Minimally Invasive Endoscopic Intracerebral Hemorrhage Evacuation

This article has been accepted and is currently in production

Abstract

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subtype of stroke with high mortality and poor functional outcomes, largely because there are no evidence-based treatment options for this devastating disease process. In the past decade, a number of minimally invasive surgeries have emerged to address this issue, one of which is endoscopic evacuation. Stereotactic ICH Underwater Blood Aspiration (SCUBA) is a novel endoscopic evacuation technique performed in a fluid-filled cavity using an aspiration system to provide an additional degree of freedom during the procedure. The SCUBA procedure utilizes a suction device, endoscope, and sheath and is divided into two phases. The first phase involves maximal aspiration and minimal irrigation to decrease clot burden. The second phase involves increasing irrigation for visibility, decreasing aspiration strength for targeted aspiration without disturbing the cavity wall, and cauterizing any bleeding vessels. Using the endoscope and aspiration wand, this technique aims to maximize hematoma evacuation while minimizing collateral damage to the surrounding brain. Advantages of the SCUBA technique include the use of a low-profile endoscopic sheath minimizing brain disruption and improved visualization with a fluid-filled cavity rather than an air-filled one.