Isolation and Characterization of Extracellular Vesicles from Adult Schistosoma japonicum.

* These authors contributed equally
This article has been accepted and is currently in production


Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous vesicles released by a variety of cells into the extracellular microenvironment. EVs represent a population of heterogeneous vesicles, whose size range between 40 and 1,000 nm. Accumulated evidence indicated that EVs play important regulatory roles in pathogen-host interactions. A deep understanding of schistosome EVs should provide insights into the mechanisms underlying schistosome-host interactions, enabling development of novel strategies against schistosomiasis. Here, we aim to further study EVs functions in schistosomes by presenting a protocol for the isolation and characterization of EVs from adult Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum). EVs were isolated from in vitro culture medium using centrifugation combined with a commercial exosome kit. The isolated S. japonicum EVs (SjEVs) typically possess a diameter of 100-400 nm, and are characterized by transmission electronic microscopy and western blotting. The usage of PKH67 dye-labeled SjEVs has demonstrated that SjEVs are internalized by the recipient cells. Overall, our protocol provides an alternative method for isolating EVs from adult schistosomes; the isolated SjEVs may be suitable for functional analysis.