizer operated at a range of 15,000 to 20,000 psi for 7 times at 4 °C.
  3. Centrifuge the cell lysate at 30,000 × g at 4 °C for 1 hr to separate the soluble and insoluble protein fractions by using an ultracentrifuge Transfer the supernatant as the soluble protein fraction to a beaker.
  4. Measure the protein concentration of the soluble protein fraction by the Bradford method using a commercial kit with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the standard according to the manufacturer's instructions.
  5. Add 177.6 µl of 1 N HCl into 20 ml of the soluble protein fraction obtained from Protocol step 2.3 to adjust its pH value from pH 9.0 to pH 8.0.
  6. Add 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 50 mM NaCl to the above protein solution to make the final protein concentration to be 0.5 mg/ml.

3. Purification of Recombinant HP-NAP From E. coli by Negative Mode Batch Chromatography with DEAE Ion-exchange Resins

  1. Prepare 15 ml of DEAE resins.
    1. Weigh out 0.6 g dry powder of DEAE resins and suspend it in 30 ml of 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 50 mM NaCl at room temperature for at least 1 day.
    2. Centrifuge the resin at 10,000 x g at 4 °C for 1 min.
    3. Remove and discard the supernatant.
    4. Add 15 ml of 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 50 mM NaCl.
    5. Repeat Protocol steps 3.1.2 to 3.1.4 four more times.
    6. Store the 15 ml settled resin (50% slurry in 30 ml Tris buffer) at 4 °C for subsequent use.
      Note: All of the following steps are carried out at 4 °C.
  2. Add 45 ml of the soluble proteins prepared in Protocol step 2.6 to 15 ml of the resin and stir the protein/resin slurry with a magnetic stirrer at 4 °C for 1 hr.
  3. Pour the protein/resin slurry into a plastic or glass column fitted with a stopcock. Allow the resin to settle under gravity.
  4. Open the stopcock to allow the protein solution to run through the column by gravity flow until the liquid level in the column is just above the resin. Collect the flow-through as the unbound fraction, which contains the purified HP-NAP.
  5. Add 15 ml of ice-cold 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 50 mM NaCl into the column.
  6. Open the stopcock to allow the wash buffer to run through the column by gravity flow until the liquid level in the column is just above the resin. Collect the flow-through as the wash fraction.
  7. Repeat Protocol steps 3.5 to 3.6 four more times to collect the additional wash fractions.
  8. Add 15 ml of ice-cold 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 1 M NaCl into a column.
  9. Open the stopcock to allow the elution buffer to run through the column by gravity flow until the liquid level in the column is just above the resin. Collect the flow-through as the elution fraction.
  10. Repeat Protocol steps 3.8 to 3.9 four more times to collect the additional elution fractions.

4. Buffer Exchange and Endotoxin Removal of HP-NAP Purified by Negative Mode Batch Chromatography with DEAE Resins

Note: The purified HP-NAP expressed in E. coli needs to be subjected to buffer exchange and endotoxin removal prior to stimulate neutrophils.

  1. Perform dialysis to change the buffer of the purified HP-NAP to Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (D-PBS), pH 7.2, at 4 °C by using dialysis tubing with molecular weight cutoff of 14 kDa as previously described24.
  2. Filter the dialyzed HP-NAP through a syringe filter with a positively-charged, hydrophilic membrane attached to a 20 ml disposable syringe at flow rates ranging from 2.5 to 4 ml/minute at 4 °C to remove endotoxin.

5. Characterization of the Molecular Properties of Purified Recombinant HP-NAP by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western Blotting, Native-PAGE, Gel Filtration Chromatography, and Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy

  1. Analyze the purified recombinant HP-NAP by SDS-PAGE and western blotting with hybridoma culture supernatants containing mouse monoclonal antibody MAb 16F425 as previously described24.
  2. Analyze the purified HP-NAP by native-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography to examine its oligomeric status as previously described26.
  3. Analyze the purified recombinant HP-NAP by circular dichroism spectroscopy to examine its secondary structure as previously described26.

6. Evaluation of the Purity of HP-NAP by Silver Staining of a SDS-PAGE Gel

  1. Prepare the fixing solution, sensitizing solution, silver solution, developing solution, stop solution, and washing solution according to the manufacturer's instructions of a silver staining kit.
  2. Perform silver staining of a SDS-PAGE gel according to the manufacturer's instructions of a silver staining kit.
  3. Acquire the image of the gel with an imaging system.

7. Measurement of ROS Production From Neutrophils Induced by HP-NAP

  1. Isolate human neutrophils from human heparinized blood by dextran sedimentation followed by density gradient centrifugation as previously described24.
  2. Measurement of ROS production from neutrophils stimulated with HP-NAP by using a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay.
    1. Turn on a plate reader and set the temperature at 37 °C. Place an empty flat bottom 96-well white plate inside the plate reader chamber, allowing it to warm to 37 °C.
    2. Prepare the stimulus mixtures in the D-PBS, pH 7.2, containing 0.9 mM CaCl2, 0.5 mM MgCl2, and 13.3 µM 5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione (luminol) with the presence and absence of 0.67 µM endotoxin-removed HP-NAP prepared from Protocol step 4.2.
    3. Adjust the concentration of human neutrophils prepared from Protocol step 7.1 to 2 x 106 cells/ml in D-PBS, pH 7.2, containing 5 mM glucose.
    4. Add 50 µl of neutrophil suspension into each well of the 96-well while plate.
    5. Add 150 µl of the stimulus mixtures prepared from Protocol step 7.2.2 into the well containing neutrophils at a time interval of 5 seconds per well.
    6. Measure the emission of chemiluminescence for 5 sec per well over a period of three hours by using a plate reader.

8. Construction of DNA Plasmids Harboring HP-NAP Mutants by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based Site-direct Mutagenesis

Note: PCR-based site-direct mutagenesis was generated basically as described previously27 except that the "silent" restriction sites were introduced to the mutagenesis primers by site-directed mutagenesis (SDM)-assist software28.

  1. Perform PCR Reaction.
    1. Add 10 ng of plasmid pET42a-NAP, 1 µM of mutagenesis primer pairs listed in Table 1, 200 µM of deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), and 3 units of high-fidelity PCR enzyme mix into a PCR tube containing deionized water, giving a final volume of 25 µl.
    2. Initiate the PCR cycles at 95 °C for 10 min to denature the template DNA, and follow with 12 amplification cycles at 95 °C for 1 minute, Tm no-5 °C for 1 minute, and 72 oC for 6 min.
    3. Finish the PCR cycles with an annealing step at Tm pp-5 oC for 1 minute and an extension step at 72 °C for 30 min.
  2. Treat 15 µl of the PCR product with 0.4 µl of Dpn I restriction enzyme at 37 °C for 2 hr and then analyze 2 µl of the Dpn I-treated PCR product by agarose gel electrophoresis.
  3. Screen mutants.
    1. Transform 2 µl of the PCR product into E. coli DH5α competent cells by heat shock for 45 sec at 42 °C.
    2. Spread the transformed cells on a LB plate containing 50 µg/ml kanamycin and incubate the plate at 37 °C for 16 hr.
    3. Isolate the plasmid DNA from the bacterial colonies using a commercial alkaline lysis kit according to the manufacturer's protocol.
    4. Treat the plasmid DNA isolated in Protocol step 8.3.3 with XhoI restriction enzyme to verify the presence of the desired silent mutations according to manufacturer's protocol.
    5. Sequence the plasmid DNA verified by Protocol step 8.3.4 with T7 promoter primer to confirm the correction of the coding sequences of HP-NAP mutants according to manufacturer's protocol.

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Representative Results

The schematic diagram of the experimental procedure of negative purification of recombinant HP-NAP expressed in E. coli by using DEAE ion-exchange resins in batch mode is shown in Figure 1. This purification technique is based on the binding of host cell proteins and/or impurities other than HP-NAP to the resin. At pH 8.0, almost no other proteins except HP-NAP in its native form are recovered from the unbound fraction (Figure 2A and B). The purified HP-NAP in the unbound fraction was immunodetected by the antibody against HP-NAP (Figure 2C), and its purity was higher than 97% as confirmed by silver staining (Figure 2D). In addition, the purified recombinant HP-NAP kept its oligomeric form as analyzed by native-PAGE (Figure 2B) and gel filtration chromatography (Figure 3A). Circular dichroism spectroscopic analysis showed that the purified protein was mainly composed of α-helices (Figure 3B). Also, the purified HP-NAP was capable of stimulating human neutrophils to produce ROS (Figure 3C). Thus, the recombinant HP-NAP purified by this approach is in its native form with biological activity. Furthermore, this negative mode batch chromatography can be used to purify recombinant HP-NAP with point mutations in one step. As shown in Figure 4, the two recombinant HP-NAPY101H and HP-NAPE97GY101H mutants, which mimic HP-NAP of H. pylori NCTC 11639 and NCTC 11,637 strains, respectively, were purified by this negative mode batch chromatography with purity higher than 95%.

For performing negative mode batch chromatography using DEAE resins to purify HP-NAP, the pH value of the buffer used for purification should be adjusted to 8.0 to ensure that the majority of HP-NAP is present in the unbound fraction. Lesser amount of HP-NAP was present in the unbound fractions when the pH value of the buffer was higher or lower than 8.0 (Figure 5). Even though the purity of HP-NAP present in the unbound fractions was increased just a little bit as pH increased from 7.0 to 9.0, the amount of HP-NAP present in the unbound fractions was the highest when the pH value of the buffer was pH 8.0 (Figure 5). The amount of the soluble proteins from cell lysates loaded onto the resin is another important factor for this purification. Here, the ratio is 1.5 mg of proteins per milliliter resin for achieving maximum capacity of the resin to absorb the impurities from E. coli (Figure 6). In addition, the purity and yield of HP-NAP obtained by this negative mode batch chromatography can be substantially increased by increasing the amount of HP-NAP present in the soluble fraction of E. coli lysates. Recombinant HP-NAP was almost fully recovered in the soluble fraction upon cell lysis at pH 9.0 (Figure 7). Even though the solubility of recombinant HP-NAP in E. coli lysates was markedly increased when cells were lysed in the buffer with pH higher than 7.5 (Figure 7), less than 90% of HP-NAP was present as the soluble protein when cells were lysed in the buffer with pH lower than 9.0.

Figure 1
Figure 1: Schematic Outline of the Negative Purification of HP-NAP by DEAE Resins in Batch Mode. The purification starts with a batch-binding procedure. The soluble protein fraction containing HP-NAP obtained from bacterial lysates is added to the DEAE resin pre-equilibrated with Tris-buffer at pH 8.0. The proteins/resin slurries are then incubated at 4 °C for 1 hr with gentle mixing. During the incubation, the host cell proteins bind to the resin. HP-NAP present in the unbound fraction is obtained by either collecting the supernatant after centrifugation or the flow-through fraction from a column run by gravity flow. Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.

Figure 2
Figure 2: Exemplary Result of Purification of HP-NAP by Negative Mode Batch Chromatography with DEAE Ion-exchange Resins. The whole cell lysate (W) and soluble protein fraction (S) of E. coli BL21(DE3) expressing HP-NAP and the unbound fraction (U) containing HP-NAP from DEAE ion-exchange chromatography were analyzed by SDS-PAGE (A), native-PAGE (B), and western blotting (C). The unbound fraction with the indicated amount of proteins ranging from 1 µg to 10 µg was analyzed on a silver-stained SDS-PAGE gel (D). Molecular masses (M) in kDa are indicated on the left of the stained gels and the blot. (Adapted from reference24) Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.

Figure 3
Figure 3: Structural and Functional Characterization of Recombinant HP-NAP Purified From E. coli by Negative Mode Batch Chromatography. (A) The UV absorbance profile was recorded for HP-NAP eluted from a gel filtration column. The molecular masses of the protein markers were indicated on the chromatogram. (B) The far UV circular dichroism spectrum of HP-NAP was recorded at the wavelength range of 195 to 260 nm. (C) Human neutrophils (1 x 105 cells) were treated with 0.5 µM HP-NAP and D-PBS, pH 7.2, as a negative control at 37 °C. The content of ROS generated from neutrophils was measured continuously by using a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay. Data were represented as the mean ± standard deviation of an experiment in triplicate. (Adapted from reference24) Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.

Figure 4
Figure 4: Purification of Recombinant HP-NAP Mutants Expressed in E. coli by Negative Mode Batch Chromatography. The soluble protein fractions of E. coli BL21(DE3) expressing two recombinant HP-NAPY101H and HP-NAPE97GY101H mutants and wild-type HP-NAP were purified by the negative mode chromatography with DEAE resins. The unbound fractions were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Molecular masses (M) in kDa are indicated on the left of the stained gels. Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.

Figure 5
Figure 5: Effect of the Buffer pH on Purification of Recombinant HP-NAP Expressed in E. coli by Negative Mode Batch Chromatography. The soluble fraction of E. coli BL21(DE3) expressing HP-NAP lysed at pH 9.0 were adjusted to the indicated pH ranging from 7.0 to 9.0 and a protein concentration of 0.3 mg/ml. These adjusted fractions, indicated as load, were then loaded onto DEAE resins to purify recombinant HP-NAP by negative mode batch chromatography at 4 °C. The unbound, wash, and elution fractions were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Molecular masses (M) in kDa are indicated on the left of the stained gels. (Adapted from reference24) Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.

Figure 6
Figure 6: Effect of the Amount of Proteins Loaded onto DEAE Resins for Purifying Recombinant HP-NAP Expressed in E. coli. The soluble protein fractions of E. coli BL21(DE3) expressing HP-NAP were loaded onto DEAE resins according to the indicated ratio of mg proteins per milliliter of resins to purify recombinant HP-NAP by the negative mode batch chromatography at pH 8.0. The soluble proteins, indicated as load (L), the unbound fraction (A), wash fraction (B), and elution fraction (C) were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Molecular masses (M) in kDa are indicated on the left of the stained gels. (From reference24) Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.

Figure 7
Figure 7: Effect of pH on the Solubility of HP-NAP in E. coli Lysates. (A) E. coli BL21(DE3) expressing HP-NAP was suspended in ice-cold Tris-HCl buffer at the indicated pH ranging from 7.0 to 9.5. Cells were lysed and then whole cell lysates (W) were centrifuged to separate soluble fractions (S) and insoluble pellets (I). The proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Molecular masses (M) in kDa are indicated on the left of the stained gels. (B) The percentage of solubility of recombinant HP-NAP in the whole cell lysate at each pH was calculated from the intensity of HP-NAP band on SDS gels for the soluble fraction (S) divided by that for the whole cell lysate (W). Data were represented as the mean ± standard deviation of at least two experiments. (From reference24) Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.

Table 1
Table 1: Primers Used for Mutagenesis. Please click here to view a larger version of this table.

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Discussion

The negative mode batch chromatography with DEAE anion-exchange resins presented here is suitable for purification of recombinant HP-NAP overexpressed in E coli. The pH values of the buffers used in the steps of cell lysis and purification are very critical to ensure the solubility of HP-NAP in E. coli lysates and efficient separation of recombinant HP-NAP from host cell impurities, respectively. Bacterial cells should be lysed at pH 9.0, and the negative purification should be performed at pH 8.0 to obtain HP-NAP in high yield and high purity. Typical recovery of HP-NAP is 90%, and typical purity is 95%24. Since HP-NAP is present in the unbound fraction, a minimal but sufficient amount of the resin should be used to achieve its maximal capacity to absorb the impurities. In our case, the maximum loading capacity is 1.5 mg of the soluble proteins from E. coli lysates per milliliter resin.

The provided protocol is designed for purification of recombinant HP-NAP from a 50 ml E. coli culture. The yield of HP-NAP is around 15 mg. The purification process can be either scaled-down or scaled-up accordingly. For example, the two recombinant HP-NAPY101H and HP-NAPE97GY101H mutants were purified from a 1 ml E. coli culture by using this negative mode batch chromatography. Both HP-NAP mutants with purity higher than 95% were obtained by collecting the unbound fraction (Figure 4). This negative mode batch chromatography have also been applied to purify recombinant HP-NAP from a 860 ml E. coli culture. The recovery of the step using DEAE negative mode batch chromatography has reached 97% with purity higher than 90%.

HP-NAP expressed in Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) has also been successfully purified by this DEAE negative mode batch chromatography in one step26. In our B. subtilis expression system, the expression level of HP-NAP is low. HP-NAP only accounts for around 5% of the total soluble proteins from the bacterial lysates. Even though HP-NAP targeted for purification is present in a small amount, HP-NAP with purity higher than 90% can be obtained by reducing the ratio of the amount of proteins from cell lysates loaded onto the resin to efficiently remove almost all the endogenous proteins from B. subtilis26. Thus, this method may also be applied to purify recombinant HP-NAP expressed in other bacterial hosts.

Several methods have been reported for the purification of recombinant HP-NAP in its native form14-16. However, an additional gel filtration chromatographic step is required to obtain HP-NAP in high purity. This negative chromatographic purification can efficiently yield functional recombinant HP-NAP with high purity in one step. In addition, the desalination step is not needed due to the low salt concentration in the unbound fraction. The batch-mode purification could also obviate the need for a column. Thus, this negative mode batch chromatography using DEAE resin offers a simple and efficient method to purify HP-HAP in its native form with high yield and purity. HP-NAP purified by this method could be further utilized for the development of vaccines, new drugs, and diagnostics for H. pylori-related diseases or for other new therapeutic applications.

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Disclosures

HWF and YCY are inventors of patents TW I 432579 and US 8,673,312 for the method of one-step purification of Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein. All materials described in the manuscript will be available for research purposes. The authors confirm that this does not alter their adherence to all of the JoVE's policies on sharing data and materials.

Acknowledgements

We thank Dr. Chao-Sheng Cheng at National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, for performing the circular dichroism measurement. We also thank Drs. Evanthia Galanis and Ianko D. Iankov at Mayo Clinic, USA, for providing the anti-HP-NAP monoclonal antibody. We appreciate Drs. Han-Wen Chang and Chung-Chu Chen at Mackay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu, Taiwan, for providing advice for IRB application, Mr. Te-Lung Tsai at the Mackay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu, Taiwan, for supervising the analysis of isolated neutrophils, and Ms. Ju-Chen Weng at National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, for her technical assistance. This work was supported by grants from the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan (MOST 104-2311-B-007-003, NSC101-2311-B-007-007 and NSC98-2311-B-007-006-MY3), the Joint Research Program of National Tsing Hua University and Mackay Memorial Hospital (100N7727E1, 101N2727E1, 103N2773E1), and the research program of National Tsing Hua University (104N2052E1).

Materials

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Material
pET42a-NAP  N/A N/A prepared as described in Supplementary data of Refernce 15 
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006291X08018317
E. coli BL21 (DE3) Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc C6000-03 https://www.thermofisher.com/order/catalog/product/C600003
Kanamycin Amresco 25389-94-0 http://www.amresco-inc.com/KANAMYCIN-SULFATE-0408.cmsx
Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) MD Biomedical Inc 101-367-93-1 http://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product_det.php?id=238064&supplier=search&name
=IPTG%20
phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) Sigma-Aldrich 10837091001 protease inhibitor
http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/roche/PMSFRO?lang=en&region=TW
N-alpha-tosyl-L-lysinyl-chloromethylketone (TLCK) Sigma-Aldrich T7254 protease inhibitor
http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/sigma/t7254?lang=en&region=TW
N-tosyl-L-phenylalaninyl-chloromethylketone (TPCK) Sigma-Aldrich T4376 protease inhibitor
http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/sigma/t4376?lang=en&region=TW
Protein standard (bovine serum albumin) Sigma-Aldrich P5619  a standard protein for Bio-Rad Protein Assay
http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/fluka/p5619?lang=en&region=TW
DEAE–Sephadex  A-25 chloride form Sigma-Aldrich A25120 http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/sigma/a25120?lang=en&region=TW
Spectrum/Por dialysis tubing Spectrum Laboratories 132720 with molecular weight cutoff of 14 kDa
http://www.spectrumlabs.com/dialysis/RCtubing.html?Pn=132720;
Acrodisc® units with Mustang® E membrane Pall MSTG25E3 for endotoxin removal; operated at flow rates ranging from 1 to 4 ml/min
http://www.pall.com/main/laboratory/product.page?id=19992
mouse monoclonal antibody MAb 16F4 N/A N/A raised against the purified HP-NAP of H. pylori strain NCTC 11637 as described in Refernce 23;  A gift from Drs. Evanthia Galanis and Ianko D. Iankov at Mayo Clinic, USA
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X10017585
HiLoad 16/600 Superdex 200 pg GE Healthcare Life Sciences 28989335 for gel filtration chromatography
http://www.gelifesciences.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/productById/en/GELifeSciences-tw/28989335
PlusOne silver staining kit, protein GE Healthcare Life Sciences 17-1150-01 http://www.gelifesciences.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/productById/en/GELifeSciences-tw/17115001
Ficoll-Paque PLUS GE Healthcare Life Sciences 17-1440-02 for density gradient centrifugation to purify human neutrophils
http://www.gelifesciences.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/catalog/en/GELifeSciences-tw/products/AlternativeProductStructure
_16963/17144002
Flat bottom 96-well white plate Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc 236108 http://www.thermoscientific.com/en/product/nunc-f96-microwell-black-white-polystyrene-plate.html
Luminol Sigma-Aldrich A8511 protected from light
http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/sigma/a8511?lang=en&region=TW
Expand  long template PCR system Sigma-Aldrich 11681834001 source of High Fidelity PCR enzyme mix
http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/roche/elongro?lang=en&region=TW
Dpn I New England Biolabs R0176S https://www.neb.com/products/r0176-dpni
Xho I New England Biolabs R0146S https://www.neb.com/products/r0146-xhoi
E. coli DH5α Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc 18265-017 https://www.thermofisher.com/order/catalog/product/18265017
Name Company Product Number Comments
Equipment
 
U-2800 double beam UV/VIS spectrophotometer Hitachi  N/A out of market and upgraded to a new model
http://hitachi-hta.com/products/life-sciences-chemical-analysis/uvvisible-spectrophotometers
EmulsiFlex-C3 high pressure homogenizer Avestin Inc C315320 http://www.avestin.com/English/c3page.html
Hitachi Koki himac CP80WX general ultracentrifuge Hitachi Koki Co 90106401 for separation of the soluble and insoluble protein fractions from E. coli lysates
http://centrifuges.hitachi-koki.com/products/ultra/cp_wx/cp_wx.html
ÄKTA FPLC GE Healthcare Life Sciences 18-1900-26 for gel filtration chromatography
http://www.gelifesciences.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/productById/en/GELifeSciences-tw/18190026
Aviv model 62ADS CD spectrophotometer Aviv Biomedical N/A out of market and upgraded to a new model http://www.avivbiomedical.com/circular.php
LAS-3000 imaging system Fujifilm N/A discontinued and replaced
http://www.gelifesciences.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/productById/en/GELifeSciences-tw/28955810
Wallac 1420 (Victor2) multilabel counter Perkin-Elmer 1420-018 for chemiluminescence detection
http://www.perkinelmer.com/catalog/product/id/1420-018

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References

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chapter 3, Infectious diseases related to travel. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2016. Brunette, G. W., et al. Oxford University Press. (2015).
  2. Bauer, B., Meyer, T. F. The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori its association with gastric cancer and ulcer disease. Ulcers. 2011, 340157 (2011).
  3. Malfertheiner, P., et al. Management of Helicobacter pylori infection--the Maastricht IV/ Florence Consensus Report. Gut. Gut. 61, (5), 646-664 (2012).
  4. Evans, D. J. Jr., et al. Characterization of a Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein. Infect. Immun. 63, (6), 2213-2220 (1995).
  5. Fu, H. W. Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein: from molecular pathogenesis to clinical applications. World J. Gastroenterol. 20, (18), 5294-5301 (2014).
  6. de Bernard, M., D'Elios, M. M. The immune modulating activity of the Helicobacter pylori HP-NAP: Friend or foe? Toxicon. 56, (7), 1186-1192 (2010).
  7. Malfertheiner, P., et al. Safety and immunogenicity of an intramuscular Helicobacter pylori in noninfected volunteers: a phase I study. Gastroenterology. 135, (3), 787-795 (2008).
  8. Codolo, G., et al. HP-NAP inhibits the growth of bladder cancer in mice by activating a cytotoxic Th1 response. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 61, (1), 31-40 (2012).
  9. Codolo, G., et al. The neutrophil-activating protein of Helicobacter pylori Th2 inflammation in ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma. Cell. Microbiol. 10, (11), 2355-2363 (2008).
  10. Del Prete,, G,, et al. Immunosuppression of TH2 responses in Trichinella spiralis by Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 122, (5), 908-913.e5 (2008).
  11. Tang, R. X., Luo, D. J., Sun, A. H., Yan, J. Diversity of Helicobacter pylori in expression of antigens and induction of antibodies. World J. Gastroenterol. 14, (30), 4816-4822 (2008).
  12. Long, M., Luo, J., Li, Y., Zeng, F. Y., Li, M. Detection and evaluation of antibodies against neutrophil-activating protein of Helicobacter pylori in patients with gastric cancer. World J. Gastroenterol. 15, (19), 2381-2388 (2009).
  13. Song, H., et al. A CagA-independent cluster of antigens related to the risk of noncardia gastric cancer: associations between Helicobacter pylori and gastric adenocarcinoma explored by multiplex serology. Int. J. Cancer. 134, (12), 2942-2950 (2014).
  14. Kottakis, F., et al. Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein activates neutrophils by its C-terminal region even without dodecamer formation, which is a prerequisite for DNA protection--novel approaches against Helicobacter pylori inflammation. FEBS J. 275, (2), 302-317 (2008).
  15. Thoreson, A. C., et al. Differences in surface-exposed antigen expression between Helicobacter pylori isolated from duodenal ulcer patients and from asymptomatic subjects. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38, (9), 3436-3441 (2000).
  16. Wang, C. A., Liu, Y. C., Du, S. Y., Lin, C. W., Fu, H. W. Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein promotes myeloperoxidase release from human neutrophils. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 377, (1), 52-56 (2008).
  17. Iyer, G., et al. Reduced surface area chromatography for flow-through purification of viruses and virus like particles. J. Chromatogr. A. 1218, (26), 3973-3981 (2011).
  18. Wongchuphan, R., et al. Purification of rabbit polyclonal immunoglobulin G using anion exchangers. Process Biochem. 46, (1), 101-107 (2011).
  19. Lu, X., Zhao, D., Su, Z. Purification of hemoglobin by ion exchange chromatography in flow-through mode with PEG as an escort. Artif. Cells Blood Substit. Immobil. Biotechnol. 32, (2), 209-227 (2004).
  20. Brooks, S. P., Storey, K. B. Purification and characterization of a protein phosphatase that dephosphorylates pyruvate kinase in an anoxia tolerant animal. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. 38, (6), 1223-1234 (1996).
  21. Gewirtz, A. T., et al. Salmonella typhimurium translocates flagellin across intestinal epithelia, inducing a proinflammatory response. J. Clin. Invest. 107, (1), 99-109 (2001).
  22. Levison, P. R. Large-scale ion-exchange column chromatography of proteins: Comparison of different formats. J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 790, (1-2), 17-33 (2003).
  23. Lee, M. F. X., Chan, E. S., Tey, B. T. Negative chromatography: Progress, applications and future perspectives. Process Biochem. 49, (6), 1005-1011 (2014).
  24. Yang, Y. C., et al. High yield purification of Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein overexpressed in Escherichia coli. BMC biotechnol. 15, (23), (2015).
  25. Iankov, I. D., Haralambieva, I. H., Galanis, E. Immunogenicity of attenuated measles virus engineered to express Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein. Vaccine. 29, (8), 1710-1720 (2011).
  26. Shih, K. S., et al. One-step chromatographic purification of Helicobacter pylori protein expressed in Bacillus subtilis. PLoS One. 8, (4), e60786 (2013).
  27. Liu, H., Naismith, J. H. An efficient one-step site-directed deletion, insertion, single and multiple-site plasmid mutagenesis protocol. BMC biotechnol. 8, (91), (2008).
  28. Karnik, A., Karnik, R., Grefen, C. SDM-assist software to design site-directed mutagenesis primers introducing 'silent' restriction sites. BMC bioinformatics. 14, (105), (2013).

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