CD4+ Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are potent immune modulators and serve an important function in human immune homeostasis. Depletion of Tregs has led to measurable increases in antigen-specific T cell responses in vaccine settings for cancer and infectious pathogens. However, their role in HIV-1 immuno-pathogenesis remains controversial, as they could either serve to suppress deleterious HIV-1-associated immune activation and thus slow HIV-1 disease progression or alternatively suppress HIV-1-specific immunity and thereby promote virus spread. Understanding and modulating Treg function in the context of HIV-1 could lead to potential new strategies for immunotherapy or HIV vaccines. However, important open questions remain on their role in the context of HIV-1 infection, which needs to be carefully studied.
Representing roughly 5% of human CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood, studying the Treg population has proven to be difficult, especially in HIV-1 infected individuals where HIV-1-associated CD4 T cell and with that Treg depletion occurs. The characterization of regulatory T cells in individuals with advanced HIV-1 disease or tissue samples, for which only very small biological samples can be obtained, is therefore extremely challenging. We propose a technical solution to overcome these limitations using isolation and expansion of Tregs from HIV-1-positive individuals.
Here we describe an easy and robust method to successfully expand Tregs isolated from HIV-1-infected individuals in vitro. Flow-sorted CD3+CD4+CD25+CD127low Tregs were stimulated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 coated beads and cultured in the presence of IL-2. The expanded Tregs expressed high levels of FOXP3, CTLA4 and HELIOS compared to conventional T cells and were shown to be highly suppressive. Easier access to large numbers of Tregs will allow researchers to address important questions concerning their role in HIV-1 immunopathogenesis. We believe answering these questions may provide useful insight for the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine.
16 Related JoVE Articles!
Directed Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells towards T Lymphocytes
Institutions: Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine.
Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of antigen-specific CD8+
cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is a promising treatment for a variety of malignancies 1
. CTLs can recognize malignant cells by interacting tumor antigens with the T cell receptors (TCR), and release cytotoxins as well as cytokines to kill malignant cells. It is known that less-differentiated and central-memory-like (termed highly reactive
) CTLs are the optimal population for ACT-based immunotherapy, because these CTLs have a high proliferative potential, are less prone to apoptosis than more differentiated cells and have a higher ability to respond to homeostatic cytokines 2-7
. However, due to difficulties in obtaining a high number of such CTLs from patients, there is an urgent need to find a new approach to generate highly reactive Ag-specific CTLs for successful ACT-based therapies.
TCR transduction of the self-renewable stem cells for immune reconstitution has a therapeutic potential for the treatment of diseases 8-10
. However, the approach to obtain embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from patients is not feasible. Although the use of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for therapeutic purposes has been widely applied in clinic 11-13
, HSCs have reduced differentiation and proliferative capacities, and HSCs are difficult to expand in in vitro
cell culture 14-16
. Recent iPS cell technology and the development of an in vitro
system for gene delivery are capable of generating iPS cells from patients without any surgical approach. In addition, like ESCs, iPS cells possess indefinite proliferative capacity in vitro
, and have been shown to differentiate into hematopoietic cells. Thus, iPS cells have greater potential to be used in ACT-based immunotherapy compared to ESCs or HSCs.
Here, we present methods for the generation of T lymphocytes from iPS cells in vitro
, and in vivo
programming of antigen-specific CTLs from iPS cells for promoting cancer immune surveillance. Stimulation in vitro
with a Notch ligand drives T cell differentiation from iPS cells, and TCR gene transduction results in iPS cells differentiating into antigen-specific T cells in vivo
, which prevents tumor growth. Thus, we demonstrate antigen-specific T cell differentiation from iPS cells. Our studies provide a potentially more efficient approach for generating antigen-specific CTLs for ACT-based therapies and facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies for diseases.
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 63, Immunology, T cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, differentiation, Notch signaling, T cell receptor, adoptive cell transfer
Generation of Induced Regulatory T Cells from Primary Human Naïve and Memory T Cells
Institutions: University of Kentucky .
The development and maintenance of immunosuppressive CD4+
regulatory T cells (Tregs) contribute to the peripheral tolerance needed to remain in immunologic homeostasis with the vast amount of self and commensal antigens in and on the human body. Perturbations in the balance between Tregs and inflammatory conventional T cells can result in immunopathology or cancer. Although therapeutic injection of Tregs has been shown to be efficacious in murine models of colitis1
, type I diabetes2
, rheumatoid arthritis and graft versus host disease,4
several fundamental differences in human versus mouse Treg biology5
has thus far precluded clinical use. The lack of sufficient number, purity, stability and homing specificity of therapeutic Tregs necessitated a dynamic platform of human Treg development on which to optimize conditions for their ex vivo
Here we describe a method for the differentiation of induced Tregs (iTregs) from a single human peripheral blood donor which can be broken down into four stages: isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, magnetic selection of CD4+
T cells, in vitro
cell culture and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) of T cell subsets. Since the Treg signature transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) is an activation-induced transcription factor in humans7
and no other unique marker exists, a combinatorial panel of markers must be used to identify T cells with suppressor activity. After six days in culture, cells in our system can be demarcated into naïve T cells, memory T cells or iTregs based on their relative expression of CD25 and CD45RA. As memory and naïve T cells have different reported polarization requirements and plasticities8
, pre-sorting of the initial T cell population into CD45RA+
subsets can be used to examine these discrepancies. Consistent with others, our CD25Hi
iTregs express high levels of FoxP39
, GITR and CTLA-411
and low levels of CD12712
. Following FACS of each population, resultant cells can be used in a suppressor assay which evaluates the relative ability to retard the proliferation of carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labeled autologous T cells.
Immunology, Issue 62, regulatory T cell, iTreg, immunosuppression, human, suppressor activity
A Simple and Rapid Protocol to Non-enzymatically Dissociate Fresh Human Tissues for the Analysis of Infiltrating Lymphocytes
Institutions: Université Libre de Bruxelles, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Université Libre de Bruxelles.
The ability of malignant cells to evade the immune system, characterized by tumor escape from both innate and adaptive immune responses, is now accepted as an important hallmark of cancer. Our research on breast cancer focuses on the active role that tumor infiltrating lymphocytes play in tumor progression and patient outcome. Toward this goal, we developed a methodology for the rapid isolation of intact lymphoid cells from normal and abnormal tissues in an effort to evaluate them proximate to their native state. Homogenates prepared using a mechanical dissociator show both increased viability and cell recovery while preserving surface receptor expression compared to enzyme-digested tissues. Furthermore, enzymatic digestion of the remaining insoluble material did not recover additional CD45+
cells indicating that quantitative and qualitative measurements in the primary homogenate likely genuinely reflect infiltrating subpopulations in the tissue fragment. The lymphoid cells in these homogenates can be easily characterized using immunological (phenotype, proliferation, etc.
) or molecular (DNA, RNA and/or protein) approaches. CD45+
cells can also be used for subpopulation purification, in vitro
expansion or cryopreservation. An additional benefit of this approach is that the primary tissue supernatant from the homogenates can be used to characterize and compare cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulins and antigens present in normal and malignant tissues. This protocol functions extremely well for human breast tissues and should be applicable to a wide variety of normal and abnormal tissues.
Immunology, Issue 94, Tumor immunology, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, CD45+, breast cancer, fresh tissue homogenate, non-enzymatic dissociation, primary tissue supernatant
Accelerated Type 1 Diabetes Induction in Mice by Adoptive Transfer of Diabetogenic CD4+ T Cells
Institutions: Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine.
The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops autoimmune diabetes after 12 weeks of age and is the most extensively studied animal model of human Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Cell transfer studies in irradiated recipient mice have established that T cells are pivotal in T1D pathogenesis in this model. We describe herein a simple method to rapidly induce T1D by adoptive transfer of purified, primary CD4+ T cells from pre-diabetic NOD mice transgenic for the islet-specific T cell receptor (TCR) BDC2.5 into NOD.SCID recipient mice. The major advantages of this technique are that isolation and adoptive transfer of diabetogenic T cells can be completed within the same day, irradiation of the recipients is not required, and a high incidence of T1D is elicited within 2 weeks after T cell transfer. Thus, studies of pathogenesis and therapeutic interventions in T1D can proceed at a faster rate than with methods that rely on heterogenous T cell populations or clones derived from diabetic NOD mice.
Immunology, Issue 75, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Genetics, Surgery, Type 1 diabetes, CD4+ T cells, diabetogenic T cells, T cell transfer, diabetes induction method, diabetes, T cells, isolation, cell sorting, FACS, transgenic mice, animal model
Adenoviral Transduction of Naive CD4 T Cells to Study Treg Differentiation
Institutions: Helmholtz Zentrum München.
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential to provide immune tolerance to self as well as to certain foreign antigens. Tregs can be generated from naive CD4 T cells in vitro
with TCR- and co-stimulation in the presence of TGFβ and IL-2. This bears enormous potential for future therapies, however, the molecules and signaling pathways that control differentiation are largely unknown.
Primary T cells can be manipulated through ectopic gene expression, but common methods fail to target the most important naive state of the T cell prior to primary antigen recognition. Here, we provide a protocol to express ectopic genes in naive CD4 T cells in vitro
before inducing Treg differentiation. It applies transduction with the replication-deficient adenovirus and explains its generation and production. The adenovirus can take up large inserts (up to 7 kb) and can be equipped with promoters to achieve high and transient overexpression in T cells. It effectively transduces naive mouse T cells if they express a transgenic Coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR). Importantly, after infection the T cells remain naive (CD44low
) and resting (CD25-
) and can be activated and differentiated into Tregs similar to non-infected cells. Thus, this method enables manipulation of CD4 T cell differentiation from its very beginning. It ensures that ectopic gene expression is already in place when early signaling events of the initial TCR stimulation induces cellular changes that eventually lead into Treg differentiation.
Immunology, Issue 78, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Infection, Genetics, Microbiology, Virology, T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory, Adenoviruses, Human, MicroRNAs, Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte, Gene Transfer Techniques, Transduction, Genetic, Transfection, Adenovirus, gene transfer, microRNA, overexpression, knock down, CD4 T cells, in vitro differentiation, regulatory T cell, virus, cell, flow cytometry
Isolation and Th17 Differentiation of Naïve CD4 T Lymphocytes
Institutions: The University of Florida.
Th17 cells are a distinct subset of T cells that have been found to produce interleukin 17 (IL-17), and differ in function from the other T cell subsets including Th1, Th2, and regulatory T cells. Th17 cells have emerged as a central culprit in overzealous inflammatory immune responses associated with many autoimmune disorders. In this method we purify T lymphocytes from the spleen and lymph nodes of C57BL/6 mice, and stimulate purified CD4+ T cells under control and Th17-inducing environments. The Th17-inducing environment includes stimulation in the presence of anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies, IL-6, and TGF-β. After incubation for at least 72 hours and for up to five days at 37 °C, cells are subsequently analyzed for the capability to produce IL-17 through flow cytometry, qPCR, and ELISAs. Th17 differentiated CD4+CD25- T cells can be utilized to further elucidate the role that Th17 cells play in the onset and progression of autoimmunity and host defense. Moreover, Th17 differentiation of CD4+CD25- lymphocytes from distinct murine knockout/disease models can contribute to our understanding of cell fate plasticity.
Immunology, Issue 79, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Infection, Th17 cells, IL-17, Th17 differentiation, T cells, autoimmunity, cell, isolation, culture
The Use of Fluorescent Target Arrays for Assessment of T Cell Responses In vivo
Institutions: Australian National University.
The ability to monitor T cell responses in vivo
is important for the development of our understanding of the immune response and the design of immunotherapies. Here we describe the use of fluorescent target array (FTA) technology, which utilizes vital dyes such as carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE), violet laser excitable dyes (CellTrace Violet: CTV) and red laser excitable dyes (Cell Proliferation Dye eFluor 670: CPD) to combinatorially label mouse lymphocytes into >250 discernable fluorescent cell clusters. Cell clusters within these FTAs can be pulsed with major histocompatibility (MHC) class-I and MHC class-II binding peptides and thereby act as target cells for CD8+
T cells, respectively. These FTA cells remain viable and fully functional, and can therefore be administered into mice to allow assessment of CD8+
T cell-mediated killing of FTA target cells and CD4+
T cell-meditated help of FTA B cell target cells in real time in vivo
by flow cytometry. Since >250 target cells can be assessed at once, the technique allows the monitoring of T cell responses against several antigen epitopes at several concentrations and in multiple replicates. As such, the technique can measure T cell responses at both a quantitative (e.g.
the cumulative magnitude of the response) and a qualitative (e.g
. functional avidity and epitope-cross reactivity of the response) level. Herein, we describe how these FTAs are constructed and give an example of how they can be applied to assess T cell responses induced by a recombinant pox virus vaccine.
Immunology, Issue 88, Investigative Techniques, T cell response, Flow Cytometry, Multiparameter, CTL assay in vivo, carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE), CellTrace Violet (CTV), Cell Proliferation Dye eFluor 670 (CPD)
Generation of Human Alloantigen-specific T Cells from Peripheral Blood
Institutions: University of California, San Diego.
The study of human T lymphocyte biology often involves examination of responses to activating ligands. T cells recognize and respond to processed peptide antigens presented by MHC (human ortholog HLA) molecules through the T cell receptor (TCR) in a highly sensitive and specific manner. While the primary function of T cells is to mediate protective immune responses to foreign antigens presented by self-MHC, T cells respond robustly to antigenic differences in allogeneic tissues. T cell responses to alloantigens can be described as either direct or indirect alloreactivity. In alloreactivity, the T cell responds through highly specific recognition of both the presented peptide and the MHC molecule. The robust oligoclonal response of T cells to allogeneic stimulation reflects the large number of potentially stimulatory alloantigens present in allogeneic tissues. While the breadth of alloreactive T cell responses is an important factor in initiating and mediating the pathology associated with biologically-relevant alloreactive responses such as graft versus host disease and allograft rejection, it can preclude analysis of T cell responses to allogeneic ligands. To this end, this protocol describes a method for generating alloreactive T cells from naive human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) that respond to known peptide-MHC (pMHC) alloantigens. The protocol applies pMHC multimer labeling, magnetic bead enrichment and flow cytometry to single cell in vitro
culture methods for the generation of alloantigen-specific T cell clones. This enables studies of the biochemistry and function of T cells responding to allogeneic stimulation.
Immunology, Issue 93, T cell, immunology, human cell culture, transplantation, flow cytometry, alloreactivity
Peptide:MHC Tetramer-based Enrichment of Epitope-specific T cells
Institutions: Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School.
A basic necessity for researchers studying adaptive immunity with in vivo
experimental models is an ability to identify T cells based on their T cell antigen receptor (TCR) specificity. Many indirect methods are available in which a bulk population of T cells is stimulated in vitro
with a specific antigen and epitope-specific T cells are identified through the measurement of a functional response such as proliferation, cytokine production, or expression of activation markers1
. However, these methods only identify epitope-specific T cells exhibiting one of many possible functions, and they are not sensitive enough to detect epitope-specific T cells at naive precursor frequencies. A popular alternative is the TCR transgenic adoptive transfer model, in which monoclonal T cells from a TCR transgenic mouse are seeded into histocompatible hosts to create a large precursor population of epitope-specific T cells that can be easily tracked with the use of a congenic marker antibody2,3
. While powerful, this method suffers from experimental artifacts associated with the unphysiological frequency of T cells with specificity for a single epitope4,5
. Moreover, this system cannot be used to investigate the functional heterogeneity of epitope-specific T cell clones within a polyclonal population.
The ideal way to study adaptive immunity should involve the direct detection of epitope-specific T cells from the endogenous T cell repertoire using a method that distinguishes TCR specificity solely by its binding to cognate peptide:MHC (pMHC) complexes. The use of pMHC tetramers and flow cytometry accomplishes this6
, but is limited to the detection of high frequency populations of epitope-specific T cells only found following antigen-induced clonal expansion. In this protocol, we describe a method that coordinates the use of pMHC tetramers and magnetic cell enrichment technology to enable detection of extremely low frequency epitope-specific T cells from mouse lymphoid tissues3,7
. With this technique, one can comprehensively track entire epitope-specific populations of endogenous T cells in mice at all stages of the immune response.
Immunology, Issue 68, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, T cell, T cell receptor, tetramer, flow cytometry, antigen-specific, immunology, immune response, magnetic, enrichment, in vivo
Optimized Staining and Proliferation Modeling Methods for Cell Division Monitoring using Cell Tracking Dyes
Institutions: Roswell Park Cancer Institute, University of Pennsylvania , SciGro, Inc., University of Pennsylvania .
Fluorescent cell tracking dyes, in combination with flow and image cytometry, are powerful tools with which to study the interactions and fates of different cell types in vitro
and in vivo
Although there are literally thousands of publications using such dyes, some of the most commonly encountered cell tracking applications include monitoring of:
stem and progenitor cell quiescence, proliferation and/or differentiation6-8
antigen-driven membrane transfer9
and/or precursor cell proliferation3,4,10-18
immune regulatory and effector cell function1,18-21
Commercially available cell tracking dyes vary widely in their chemistries and fluorescence properties but the great majority fall into one of two classes based on their mechanism of cell labeling. "Membrane dyes", typified by PKH26, are highly lipophilic dyes that partition stably but non-covalently into cell membranes1,2,11
. "Protein dyes", typified by CFSE, are amino-reactive dyes that form stable covalent bonds with cell proteins4,16,18
. Each class has its own advantages and limitations. The key to their successful use, particularly in multicolor studies where multiple dyes are used to track different cell types, is therefore to understand the critical issues enabling optimal use of each class2-4,16,18,24
The protocols included here highlight three common causes of poor or variable results when using cell-tracking dyes. These are:
Failure to achieve bright, uniform, reproducible labeling
. This is a necessary starting point for any cell tracking study but requires attention to different variables when using membrane dyes than when using protein dyes or equilibrium binding reagents such as antibodies.
Suboptimal fluorochrome combinations and/or failure to include critical compensation controls
. Tracking dye fluorescence is typically 102
times brighter than antibody fluorescence. It is therefore essential to verify that the presence of tracking dye does not compromise the ability to detect other probes being used.
Failure to obtain a good fit with peak modeling software
. Such software allows quantitative comparison of proliferative responses across different populations or stimuli based on precursor frequency or other metrics. Obtaining a good fit, however, requires exclusion of dead/dying cells that can distort dye dilution profiles and matching of the assumptions underlying the model with characteristics of the observed dye dilution profile.
Examples given here illustrate how these variables can affect results when using membrane and/or protein dyes to monitor cell proliferation.
Cellular Biology, Issue 70, Molecular Biology, Cell tracking, PKH26, CFSE, membrane dyes, dye dilution, proliferation modeling, lymphocytes
Examination of Thymic Positive and Negative Selection by Flow Cytometry
Institutions: University of Alberta.
A healthy immune system requires that T cells respond to foreign antigens while remaining tolerant to self-antigens. Random rearrangement of the T cell receptor (TCR) α and β loci generates a T cell repertoire with vast diversity in antigen specificity, both to self and foreign. Selection of the repertoire during development in the thymus is critical for generating safe and useful T cells. Defects in thymic selection contribute to the development of autoimmune and immunodeficiency disorders1-4
T cell progenitors enter the thymus as double negative (DN) thymocytes that do not express CD4 or CD8 co-receptors. Expression of the αβTCR and both co-receptors occurs at the double positive (DP) stage. Interaction of the αβTCR with self-peptide-MHC (pMHC) presented by thymic cells determines the fate of the DP thymocyte. High affinity interactions lead to negative selection and elimination of self-reactive thymocytes. Low affinity interactions result in positive selection and development of CD4 or CD8 single positive (SP) T cells capable of recognizing foreign antigens presented by self-MHC5
Positive selection can be studied in mice with a polyclonal (wildtype) TCR repertoire by observing the generation of mature T cells. However, they are not ideal for the study of negative selection, which involves deletion of small antigen-specific populations. Many model systems have been used to study negative selection but vary in their ability to recapitulate physiological events6
. For example, in vitro
stimulation of thymocytes lacks the thymic environment that is intimately involved in selection, while administration of exogenous antigen can lead to non-specific deletion of thymocytes7-9
. Currently, the best tools for studying in vivo
negative selection are mice that express a transgenic TCR specific for endogenous self-antigen. However, many classical TCR transgenic models are characterized by premature expression of the transgenic TCRα chain at the DN stage, resulting in premature negative selection. Our lab has developed the HYcd4
model, in which the transgenic HY TCRα is conditionally expressed at the DP stage, allowing negative selection to occur during the DP to SP transition as occurs in wildtype mice10
Here, we describe a flow cytometry-based protocol to examine thymic positive and negative selection in the HYcd4
mouse model. While negative selection in HYcd4
mice is highly physiological, these methods can also be applied to other TCR transgenic models. We will also present general strategies for analyzing positive selection in a polyclonal repertoire applicable to any genetically manipulated mice.
Immunology, Issue 68, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Thymus, T cell, negative selection, positive selection, autoimmunity, flow cytometry
Competitive Homing Assays to Study Gut-tropic T Cell Migration
Institutions: Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School.
In order to exert their function lymphocytes need to leave the blood and migrate into different tissues in the body. Lymphocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and tissue extravasation is a multistep process controlled by different adhesion molecules (homing receptors) expressed on lymphocytes and their respective ligands (addressins) displayed on endothelial cells 1 2
. Even though the function of these adhesion receptors can be partially studied ex vivo
, the ultimate test for their physiological relevance is to assess their role during in vivo
lymphocyte adhesion and migration. Two complementary strategies have been used for this purpose: intravital microscopy (IVM) and homing experiments. Although IVM has been essential to define the precise contribution of specific adhesion receptors during the adhesion cascade in real time and in different tissues, IVM is time consuming and labor intensive, it often requires the development of sophisticated surgical techniques, it needs prior isolation of homogeneous cell populations and it permits the analysis of only one tissue/organ at any given time. By contrast, competitive homing experiments allow the direct and simultaneous comparison in the migration of two (or even more) cell subsets in the same mouse and they also permit the analysis of many tissues and of a high number of cells in the same experiment.
Here we describe the classical competitive homing protocol used to determine the advantage/disadvantage of a given cell type to home to specific tissues as compared to a control cell population. We chose to illustrate the migratory properties of gut-tropic versus non gut-tropic T cells, because the intestinal mucosa is the largest body surface in contact with the external environment and it is also the extra-lymphoid tissue with the best-defined migratory requirements. Moreover, recent work has determined that the vitamin A metabolite all-trans
retinoic acid (RA) is the main molecular mechanism responsible for inducing gut-specific adhesion receptors (integrin a4b7and chemokine receptor CCR9) on lymphocytes. Thus, we can readily generate large numbers of gut-tropic and non gut-tropic lymphocytes ex vivo
by activating T cells in the presence or absence of RA, respectively, which can be finally used in the competitive homing experiments described here.
Immunology, Issue 49, Homing, competitive, gut-tropism, chemokine, in vivo
Ex vivo Expansion of Tumor-reactive T Cells by Means of Bryostatin 1/Ionomycin and the Common Gamma Chain Cytokines Formulation
Institutions: Virginia Commonwealth University- Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University- Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University- Massey Cancer Center.
It was reported that breast cancer patients have pre-existing immune responses against their tumors1,2
. However, such immune responses fail to provide complete protection against the development or recurrence of breast cancer. To overcome this problem by increasing the frequency of tumor-reactive T cells, adoptive immunotherapy has been employed. A variety of protocols have been used for the expansion of tumor-specific T cells. These protocols, however, are restricted to the use of tumor antigens ex vivo
for the activation of antigen-specific T cells. Very recently, common gamma chain cytokines such as IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 have been used alone or in combination for the enhancement of anti-tumor immune responses3
. However, it is not clear what formulation would work best for the expansion of tumor-reactive T cells. Here we present a protocol for the selective activation and expansion of tumor-reactive T cells from the FVBN202 transgenic mouse model of HER-2/neu positive breast carcinoma for use in adoptive T cell therapy of breast cancer. The protocol includes activation of T cells with bryostatin-1/ionomycin (B/I) and IL-2 in the absence of tumor antigens for 16 hours. B/I activation mimics intracellular signals that result in T cell activation by increasing protein kinase C activity and intracellular calcium, respectively4
. This protocol specifically activates tumor-specific T cells while killing irrelevant T cells. The B/I-activated T cells are cultured with IL-7 and IL-15 for 24 hours and then pulsed with IL-2. After 24 hours, T cells are washed, split, and cultured with IL-7 + IL-15 for additional 4 days. Tumor-specificity and anti-tumor efficacy of the ex vivo
expanded T cells is determined.
Immunology, Issue 47, Adoptive T cell therapy, Breast Cancer, HER-2/neu, common gamma chain cytokines, Bryostatin 1, Ionomycin
Generation of Human CD40-activated B cells
Institutions: University Hospital of Cologne, Department I of Internal Medicine.
CD40-activated B cells (CD40-B cells) have been identified as an alternative source of immuno-stimulatory antigen-presenting cells (APC) for cancer immunotherapy 1-3
. Compared to Dendritic cells (DCs), the best characterized APC, CD40-B cells have several distinct biological and technical properties. Similar to DCs, B cells show an increased expression of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules (Fig.1b), exhibit a strong migratory capacity and present antigen presentation efficiently to T cells, after stimulation with interleukin-4 and CD40 ligand (CD40L). However, in contrast to immature or mature DCs, CD40-B cells express the full lymph node homing triad consisting of CD62L, CCR7/CXCR4, and leukocyte function antigen-1 (LFA1, CD11a/CD18), necessary for homing to secondary lymphoid organs (Fig.1a) 3
. CD40-B cells can be generated without difficulties from very small amounts of peripheral blood which can be further expanded in vitro
to very large amounts of highly-pure CD40-B cells (>109
cells per patient) from healthy donors as well as cancer patients (Fig.1c,d) 1,4
In this protocol we demonstrate how to obtain fully activated CD40-B cells from human PBMC. Key molecules for the cell culture are CD40 ligand, interleukin-4 (IL-4) and cyclosporin A (CsA), which are replenished in a 3-4 day culture cycle. For laboratory purposes CD40-stimulation is provided by NIH/3T3 cells expressing recombinant human CD40 ligand (tCD40L NIH/3T3) 5
. To avoid contamination with non-transfected cells, expression of the human CD40 ligand on the transfectants has to be checked regularly (Fig.2).
After 14 days CD40-B cell cultures consist of more than 95% pure B cells and an expansion of CD40-B cells over 65 days is frequently possible without any loss of function 1, 4
. CD40-B cells efficiently take up, process and present antigens to T cells 6
. They do not only prime naϊve, but also expand memory T cells 7,8
. CD40-activated B cells can be used to study B-cell activation, differentiation and function. Moreover, they represent a promising tool for therapeutic or preventive vaccination against tumors 9
Immunology, Issue 32, CD40-activated B cell, B cell, antigen presentation, APC, immunotherapy, cancer vaccine
Visualizing Antigen Specific CD4+ T Cells using MHC Class II Tetramers
Institutions: Benaroya Research Institute, Benaroya Research Institute, Benaroya Research Institute.
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II tetramers allow the direct visualization of antigen specific CD4+ T cells by flow cytometry. This method relies on the highly specific interaction between peptide loaded MHC and the corresponding T-cell receptor. While the affinity of a single MHC/peptide molecule is low, cross-linking MHC/peptide complexes with streptavidin increases the avidity of the interaction, enabling their use as staining reagents. Because of the relatively low frequencies of CD4+ T cells (~1 in 300,000 for a single specificity) this assay utilizes an in vitro amplification step to increase its threshold of detection. Mononuclear cells are purified from peripheral blood by Ficoll underlay. CD4+ cells are then separated by negative selection using biotinylated antibody cocktail and anti-biotin labeled magnetic beads. Using adherent cells from the CD4- cell fraction as antigen presenting cells, CD4+ T cells are expanded in media by adding an antigenic peptide and IL-2. The expanded cells are stained with the corresponding class II tetramer by incubating at 37 C for one hour and subsequently stained using surface antibodies such as anti-CD4, anti-CD3, and anti-CD25. After labeling, the cells can be directly analyzed by flow cytometry. The tetramer positive cells typically form a distinct population among the expanded CD4+ cells. Tetramer positive cells are usually CD25+ and often CD4 high. Because the level of background tetramer staining can vary, positive staining results should always be compared to the staining of the same cells with an irrelevant tetramer. Multiple variations of this basic assay are possible. Tetramer positive cells may be sorted for further phenotypic analysis, inclusion in ELISPOT or proliferation assays, or other secondary assays. Several groups have also demonstrated co-staining using tetramers and either anti-cytokine or anti-FoxP3 antibodies.
Immunology, Issue 25, CD4+ T cell, MHC class II, tetramers, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, in vitro expansion, flow cytometry
Computer-Generated Animal Model Stimuli
Institutions: Macquarie University.
Communication between animals is diverse and complex. Animals may communicate using auditory, seismic, chemosensory, electrical, or visual signals. In particular, understanding the constraints on visual signal design for communication has been of great interest. Traditional methods for investigating animal interactions have used basic observational techniques, staged encounters, or physical manipulation of morphology. Less intrusive methods have tried to simulate conspecifics using crude playback tools, such as mirrors, still images, or models. As technology has become more advanced, video playback has emerged as another tool in which to examine visual communication (Rosenthal, 2000). However, to move one step further, the application of computer-animation now allows researchers to specifically isolate critical components necessary to elicit social responses from conspecifics, and manipulate these features to control interactions. Here, I provide detail on how to create an animation using the Jacky dragon as a model, but this process may be adaptable for other species. In building the animation, I elected to use Lightwave 3D to alter object morphology, add texture, install bones, and provide comparable weight shading that prevents exaggerated movement. The animation is then matched to select motor patterns to replicate critical movement features. Finally, the sequence must rendered into an individual clip for presentation. Although there are other adaptable techniques, this particular method had been demonstrated to be effective in eliciting both conspicuous and social responses in staged interactions.
Neuroscience, Issue 6, behavior, lizard, simulation, animation