An integrated suite of imaging techniques has been applied to determine the three-dimensional (3D) morphology and cellular structure of polyp tissues comprising the Caribbean reef building corals Montastraeaannularis and M. faveolata. These approaches include fluorescence microscopy (FM), serial block face imaging (SBFI), and two-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM). SBFI provides deep tissue imaging after physical sectioning; it details the tissue surface texture and 3D visualization to tissue depths of more than 2 mm. Complementary FM and TPLSM yield ultra-high resolution images of tissue cellular structure. Results have: (1) identified previously unreported lobate tissue morphologies on the outer wall of individual coral polyps and (2) created the first surface maps of the 3D distribution and tissue density of chromatophores and algae-like dinoflagellate zooxanthellae endosymbionts. Spectral absorption peaks of 500 nm and 675 nm, respectively, suggest that M. annularis and M. faveolata contain similar types of chlorophyll and chromatophores. However, M. annularis and M. faveolata exhibit significant differences in the tissue density and 3D distribution of these key cellular components. This study focusing on imaging methods indicates that SBFI is extremely useful for analysis of large mm-scale samples of decalcified coral tissues. Complimentary FM and TPLSM reveal subtle submillimeter scale changes in cellular distribution and density in nondecalcified coral tissue samples. The TPLSM technique affords: (1) minimally invasive sample preparation, (2) superior optical sectioning ability, and (3) minimal light absorption and scattering, while still permitting deep tissue imaging.
21 Related JoVE Articles!
A Functional Assay for Gap Junctional Examination; Electroporation of Adherent Cells on Indium-Tin Oxide
Institutions: Queen's University, Ask Science Products Inc..
In this technique, cells are cultured on a glass slide that is partly coated with indium-tin oxide (ITO), a transparent, electrically conductive material. A variety of molecules, such as peptides or oligonucleotides can be introduced into essentially 100% of the cells in a non-traumatic manner. Here, we describe how it can be used to study intercellular, gap junctional communication. Lucifer yellow penetrates into the cells when an electric pulse, applied to the conductive surface on which they are growing, causes pores to form through the cell membrane. This is electroporation. Cells growing on the nonconductive glass surface immediately adjacent to the electroporated region do not take up Lucifer yellow by electroporation but do acquire the fluorescent dye as it is passed to them via gap junctions that link them to the electroporated cells. The results of the transfer of dye from cell to cell can be observed microscopically under fluorescence illumination. This technique allows for precise quantitation of gap junctional communication. In addition, it can be used for the introduction of peptides or other non-permeant molecules, and the transfer of small electroporated peptides via gap junctions to inhibit the signal in the adjacent, non-electroporated cells is a powerful demonstration of signal inhibition.
Molecular Biology, Issue 92, Electroporation, Indium-Tin oxide, signal transduction, gap junctional communication, peptides, Stat3
Brain Slice Stimulation Using a Microfluidic Network and Standard Perfusion Chamber
Institutions: University of Illinois, Chicago, University of Illinois, Chicago.
We have demonstrated the fabrication of a two-level microfluidic device that can be easily integrated with existing electrophysiology setups. The two-level microfluidic device is fabricated using a two-step standard negative resist lithography process 1
. The first level contains microchannels with inlet and outlet ports at each end. The second level contains microscale circular holes located midway of the channel length and centered along with channel width. Passive pumping method is used to pump fluids from the inlet port to the outlet port 2
. The microfluidic device is integrated with off-the-shelf perfusion chambers and allows seamless integration with the electrophysiology setup. The fluids introduced at the inlet ports flow through the microchannels towards the outlet ports and also escape through the circular openings located on top of the microchannels into the bath of the perfusion. Thus the bottom surface of the brain slice placed in the perfusion chamber bath and above the microfluidic device can be exposed with different neurotransmitters. The microscale thickness of the microfluidic device and the transparent nature of the materials [glass coverslip and PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane)] used to make the microfluidic device allow microscopy of the brain slice. The microfluidic device allows modulation (both spatial and temporal) of the chemical stimuli introduced to the brain slice microenvironments.
Neuroscience, Issue 8, Biomedical Engineering, Microfluidics, Slice Recording, Soft Lithography, Electrophysiology, Neurotransmitter, Bioengineering
High-throughput Fluorometric Measurement of Potential Soil Extracellular Enzyme Activities
Institutions: Colorado State University, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Colorado.
Microbes in soils and other environments produce extracellular enzymes to depolymerize and hydrolyze organic macromolecules so that they can be assimilated for energy and nutrients. Measuring soil microbial enzyme activity is crucial in understanding soil ecosystem functional dynamics. The general concept of the fluorescence enzyme assay is that synthetic C-, N-, or P-rich substrates bound with a fluorescent dye are added to soil samples. When intact, the labeled substrates do not fluoresce. Enzyme activity is measured as the increase in fluorescence as the fluorescent dyes are cleaved from their substrates, which allows them to fluoresce. Enzyme measurements can be expressed in units of molarity or activity. To perform this assay, soil slurries are prepared by combining soil with a pH buffer. The pH buffer (typically a 50 mM sodium acetate or 50 mM Tris buffer), is chosen for the buffer's particular acid dissociation constant (pKa) to best match the soil sample pH. The soil slurries are inoculated with a nonlimiting amount of fluorescently labeled (i.e.
C-, N-, or P-rich) substrate. Using soil slurries in the assay serves to minimize limitations on enzyme and substrate diffusion. Therefore, this assay controls for differences in substrate limitation, diffusion rates, and soil pH conditions; thus detecting potential enzyme activity rates as a function of the difference in enzyme concentrations (per sample).
Fluorescence enzyme assays are typically more sensitive than spectrophotometric (i.e.
colorimetric) assays, but can suffer from interference caused by impurities and the instability of many fluorescent compounds when exposed to light; so caution is required when handling fluorescent substrates. Likewise, this method only assesses potential enzyme activities under laboratory conditions when substrates are not limiting. Caution should be used when interpreting the data representing cross-site comparisons with differing temperatures or soil types, as in situ
soil type and temperature can influence enzyme kinetics.
Environmental Sciences, Issue 81, Ecological and Environmental Phenomena, Environment, Biochemistry, Environmental Microbiology, Soil Microbiology, Ecology, Eukaryota, Archaea, Bacteria, Soil extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs), fluorometric enzyme assays, substrate degradation, 4-methylumbelliferone (MUB), 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (MUC), enzyme temperature kinetics, soil
Isolation of Cellular Lipid Droplets: Two Purification Techniques Starting from Yeast Cells and Human Placentas
Institutions: University of Tennessee, University of Tennessee.
Lipid droplets are dynamic organelles that can be found in most eukaryotic and certain prokaryotic cells. Structurally, the droplets consist of a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer. One of the most useful techniques in determining the cellular roles of droplets has been proteomic identification of bound proteins, which can be isolated along with the droplets. Here, two methods are described to isolate lipid droplets and their bound proteins from two wide-ranging eukaryotes: fission yeast and human placental villous cells. Although both techniques have differences, the main method - density gradient centrifugation - is shared by both preparations. This shows the wide applicability of the presented droplet isolation techniques.
In the first protocol, yeast cells are converted into spheroplasts by enzymatic digestion of their cell walls. The resulting spheroplasts are then gently lysed in a loose-fitting homogenizer. Ficoll is added to the lysate to provide a density gradient, and the mixture is centrifuged three times. After the first spin, the lipid droplets are localized to the white-colored floating layer of the centrifuge tubes along with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the plasma membrane, and vacuoles. Two subsequent spins are used to remove these other three organelles. The result is a layer that has only droplets and bound proteins.
In the second protocol, placental villous cells are isolated from human term placentas by enzymatic digestion with trypsin and DNase I. The cells are homogenized in a loose-fitting homogenizer. Low-speed and medium-speed centrifugation steps are used to remove unbroken cells, cellular debris, nuclei, and mitochondria. Sucrose is added to the homogenate to provide a density gradient and the mixture is centrifuged to separate the lipid droplets from the other cellular fractions.
The purity of the lipid droplets in both protocols is confirmed by Western Blot analysis. The droplet fractions from both preps are suitable for subsequent proteomic and lipidomic analysis.
Bioengineering, Issue 86, Lipid droplet, lipid body, fat body, oil body, Yeast, placenta, placental villous cells, isolation, purification, density gradient centrifugation
Complete Spinal Cord Injury and Brain Dissection Protocol for Subsequent Wholemount In Situ Hybridization in Larval Sea Lamprey
Institutions: University of Edinburgh, Temple University School of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine.
After a complete spinal cord injury, sea lampreys at first are paralyzed below the level of transection. However, they recover locomotion after several weeks, and this is accompanied by short distance regeneration (a few mm) of propriospinal axons and spinal-projecting axons from the brainstem. Among the 36 large identifiable spinal-projecting neurons, some are good regenerators and others are bad regenerators. These neurons can most easily be identified in wholemount CNS preparations. In order to understand the neuron-intrinsic mechanisms that favor or inhibit axon regeneration after injury in the vertebrates CNS, we determine differences in gene expression between the good and bad regenerators, and how expression is influenced by spinal cord transection. This paper illustrates the techniques for housing larval and recently transformed adult sea lampreys in fresh water tanks, producing complete spinal cord transections under microscopic vision, and preparing brain and spinal cord wholemounts for in situ hybridization. Briefly, animals are kept at 16
°C and anesthetized in 1% Benzocaine in lamprey Ringer. The spinal cord is transected with iridectomy scissors via a dorsal approach and the animal is allowed to recover in fresh water tanks at 23 °C. For in situ
hybridization, animals are reanesthetized and the brain and cord removed via a dorsal approach.
Neuroscience, Issue 92, spinal cord injury, axonal guidance molecules, neurofilaments, regeneration
Laboratory-determined Phosphorus Flux from Lake Sediments as a Measure of Internal Phosphorus Loading
Institutions: Grand Valley State University.
Eutrophication is a water quality issue in lakes worldwide, and there is a critical need to identify and control nutrient sources. Internal phosphorus (P) loading from lake sediments can account for a substantial portion of the total P load in eutrophic, and some mesotrophic, lakes. Laboratory determination of P release rates from sediment cores is one approach for determining the role of internal P loading and guiding management decisions. Two principal alternatives to experimental determination of sediment P release exist for estimating internal load: in situ
measurements of changes in hypolimnetic P over time and P mass balance. The experimental approach using laboratory-based sediment incubations to quantify internal P load is a direct method, making it a valuable tool for lake management and restoration.
Laboratory incubations of sediment cores can help determine the relative importance of internal vs. external P loads, as well as be used to answer a variety of lake management and research questions. We illustrate the use of sediment core incubations to assess the effectiveness of an aluminum sulfate (alum) treatment for reducing sediment P release. Other research questions that can be investigated using this approach include the effects of sediment resuspension and bioturbation on P release.
The approach also has limitations. Assumptions must be made with respect to: extrapolating results from sediment cores to the entire lake; deciding over what time periods to measure nutrient release; and addressing possible core tube artifacts. A comprehensive dissolved oxygen monitoring strategy to assess temporal and spatial redox status in the lake provides greater confidence in annual P loads estimated from sediment core incubations.
Environmental Sciences, Issue 85, Limnology, internal loading, eutrophication, nutrient flux, sediment coring, phosphorus, lakes
A New Clarification Method to Visualize Biliary Degeneration During Liver Metamorphosis in Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)
Institutions: Michigan State University, U.S. Geological Survey.
Biliary atresia is a rare disease of infancy, with an estimated 1 in 15,000 frequency in the southeast United States, but more common in East Asian countries, with a reported frequency of 1 in 5,000 in Taiwan. Although much is known about the management of biliary atresia, its pathogenesis is still elusive. The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus
) provides a unique opportunity to examine the mechanism and progression of biliary degeneration. Sea lamprey develop through three distinct life stages: larval, parasitic, and adult. During the transition from larvae to parasitic juvenile, sea lamprey undergo metamorphosis with dramatic reorganization and remodeling in external morphology and internal organs. In the liver, the entire biliary system is lost, including the gall bladder and the biliary tree. A newly-developed method called “CLARITY” was modified to clarify the entire liver and the junction with the intestine in metamorphic sea lamprey. The process of biliary degeneration was visualized and discerned during sea lamprey metamorphosis by using laser scanning confocal microscopy. This method provides a powerful tool to study biliary atresia in a unique animal model.
Developmental Biology, Issue 88, Biliary atresia, liver development, bile duct degeneration, Petromyzon marinus, metamorphosis, apoptosis
Construction of Vapor Chambers Used to Expose Mice to Alcohol During the Equivalent of all Three Trimesters of Human Development
Institutions: University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center.
Exposure to alcohol during development can result in a constellation of morphological and behavioral abnormalities that are collectively known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). At the most severe end of the spectrum is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), characterized by growth retardation, craniofacial dysmorphology, and neurobehavioral deficits. Studies with animal models, including rodents, have elucidated many molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of FASDs. Ethanol administration to pregnant rodents has been used to model human exposure during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Third trimester ethanol consumption in humans has been modeled using neonatal rodents. However, few rodent studies have characterized the effect of ethanol exposure during the equivalent to all three trimesters of human pregnancy, a pattern of exposure that is common in pregnant women. Here, we show how to build vapor chambers from readily obtainable materials that can each accommodate up to six standard mouse cages. We describe a vapor chamber paradigm that can be used to model exposure to ethanol, with minimal handling, during all three trimesters. Our studies demonstrate that pregnant dams developed significant metabolic tolerance to ethanol. However, neonatal mice did not develop metabolic tolerance and the number of fetuses, fetus weight, placenta weight, number of pups/litter, number of dead pups/litter, and pup weight were not significantly affected by ethanol exposure. An important advantage of this paradigm is its applicability to studies with genetically-modified mice. Additionally, this paradigm minimizes handling of animals, a major confound in fetal alcohol research.
Medicine, Issue 89, fetal, ethanol, exposure, paradigm, vapor, development, alcoholism, teratogenic, animal, mouse, model
A Method for Microinjection of Patiria minata Zygotes
Institutions: Carnegie Mellon University.
Echinoderms have long been a favorite model system for studies of reproduction and development, and more recently for the study of gene regulation and evolution of developmental processes. The sea star, Patiria miniata
, is gaining prevalence as a model system for these types of studies which were previously performed almost exclusively in the sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
and Lytechinus variegatus
. An advantage of these model systems is the ease of producing modified embryos in which a particular gene is up or downregulated, labeling a group of cells, or introducing a reporter gene. A single microinjection method is capable of creating a wide variety of such modified embryos. Here, we present a method for obtaining gametes from P. miniata
, producing zygotes, and introducing perturbing reagents via microinjection. Healthy morphant embryos are subsequently isolated for quantitative and qualitative studies of gene function. The availability of genome and transcriptome data for this organism has increased the types of studies that are performed and the ease of executing them.
Developmental Biology, Issue 91, Embryology, Patiria miniata, sea star, echinoderm, development, gene regulatory networks, microinjection, gene expression perturbation, antisense oligonucleotide, reporter expression
High Throughput Microinjections of Sea Urchin Zygotes
Institutions: University of Delaware .
Microinjection into cells and embryos is a common technique that is used to study a wide range of biological processes. In this method a small amount of treatment solution is loaded into a microinjection needle that is used to physically inject individual immobilized cells or embryos. Despite the need for initial training to perform this procedure for high-throughput delivery, microinjection offers maximum efficiency and reproducible delivery of a wide variety of treatment solutions (including complex mixtures of samples) into cells, eggs or embryos. Applications to microinjections include delivery of DNA constructs, mRNAs, recombinant proteins, gain of function, and loss of function reagents. Fluorescent or colorimetric dye is added to the injected solution to enable instant visualization of efficient delivery as well as a tool for reliable normalization of the amount of the delivered solution. The described method enables microinjection of 100-400 sea urchin zygotes within 10-15 min.
Developmental Biology, Issue 83, Sea Urchins, microinjection, sea urchin embryos, treatment delivery, high throughput, mouth pipette, DNA constructs, mRNAs, morpholino antisense oligonucleotides
Isolation of Microvascular Endothelial Tubes from Mouse Resistance Arteries
Institutions: University of Missouri, Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center.
The control of blood flow by the resistance vasculature regulates the supply of oxygen and nutrients concomitant with the removal of metabolic by-products, as exemplified by exercising skeletal muscle. Endothelial cells (ECs) line the intima of all resistance vessels and serve a key role in controlling diameter (e.g.
endothelium-dependent vasodilation) and, thereby, the magnitude and distribution of tissue blood flow. The regulation of vascular resistance by ECs is effected by intracellular Ca2+
signaling, which leads to production of diffusible autacoids (e.g.
nitric oxide and arachidonic acid metabolites)1-3
that elicit smooth muscle cell relaxation. Thus understanding the dynamics of endothelial Ca2+
signaling is a key step towards understanding mechanisms governing blood flow control. Isolating endothelial tubes eliminates confounding variables associated with blood in the vessel lumen and with surrounding smooth muscle cells and perivascular nerves, which otherwise influence EC structure and function. Here we present the isolation of endothelial tubes from the superior epigastric artery (SEA) using a protocol optimized for this vessel.
To isolate endothelial tubes from an anesthetized mouse, the SEA is ligated in situ
to maintain blood within the vessel lumen (to facilitate visualizing it during dissection), and the entire sheet of abdominal muscle is excised. The SEA is dissected free from surrounding skeletal muscle fibers and connective tissue, blood is flushed from the lumen, and mild enzymatic digestion is performed to enable removal of adventitia, nerves and smooth muscle cells using gentle trituration. These freshly-isolated preparations of intact endothelium retain their native morphology, with individual ECs remaining functionally coupled to one another, able to transfer chemical and electrical signals intercellularly through gap junctions6,7
. In addition to providing new insight into calcium signaling and membrane biophysics, these preparations enable molecular studies of gene expression and protein localization within native microvascular endothelium.
Basic Protocol, Issue 81, endothelial tubes, microcirculation, calcium signaling, resistance vasculature, Confocal microscopy
Analyzing Gene Expression from Marine Microbial Communities using Environmental Transcriptomics
Institutions: University of Georgia (UGA).
Analogous to metagenomics, environmental transcriptomics (metatranscriptomics) retrieves and sequences environmental mRNAs from a microbial assemblage without prior knowledge of what genes the community might be expressing. Thus it provides the most unbiased perspective on community gene expression in situ
. Environmental transcriptomics protocols are technically difficult since prokaryotic mRNAs generally lack the poly(A) tails that make isolation of eukaryotic messages relatively straightforward 1
and because of the relatively short half lives of mRNAs 2
. In addition, mRNAs are much less abundant than rRNAs in total RNA extracts, thus an rRNA background often overwhelms mRNA signals. However, techniques for overcoming some of these difficulties have recently been developed. A procedure for analyzing environmental transcriptomes by creating clone libraries using random primers to reverse-transcribe and amplify environmental mRNAs was recently described was successful in two different natural environments, but results were biased by selection of the random primers used to initiate cDNA synthesis 3
. Advances in linear amplification of mRNA obviate the need for random primers in the amplification step and make it possible to use less starting material decreasing the collection and processing time of samples and thereby minimizing RNA degradation 4
. In vitro
transcription methods for amplifying mRNA involve polyadenylating the mRNA and incorporating a T7 promoter onto the 3 end of the transcript. Amplified RNA (aRNA) can then be converted to double stranded cDNA using random hexamers and directly sequenced by pyrosequencing 5
. A first use of this method at Station ALOHA demonstrated its utility for characterizing microbial community gene expression 6
Microbiology, Issue 24, transcriptomics, bacterioplankton, mRNA, microbial communities, gene expression
High Speed Droplet-based Delivery System for Passive Pumping in Microfluidic Devices
Institutions: University of Wisconsin-Madison, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
A novel microfluidic system has been developed that uses the phenomenon of passive pumping along with a user controlled droplet based fluid delivery system. Passive pumping is the phenomenon by which surface tension induced pressure differences drive fluid movement in closed channels. The automated fluid delivery system consists of a set of voltage controlled valves with micro-nozzles connected to a fluid reservoir and a control system. These voltage controlled valves offer a volumetrically precise way to deliver fluid droplets to the inlet of a microfluidic device in a high frequency manner. Based on the dimensions demonstrated in the current study example, the system is capable of flowing 4 milliliters per minute (through a 2.2mm by 260um cross-sectional channel). Based on these same channel dimensions, fluid exchange of a point inside the channel can be achieved in as little as eight milliseconds. It is observed that there is interplay between momentum of the system (imparted by a combination of the droplets created by the valves and the fluid velocity in the channel), and the surface tension of the liquid. Where momentum provides velocity to the fluid flow (or vice-versa), equilibration of surface tension at the inlet provides a sudden stop to any flow. This sudden stop allows the user to control the flow characteristics of the channel and opens the door for a variety of biological applications, ranging anywhere from reagent delivery to drug-cell studies. It is also observed that when nozzles are aimed at the inlet at shallow angles, the droplet momentum can cause additional interesting fluid phenomena, such as mixing of multiple droplets in the inlet.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 31, automated, passive pumping, microfluidic device, high speed, high flow rate
Large Insert Environmental Genomic Library Production
Institutions: University of British Columbia - UBC.
The vast majority of microbes in nature currently remain inaccessible to traditional cultivation methods. Over the past decade, culture-independent environmental genomic (i.e.
metagenomic) approaches have emerged, enabling researchers to bridge this cultivation gap by capturing the genetic content of indigenous microbial communities directly from the environment. To this end, genomic DNA libraries are constructed using standard albeit artful laboratory cloning techniques. Here we describe the construction of a large insert environmental genomic fosmid library with DNA derived from the vertical depth continuum of a seasonally hypoxic fjord. This protocol is directly linked to a series of connected protocols including coastal marine water sampling , large volume filtration of microbial biomass  and a DNA extraction and purification protocol . At the outset, high quality genomic DNA is end-repaired with the creation of 5 -phosphorylated blunt ends. End-repaired DNA is subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for size selection and gel extraction is performed to recover DNA fragments between 30 and 60 thousand base pairs (Kb) in length. Size selected DNA is purified away from the PFGE gel matrix and ligated to the phosphatase-treated blunt-end fosmid CopyControl vector pCC1 (EPICENTRE http://www.epibio.com/item.asp?ID=385). Linear concatemers of pCC1 and insert DNA are subsequently headfull packaged into phage particles by lambda terminase, with subsequent infection of phage-resistant E. coli
cells. Successfully transduced clones are recovered on LB agar plates under antibiotic selection and archived in 384-well plate format using an automated colony picking robot (Qpix2, GENETIX). The current protocol draws from various sources including the CopyControl Fosmid Library Production Kit from EPICENTRE and the published works of multiple research groups [4-7]. Each step is presented with best practice in mind. Whenever possible we highlight subtleties in execution to improve overall quality and efficiency of library production. The whole process of fosmid library production and automated colony picking takes at least 7-10 days as there are many incubation steps included. However, there are several stopping points possible which are mentioned within the protocol.
Basic Protocols, Issue 31, environmental genomic, metagenomic, genomic DNA, large insert library, fosmid, phage packaging, automated colony picking
Estimating Virus Production Rates in Aquatic Systems
Institutions: University of Tennessee.
Viruses are pervasive components of marine and freshwater systems, and are known to be significant agents of microbial mortality. Developing quantitative estimates of this process is critical as we can then develop better models of microbial community structure and function as well as advance our understanding of how viruses work to alter aquatic biogeochemical cycles. The virus reduction technique allows researchers to estimate the rate at which virus particles are released from the endemic microbial community. In brief, the abundance of free (extracellular) viruses is reduced in a sample while the microbial community is maintained at near ambient concentration. The microbial community is then incubated in the absence of free viruses and the rate at which viruses reoccur in the sample (through the lysis of already infected members of the community) can be quantified by epifluorescence microscopy or, in the case of specific viruses, quantitative PCR. These rates can then be used to estimate the rate of microbial mortality due to virus-mediated cell lysis.
Infectious Diseases, Issue 43, Viruses, seawater, lakes, viral lysis, marine microbiology, freshwater microbiology, epifluorescence microscopy
Establishment of Microbial Eukaryotic Enrichment Cultures from a Chemically Stratified Antarctic Lake and Assessment of Carbon Fixation Potential
Institutions: Miami University .
Lake Bonney is one of numerous permanently ice-covered lakes located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The perennial ice cover maintains a chemically stratified water column and unlike other inland bodies of water, largely prevents external input of carbon and nutrients from streams. Biota are exposed to numerous environmental stresses, including year-round severe nutrient deficiency, low temperatures, extreme shade, hypersalinity, and 24-hour darkness during the winter 1
. These extreme environmental conditions limit the biota in Lake Bonney almost exclusively to microorganisms 2
Single-celled microbial eukaryotes (called "protists") are important players in global biogeochemical cycling 3
and play important ecological roles in the cycling of carbon in the dry valley lakes, occupying both primary and tertiary roles in the aquatic food web. In the dry valley aquatic food web, protists that fix inorganic carbon (autotrophy) are the major producers of organic carbon for organotrophic organisms 4, 2
. Phagotrophic or heterotrophic protists capable of ingesting bacteria and smaller protists act as the top predators in the food web 5
. Last, an unknown proportion of the protist population is capable of combined mixotrophic metabolism 6, 7
. Mixotrophy in protists involves the ability to combine photosynthetic capability with phagotrophic ingestion of prey microorganisms. This form of mixotrophy differs from mixotrophic metabolism in bacterial species, which generally involves uptake dissolved carbon molecules. There are currently very few protist isolates from permanently ice-capped polar lakes, and studies of protist diversity and ecology in this extreme environment have been limited 8, 4, 9, 10, 5
. A better understanding of protist metabolic versatility in the simple dry valley lake food web will aid in the development of models for the role of protists in the global carbon cycle.
We employed an enrichment culture approach to isolate potentially phototrophic and mixotrophic protists from Lake Bonney. Sampling depths in the water column were chosen based on the location of primary production maxima and protist phylogenetic diversity 4, 11
, as well as variability in major abiotic factors affecting protist trophic modes: shallow sampling depths are limited for major nutrients, while deeper sampling depths are limited by light availability. In addition, lake water samples were supplemented with multiple types of growth media to promote the growth of a variety of phototrophic organisms.
RubisCO catalyzes the rate limiting step in the Calvin Benson Bassham (CBB) cycle, the major pathway by which autotrophic organisms fix inorganic carbon and provide organic carbon for higher trophic levels in aquatic and terrestrial food webs 12
. In this study, we applied a radioisotope assay modified for filtered samples 13
to monitor maximum carboxylase activity as a proxy for carbon fixation potential and metabolic versatility in the Lake Bonney enrichment cultures.
Microbiology, Issue 62, Antarctic lake, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Enrichment cultivation, Microbial eukaryotes, RubisCO
Genome-wide Gene Deletions in Streptococcus sanguinis by High Throughput PCR
Institutions: Virginia Commonwealth University.
Transposon mutagenesis and single-gene deletion are two methods applied in genome-wide gene knockout in bacteria 1,2
. Although transposon mutagenesis is less time consuming, less costly, and does not require completed genome information, there are two weaknesses in this method: (1) the possibility of a disparate mutants in the mixed mutant library that counter-selects mutants with decreased competition; and (2) the possibility of partial gene inactivation whereby genes do not entirely lose their function following the insertion of a transposon. Single-gene deletion analysis may compensate for the drawbacks associated with transposon mutagenesis. To improve the efficiency of genome-wide single gene deletion, we attempt to establish a high-throughput technique for genome-wide single gene deletion using Streptococcus sanguinis
as a model organism. Each gene deletion construct in S. sanguinis
genome is designed to comprise 1-kb upstream of the targeted gene, the aphA-3
gene, encoding kanamycin resistance protein, and 1-kb downstream of the targeted gene. Three sets of primers F1/R1, F2/R2, and F3/R3, respectively, are designed and synthesized in a 96-well plate format for PCR-amplifications of those three components of each deletion construct. Primers R1 and F3 contain 25-bp sequences that are complementary to regions of the aphA-3
gene at their 5' end. A large scale PCR amplification of the aphA-3
gene is performed once for creating all single-gene deletion constructs. The promoter of aphA-3
gene is initially excluded to minimize the potential polar effect of kanamycin cassette. To create the gene deletion constructs, high-throughput PCR amplification and purification are performed in a 96-well plate format. A linear recombinant PCR amplicon for each gene deletion will be made up through four PCR reactions using high-fidelity DNA polymerase. The initial exponential growth phase of S. sanguinis
cultured in Todd Hewitt broth supplemented with 2.5% inactivated horse serum is used to increase competence for the transformation of PCR-recombinant constructs. Under this condition, up to 20% of S. sanguinis
cells can be transformed using ~50 ng of DNA. Based on this approach, 2,048 mutants with single-gene deletion were ultimately obtained from the 2,270 genes in S. sanguinis
excluding four gene ORFs contained entirely within other ORFs in S. sanguinis
SK36 and 218 potential essential genes. The technique on creating gene deletion constructs is high throughput and could be easy to use in genome-wide single gene deletions for any transformable bacteria.
Genetics, Issue 69, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Genomics, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus, Genome-wide gene deletions, genes, High-throughput, PCR
Linking Predation Risk, Herbivore Physiological Stress and Microbial Decomposition of Plant Litter
Institutions: Yale University, Virginia Tech, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
The quantity and quality of detritus entering the soil determines the rate of decomposition by microbial communities as well as recycle rates of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) sequestration1,2
. Plant litter comprises the majority of detritus3
, and so it is assumed that decomposition is only marginally influenced by biomass inputs from animals such as herbivores and carnivores4,5
. However, carnivores may influence microbial decomposition of plant litter via a chain of interactions in which predation risk alters the physiology of their herbivore prey that in turn alters soil microbial functioning when the herbivore carcasses are decomposed6
. A physiological stress response by herbivores to the risk of predation can change the C:N elemental composition of herbivore biomass7,8,9
because stress from predation risk increases herbivore basal energy demands that in nutrient-limited systems forces herbivores to shift their consumption from N-rich resources to support growth and reproduction to C-rich carbohydrate resources to support heightened metabolism6
. Herbivores have limited ability to store excess nutrients, so stressed herbivores excrete N as they increase carbohydrate-C consumption7
. Ultimately, prey stressed by predation risk increase their body C:N ratio7,10
, making them poorer quality resources for the soil microbial pool likely due to lower availability of labile N for microbial enzyme production6
. Thus, decomposition of carcasses of stressed herbivores has a priming effect on the functioning of microbial communities that decreases subsequent ability to of microbes to decompose plant litter6,10,11
We present the methodology to evaluate linkages between predation risk and litter decomposition by soil microbes. We describe how to: induce stress in herbivores from predation risk; measure those stress responses, and measure the consequences on microbial decomposition. We use insights from a model grassland ecosystem comprising the hunting spider predator (Pisuarina mira
), a dominant grasshopper herbivore (Melanoplus femurrubrum
),and a variety of grass and forb plants9
Environmental Sciences, Issue 73, Microbiology, Plant Biology, Entomology, Organisms, Investigative Techniques, Biological Phenomena, Chemical Phenomena, Metabolic Phenomena, Microbiological Phenomena, Earth Resources and Remote Sensing, Life Sciences (General), Litter Decomposition, Ecological Stoichiometry, Physiological Stress and Ecosystem Function, Predation Risk, Soil Respiration, Carbon Sequestration, Soil Science, respiration, spider, grasshoper, model system
Whole-Body Nanoparticle Aerosol Inhalation Exposures
Institutions: West Virginia University , West Virginia University , National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
Inhalation is the most likely exposure route for individuals working with aerosolizable engineered nano-materials (ENM). To properly perform nanoparticle inhalation toxicology studies, the aerosols in a chamber housing the experimental animals must have: 1) a steady concentration maintained at a desired level for the entire exposure period; 2) a homogenous composition free of contaminants; and 3) a stable size distribution with a geometric mean diameter < 200 nm and a geometric standard deviation σg
< 2.5 5
. The generation of aerosols containing nanoparticles is quite challenging because nanoparticles easily agglomerate. This is largely due to very strong inter-particle forces and the formation of large fractal structures in tens or hundreds of microns in size 6
, which are difficult to be broken up. Several common aerosol generators, including nebulizers, fluidized beds, Venturi aspirators and the Wright dust feed, were tested; however, none were able to produce nanoparticle aerosols which satisfy all criteria 5
A whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposure system was fabricated, validated and utilized for nano-TiO2
inhalation toxicology studies. Critical components: 1) novel nano-TiO2
aerosol generator; 2) 0.5 m3
whole-body inhalation exposure chamber; and 3) monitor and control system. Nano-TiO2
aerosols generated from bulk dry nano-TiO2
powders (primary diameter of 21 nm, bulk density of 3.8 g/cm3
) were delivered into the exposure chamber at a flow rate of 90 LPM (10.8 air changes/hr). Particle size distribution and mass concentration profiles were measured continuously with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). The aerosol mass concentration (C
) was verified gravimetrically (mg/m3
). The mass (M
) of the collected particles was determined as M = (Mpost-Mpre), where Mpre
are masses of the filter before and after sampling (mg
). The mass concentration was calculated as C = M/(Q*t),
is sampling flowrate (m3/min
is the sampling time (minute
). The chamber pressure, temperature, relative humidity (RH), O2
concentrations were monitored and controlled continuously. Nano-TiO2
aerosols collected on Nuclepore filters were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis.
In summary, we report that the nano-particle aerosols generated and delivered to our exposure chamber have: 1) steady mass concentration; 2) homogenous composition free of contaminants; 3) stable particle size distributions with a count-median aerodynamic diameter of 157 nm during aerosol generation. This system reliably and repeatedly creates test atmospheres that simulate occupational, environmental or domestic ENM aerosol exposures.
Medicine, Issue 75, Physiology, Anatomy, Chemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Pharmacology, Titanium dioxide, engineered nanomaterials, nanoparticle, toxicology, inhalation exposure, aerosols, dry powder, animal model
Determination of Microbial Extracellular Enzyme Activity in Waters, Soils, and Sediments using High Throughput Microplate Assays
Institutions: The University of Mississippi.
Much of the nutrient cycling and carbon processing in natural environments occurs through the activity of extracellular enzymes released by microorganisms. Thus, measurement of the activity of these extracellular enzymes can give insights into the rates of ecosystem level processes, such as organic matter decomposition or nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization. Assays of extracellular enzyme activity in environmental samples typically involve exposing the samples to artificial colorimetric or fluorometric substrates and tracking the rate of substrate hydrolysis. Here we describe microplate based methods for these procedures that allow the analysis of large numbers of samples within a short time frame. Samples are allowed to react with artificial substrates within 96-well microplates or deep well microplate blocks, and enzyme activity is subsequently determined by absorption or fluorescence of the resulting end product using a typical microplate reader or fluorometer. Such high throughput procedures not only facilitate comparisons between spatially separate sites or ecosystems, but also substantially reduce the cost of such assays by reducing overall reagent volumes needed per sample.
Environmental Sciences, Issue 80, Environmental Monitoring, Ecological and Environmental Processes, Environmental Microbiology, Ecology, extracellular enzymes, freshwater microbiology, soil microbiology, microbial activity, enzyme activity
Unraveling the Unseen Players in the Ocean - A Field Guide to Water Chemistry and Marine Microbiology
Institutions: San Diego State University, University of California San Diego.
Here we introduce a series of thoroughly tested and well standardized research protocols adapted for use in remote marine environments. The sampling protocols include the assessment of resources available to the microbial community (dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic matter, inorganic nutrients), and a comprehensive description of the viral and bacterial communities (via direct viral and microbial counts, enumeration of autofluorescent microbes, and construction of viral and microbial metagenomes). We use a combination of methods, which represent a dispersed field of scientific disciplines comprising already established protocols and some of the most recent techniques developed. Especially metagenomic sequencing techniques used for viral and bacterial community characterization, have been established only in recent years, and are thus still subjected to constant improvement. This has led to a variety of sampling and sample processing procedures currently in use. The set of methods presented here provides an up to date approach to collect and process environmental samples. Parameters addressed with these protocols yield the minimum on information essential to characterize and understand the underlying mechanisms of viral and microbial community dynamics. It gives easy to follow guidelines to conduct comprehensive surveys and discusses critical steps and potential caveats pertinent to each technique.
Environmental Sciences, Issue 93, dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic matter, nutrients, DAPI, SYBR, microbial metagenomics, viral metagenomics, marine environment