Murine Model of Central Venous Stenosis using Aortocaval Fistula with an Outflow Stenosis

This article has been accepted and is currently in production

Abstract

Central venous stenosis is an important entity contributing to arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure. A murine AVF model was modified to create a partial ligation of the inferior vena cava (IVC) in the outflow of the fistula, mimicking central venous stenosis. Technical aspects of this model are introduced. The aorta and IVC are exposed, following an abdominal incision. The infra-renal aorta and IVC are dissected for proximal clamping, and the distal aorta is exposed for puncture. The IVC at the midpoint between the left renal vein and the aortic bifurcation is carefully dissected to place an 8-0 suture beneath the IVC. After clamping the aorta and IVC, an AVF is created by puncturing the infra-renal aorta through both walls into the IVC with a 25 G needle, followed by ligating a 22 G intra-venous (IV) catheter and IVC together. The catheter is then removed, creating a reproducible venous stenosis without occlusion. The aorta and IVC are unclamped after confirming primary hemostasis. This novel model of central vein stenosis is easy to perform, reproducible, and will facilitate studies on AVF failure.