Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are an outstanding model for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of cellular differentiation. They are especially useful for investigating the development of early hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Gene expression in ESCs can be manipulated by several techniques that allow the role for individual molecules in development to be determined. One difficulty is that expression of specific genes often has different phenotypic effects dependent on their temporal expression. This problem can be circumvented by the generation of ESCs that inducibly express a gene of interest using technology such as the doxycycline-inducible transgene system. However, generation of these inducible cell lines is costly and time consuming. Described here is a method for disaggregating ESC-derived embryoid bodies (EBs) into single cell suspensions, retrovirally infecting the cell suspensions, and then reforming the EBs by hanging drop. Downstream differentiation is then evaluated by flow cytometry. Using this protocol, it was demonstrated that exogenous expression of a microRNA gene at the beginning of ESC differentiation blocks HPC generation. However, when expressed in EB derived cells after nascent mesoderm is produced, the microRNA gene enhances hematopoietic differentiation. This method is useful for investigating the role of genes after specific germ layer tissue is derived.
21 Related JoVE Articles!
Femoral Bone Marrow Aspiration in Live Mice
Institutions: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
Serial sampling of the cellular composition of bone marrow (BM) is a routine procedure critical to clinical hematology. This protocol describes a detailed step-by-step technical procedure for an analogous procedure in live mice which allows for serial characterization of cells present in the BM. This procedure facilitates studies aimed to detect the presence of exogenously administered cells within the BM of mice as would be done in xenograft studies for instance. Moreover, this procedure allows for the retrieval and characterization of cells enriched in the BM such as hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) without sacrifice of mice. Given that the cellular composition of peripheral blood is not necessarily reflective of proportions and types of stem and progenitor cells present in the marrow, procedures which provide access to this compartment without requiring termination of the mice are very helpful. The use of femoral bone marrow aspiration is illustrated here for cytological analysis of marrow cells, flow cytometric characterization of the hematopoietic stem/progenitor compartment, and culture of sorted HSPCs obtained by femoral BM aspiration compared with conventional marrow harvest.
Medicine, Issue 89, Bone marrow, Leukemia, Hematopoiesis, Aspiration, Mouse Model, Hematopoietic Stem Cell
Identification and Analysis of Mouse Erythroid Progenitors using the CD71/TER119 Flow-cytometric Assay
Institutions: University of Massachusetts Medical School.
The study of erythropoiesis aims to understand how red cells are formed from earlier hematopoietic and erythroid progenitors. Specifically, the rate of red cell formation is regulated by the hormone erythropoietin (Epo), whose synthesis is triggered by tissue hypoxia. A threat to adequate tissue oxygenation results in a rapid increase in Epo, driving an increase in erythropoietic rate, a process known as the erythropoietic stress response. The resulting increase in the number of circulating red cells improves tissue oxygen delivery. An efficient erythropoietic stress response is therefore critical to the survival and recovery from physiological and pathological conditions such as high altitude, anemia, hemorrhage, chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation.
The mouse is a key model for the study of erythropoiesis and its stress response. Mouse definitive (adult-type) erythropoiesis takes place in the fetal liver between embryonic days 12.5 and 15.5, in the neonatal spleen, and in adult spleen and bone marrow. Classical methods of identifying erythroid progenitors in tissue rely on the ability of these cells to give rise to red cell colonies when plated in Epo-containing semi-solid media. Their erythroid precursor progeny are identified based on morphological criteria. Neither of these classical methods allow access to large numbers of differentiation-stage-specific erythroid cells for molecular study. Here we present a flow-cytometric method of identifying and studying differentiation-stage-specific erythroid progenitors and precursors, directly in the context of freshly isolated mouse tissue. The assay relies on the cell-surface markers CD71, Ter119, and on the flow-cytometric 'forward-scatter' parameter, which is a function of cell size. The CD71/Ter119 assay can be used to study erythroid progenitors during their response to erythropoietic stress in vivo, for example, in anemic mice or mice housed in low oxygen conditions. It may also be used to study erythroid progenitors directly in the tissues of genetically modified adult mice or embryos, in order to assess the specific role of the modified molecular pathway in erythropoiesis.
Developmental Biology, Issue 54, erythropoiesis, hematopoietic progenitors, flow-cytometry, erythropoietin, EpoR-/- mouse, erythropoietic stress, fetal erythropoiesis, CD71, Ter119, Fetal liver, erythroid subsets, erythroblast, cell cycle
Dissection of the Adult Zebrafish Kidney
Institutions: University of Notre Dame .
Researchers working in the burgeoning field of adult stem cell biology seek to understand the signals that regulate the behavior and function of stem cells during normal homeostasis and disease states. The understanding of adult stem cells has broad reaching implications for the future of regenerative medicine1
. For example, better knowledge about adult stem cell biology can facilitate the design of therapeutic strategies in which organs are triggered to heal themselves or even the creation of methods for growing organs in vitro
that can be transplanted into humans1
. The zebrafish has become a powerful animal model for the study of vertebrate cell biology2
. There has been extensive documentation and analysis of embryonic development in the zebrafish3
. Only recently have scientists sought to document adult anatomy and surgical dissection techniques4
, as there has been a progressive movement within the zebrafish community to broaden the applications of this research organism to adult studies. For example, there are expanding interests in using zebrafish to investigate the biology of adult stem cell populations and make sophisticated adult models of diseases such as cancer5
. Historically, isolation of the zebrafish adult kidney has been instrumental for studying hematopoiesis, as the kidney is the anatomical location of blood cell production in fish6,7
. The kidney is composed of nephron functional units found in arborized arrangements, surrounded by hematopoietic tissue that is dispersed throughout the intervening spaces. The hematopoietic component consists of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their progeny that inhabit the kidney until they terminally differentiate8
. In addition, it is now appreciated that a group of renal stem/progenitor cells (RPCs) also inhabit the zebrafish kidney organ and enable both kidney regeneration and growth, as observed in other fish species9-11
. In light of this new discovery, the zebrafish kidney is one organ that houses the location of two exciting opportunities for adult stem cell biology studies. It is clear that many outstanding questions could be well served with this experimental system. To encourage expansion of this field, it is beneficial to document detailed methods of visualizing and then isolating the adult zebrafish kidney organ. This protocol details our procedure for dissection of the adult kidney from both unfixed and fixed animals.
Dissection of the kidney organ can be used to isolate and characterize hematopoietic and renal stem cells and their offspring using established techniques such as histology, fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS)11,12
, expression profiling13,14
, and transplantation11,15
We hope that dissemination of this protocol will provide researchers with the knowledge to implement broader use of zebrafish studies that ultimately can be translated for human application.
Developmental Biology, Issue 54, kidney, blood, zebrafish, regeneration, adult stem cell, dissection
Isolation and Analysis of Hematopoietic Stem Cells from the Placenta
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have the ability to self-renew and generate all cell types of the blood lineages throughout the lifetime of an individual. All HSCs emerge during embryonic development, after which their pool size is maintained by self-renewing cell divisions. Identifying the anatomical origin of HSCs and the critical developmental events regulating the process of HSC development has been complicated as many anatomical sites participate during fetal hematopoiesis. Recently, we identified the placenta as a major hematopoietic organ where HSCs are generated and expanded in unique microenvironmental niches (Gekas, et al 2005, Rhodes, et al 2008). Consequently, the placenta is an important source of HSCs during their emergence and initial expansion.
In this article, we show dissection techniques for the isolation of murine placenta from E10.5 and E12.5 embryos, corresponding to the developmental stages of initiation of HSCs and the peak in the size of the HSC pool in the placenta, respectively. In addition, we present an optimized protocol for enzymatic and mechanical dissociation of placental tissue into single-cell suspension for use in flow cytometry or functional assays. We have found that use of collagenase for single-cell suspension of placenta gives sufficient yields of HSCs. An important factor affecting HSC yield from the placenta is the degree of mechanical dissociation prior to, and duration of, enzymatic treatment.
We also provide a protocol for the preparation of fixed-frozen placental tissue sections for the visualization of developing HSCs by immunohistochemistry in their precise cellular niches. As hematopoietic specific antigens are not preserved during preparation of paraffin embedded sections, we routinely use fixed frozen sections for localizing placental HSCs and progenitors.
Cell Biology, Issue 16, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), placenta, fetal, dissection, collagenase, fixed-frozen sections, immunohistochemistry
Modified ES / OP9 Co-Culture Protocol Provides Enhanced Characterization of Hematopoietic Progeny
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles, University of California, Los Angeles.
The in vitro
differentiation of ES cells towards a hematopoietic cell fate is useful when studying cell populations that are difficult to access in vivo
and for characterizing the earliest genes involved in hematopoiesis, without having to deal with embryonic lethalities. The ES/OP9 co-culture system was originally designed to produce hematopoietic progeny, without the over production of macrophages, as the OP9 stromal cell line is derived from the calvaria of osteopetrosis mutant mice that lack functional M-CSF. The in vitro
ES/OP9 co-culture system can be used in order to recapitulate early hematopoietic development. When cultured on OP9 stromal cells, ES cells differentiate into Flk-1+ hemangioblasts, hematopoietic progenitors, and finally mature, terminally differentiated lineages. The standard ES/OP9 co-culture protocol entails the placement of ES cells onto a confluent layer of OP9 cells; as well as, periodic replating steps in order to remove old, contaminating OP9 cells. Furthermore, current protocols involve evaluating only the hematopoietic cells found in suspension and are not optimized for evaluation of ES-derived progeny at each day of differentiation. However, with replating steps and the harvesting of only suspension cells one potentially misses a large portion of ES-derived progeny and developing hematopoietic cells. This issue becomes important to address when trying to characterize hematopoietic defects associated with knockout ES lines. Here we describe a modified ES/mStrawberry OP9 co-culture, which allows for the elimination of contaminating OP9 cells from downstream assays. This method allows for the complete evaluation of all ES-derived progeny at all days of co-culture, resulting in a hematopoietic differentiation pattern, which more directly corresponds to the hematopoietic differentiation pattern observed within the embryo.
Developmental Biology, Issue 52, Embryonic stem cell, hematopoiesis, OP9, co-culture, differentiation
Endothelial Cell Co-culture Mediates Maturation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell to Pancreatic Insulin Producing Cells in a Directed Differentiation Approach
Institutions: University of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh.
Embryonic stem cells (ESC) have two main characteristics: they can be indefinitely propagated in vitro
in an undifferentiated state and they are pluripotent, thus having the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages. Such properties make ESCs extremely attractive for cell based therapy and regenerative treatment applications 1
. However for its full potential to be realized the cells have to be differentiated into mature and functional phenotypes, which is a daunting task. A promising approach in inducing cellular differentiation is to closely mimic the path of organogenesis in the in vitro
setting. Pancreatic development is known to occur in specific stages 2
, starting with endoderm, which can develop into several organs, including liver and pancreas. Endoderm induction can be achieved by modulation of the nodal pathway through addition of Activin A 3
in combination with several growth factors 4-7
. Definitive endoderm cells then undergo pancreatic commitment by inhibition of sonic hedgehog inhibition, which can be achieved in vitro
by addition of cyclopamine 8
. Pancreatic maturation is mediated by several parallel events including inhibition of notch signaling; aggregation of pancreatic progenitors into 3-dimentional clusters; induction of vascularization; to name a few. By far the most successful in vitro
maturation of ESC derived pancreatic progenitor cells have been achieved through inhibition of notch signaling by DAPT supplementation 9
. Although successful, this results in low yield of the mature phenotype with reduced functionality. A less studied area is the effect of endothelial cell signaling in pancreatic maturation, which is increasingly being appreciated as an important contributing factor in in-vivo pancreatic islet maturation 10,11
The current study explores such effect of endothelial cell signaling in maturation of human ESC derived pancreatic progenitor cells into insulin producing islet-like cells. We report a multi-stage directed differentiation protocol where the human ESCs are first induced towards endoderm by Activin A along with inhibition of PI3K pathway. Pancreatic specification of endoderm cells is achieved by inhibition of sonic hedgehog signaling by Cyclopamine along with retinoid induction by addition of Retinoic Acid. The final stage of maturation is induced by endothelial cell signaling achieved by a co-culture configuration. While several endothelial cells have been tested in the co-culture, herein we present our data with rat heart microvascular endothelial Cells (RHMVEC), primarily for the ease of analysis.
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 61, Human embryonic stem cells, Endothelial cells, Pancreatic differentiation, Co-culture
Derivation of T Cells In Vitro from Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells
Institutions: City University of New York, University of Toronto.
The OP9/OP9-DL1 co-culture system has become a well-established method for deriving differentiated blood cell types from embryonic and hematopoietic progenitors of both mouse and human origin. It is now used to address a growing variety of complex genetic, cellular and molecular questions related to hematopoiesis, and is at the cutting edge of efforts to translate these basic findings to therapeutic applications. The procedures are straightforward and routinely yield robust results. However, achieving successful hematopoietic differentiation in vitro
requires special attention to the details of reagent and cell culture maintenance. Furthermore, the protocol features technique sensitive steps that, while not difficult, take care and practice to master. Here we focus on the procedures for differentiation of T lymphocytes from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC). We provide a detailed protocol with discussions of the critical steps and parameters that enable reproducibly robust cellular differentiation in vitro
. It is in the interest of the field to consider wider adoption of this technology, as it has the potential to reduce animal use, lower the cost and shorten the timelines of both basic and translational experimentation.
Immunology, Issue 92, mouse, embryonic stem cells, in vitro differentiation, OP9 cells, Delta-like 1 (Dll-1) ligand, Notch, hematopoiesis, lymphocytes, T cells
Enrichment and Purging of Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Detection of Cell Surface Antigens Using the Monoclonal Antibodies TG30 and GCTM-2
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can self-renew indefinitely in vitro
, and with the appropriate cues can be induced to differentiate into potentially all somatic cell lineages. Differentiated hESC derivatives can potentially be used in transplantation therapies to treat a variety of cell-degenerative diseases. However, hESC differentiation protocols usually yield a mixture of differentiated target and off-target cell types as well as residual undifferentiated cells. For the translation of differentiated hESC-derivatives from the laboratory to the clinic, it is important to be able to discriminate between undifferentiated (pluripotent) and differentiated cells, and generate methods to separate these populations. Safe application of hESC-derived somatic cell types can only be accomplished with pluripotent stem cell-free populations, as residual hESCs could induce tumors known as teratomas following transplantation. Towards this end, here we describe a methodology to detect pluripotency associated cell surface antigens with the monoclonal antibodies TG30 (CD9) and GCTM-2 via fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) for the identification of pluripotent TG30Hi
hESCs using positive selection. Using negative selection with our TG30/GCTM-2 FACS methodology, we were able to detect and purge undifferentiated hESCs in populations undergoing very early-stage differentiation (TG30Neg
). In a further study, pluripotent stem cell-free samples of differentiated TG30Neg
cells selected using our TG30/GCTM-2 FACS protocol did not form teratomas once transplanted into immune-compromised mice, supporting the robustness of our protocol. On the other hand, TG30/GCTM-2 FACS-mediated consecutive passaging of enriched pluripotent TG30Hi
hESCs did not affect their ability to self-renew in vitro
or their intrinsic pluripotency. Therefore, the characteristics of our TG30/GCTM-2 FACS methodology provide a sensitive assay to obtain highly enriched populations of hPSC as inputs for differentiation assays and to rid potentially tumorigenic (or residual) hESC from derivative cell populations.
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 82, Stem cells, cell surface antigens, antibodies, FACS, purging stem cells, differentiation, pluripotency, teratoma, human embryonic stem cells (hESC)
Alginate Microcapsule as a 3D Platform for Propagation and Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESC) to Different Lineages
Institutions: The University of New South Wales, Mahidol University , Prince of Wales Hospital.
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are emerging as an attractive alternative source for cell replacement therapy since they can be expanded in culture indefinitely and differentiated to any cell types in the body. Various types of biomaterials have also been used in stem cell cultures to provide a microenvironment mimicking the stem cell niche1-3
. The latter is important for promoting cell-to-cell interaction, cell proliferation, and differentiation into specific lineages as well as tissue organization by providing a three-dimensional (3D) environment4
such as encapsulation. The principle of cell encapsulation involves entrapment of living cells within the confines of semi-permeable membranes in 3D cultures2
. These membranes allow for the exchange of nutrients, oxygen and stimuli across the membranes, whereas antibodies and immune cells from the host that are larger than the capsule pore size are excluded5
. Here, we present an approach to culture and differentiate hESC DA neurons in a 3D microenvironment using alginate microcapsules. We have modified the culture conditions2
to enhance the viability of encapsulated hESC. We have previously shown that the addition of p160-Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, Y-27632 and human fetal fibroblast-conditioned serum replacement medium (hFF-CM) to the 3D platform significantly enhanced the viability of encapsulated hESC in which the cells expressed definitive endoderm marker genes1
. We have now used this 3D platform for the propagation of hESC and efficient differentiation to DA neurons. Protein and gene expression analyses after the final stage of DA neuronal differentiation showed an increased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a marker for DA neurons, >100 folds after 2 weeks. We hypothesized that our 3D platform using alginate microcapsules may be useful to study the proliferation and directed differentiation of hESC to various lineages. This 3D system also allows the separation of feeder cells from hESC during the process of differentiation and also has potential for immune-isolation during transplantation in the future.
Bioengineering, Issue 61, Alginate microcapsule, 3D platform, embryonic stem cells, definitive endoderm, dopaminergic neurons
Preparation of Primary Myogenic Precursor Cell/Myoblast Cultures from Basal Vertebrate Lineages
Institutions: University of Alabama at Birmingham, INRA UR1067, INRA UR1037.
Due to the inherent difficulty and time involved with studying the myogenic program in vivo
, primary culture systems derived from the resident adult stem cells of skeletal muscle, the myogenic precursor cells (MPCs), have proven indispensible to our understanding of mammalian skeletal muscle development and growth. Particularly among the basal taxa of Vertebrata,
however, data are limited describing the molecular mechanisms controlling the self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation of MPCs. Of particular interest are potential mechanisms that underlie the ability of basal vertebrates to undergo considerable postlarval skeletal myofiber hyperplasia (i.e.
teleost fish) and full regeneration following appendage loss (i.e.
urodele amphibians). Additionally, the use of cultured myoblasts could aid in the understanding of regeneration and the recapitulation of the myogenic program and the differences between them. To this end, we describe in detail a robust and efficient protocol (and variations therein) for isolating and maintaining MPCs and their progeny, myoblasts and immature myotubes, in cell culture as a platform for understanding the evolution of the myogenic program, beginning with the more basal vertebrates. Capitalizing on the model organism status of the zebrafish (Danio rerio
), we report on the application of this protocol to small fishes of the cyprinid clade Danioninae
. In tandem, this protocol can be utilized to realize a broader comparative approach by isolating MPCs from the Mexican axolotl (Ambystomamexicanum
) and even laboratory rodents. This protocol is now widely used in studying myogenesis in several fish species, including rainbow trout, salmon, and sea bream1-4
Basic Protocol, Issue 86, myogenesis, zebrafish, myoblast, cell culture, giant danio, moustached danio, myotubes, proliferation, differentiation, Danioninae, axolotl
A Manual Small Molecule Screen Approaching High-throughput Using Zebrafish Embryos
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
Zebrafish have become a widely used model organism to investigate the mechanisms that underlie developmental biology and to study human disease pathology due to their considerable degree of genetic conservation with humans. Chemical genetics entails testing the effect that small molecules have on a biological process and is becoming a popular translational research method to identify therapeutic compounds. Zebrafish are specifically appealing to use for chemical genetics because of their ability to produce large clutches of transparent embryos, which are externally fertilized. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos can be easily drug treated by the simple addition of a compound to the embryo media. Using whole-mount in situ
hybridization (WISH), mRNA expression can be clearly visualized within zebrafish embryos. Together, using chemical genetics and WISH, the zebrafish becomes a potent whole organism context in which to determine the cellular and physiological effects of small molecules. Innovative advances have been made in technologies that utilize machine-based screening procedures, however for many labs such options are not accessible or remain cost-prohibitive. The protocol described here explains how to execute a manual high-throughput chemical genetic screen that requires basic resources and can be accomplished by a single individual or small team in an efficient period of time. Thus, this protocol provides a feasible strategy that can be implemented by research groups to perform chemical genetics in zebrafish, which can be useful for gaining fundamental insights into developmental processes, disease mechanisms, and to identify novel compounds and signaling pathways that have medically relevant applications.
Developmental Biology, Issue 93, zebrafish, chemical genetics, chemical screen, in vivo small molecule screen, drug discovery, whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH), high-throughput screening (HTS), high-content screening (HCS)
Assessing the Development of Murine Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in Peyer's Patches Using Adoptive Transfer of Hematopoietic Progenitors
Institutions: The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.
This protocol details a method to analyze the ability of purified hematopoietic progenitors to generate plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) in intestinal Peyer's patch (PP). Common dendritic cell progenitors (CDPs, lin-
) were purified from the bone marrow of C57BL6 mice by FACS and transferred to recipient mice that lack a significant pDC population in PP; in this case, Ifnar-/-
mice were used as the transfer recipients. In some mice, overexpression of the dendritic cell growth factor Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) was enforced prior to adoptive transfer of CDPs, using hydrodynamic gene transfer (HGT) of Flt3L-encoding plasmid. Flt3L overexpression expands DC populations originating from transferred (or endogenous) hematopoietic progenitors. At 7-10 days after progenitor transfer, pDCs that arise from the adoptively transferred progenitors were distinguished from recipient cells on the basis of CD45 marker expression, with pDCs from transferred CDPs being CD45.1+
and recipients being CD45.2+
. The ability of transferred CDPs to contribute to the pDC population in PP and to respond to Flt3L was evaluated by flow cytometry of PP single cell suspensions from recipient mice. This method may be used to test whether other progenitor populations are capable of generating PP pDCs. In addition, this approach could be used to examine the role of factors that are predicted to affect pDC development in PP, by transferring progenitor subsets with an appropriate knockdown, knockout or overexpression of the putative developmental factor and/or by manipulating circulating cytokines via HGT. This method may also allow analysis of how PP pDCs affect the frequency or function of other immune subsets in PPs. A unique feature of this method is the use of Ifnar-/-
mice, which show severely depleted PP pDCs relative to wild type animals, thus allowing reconstitution of PP pDCs in the absence of confounding effects from lethal irradiation.
Immunology, Issue 85, hematopoiesis, dendritic cells, Peyer's patch, cytokines, adoptive transfer
Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro
model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2
on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3
cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro
BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
Phenotypic Analysis and Isolation of Murine Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Lineage-committed Progenitors
Institutions: Bellinzona (Switzerland), Universitá degli Studi di Milano.
The bone marrow is the principal site where HSCs and more mature blood cells lineage progenitors reside and differentiate in an adult organism. HSCs constitute a minute cell population of pluripotent cells capable of generating all blood cell lineages for a life-time1
. The molecular dissection of HSCs homeostasis in the bone marrow has important implications in hematopoiesis, oncology and regenerative medicine. We describe the labeling protocol with fluorescent antibodies and the electronic gating procedure in flow cytometry to score hematopoietic progenitor subsets and HSCs distribution in individual mice (Fig. 1
). In addition, we describe a method to extensively enrich hematopoietic progenitors as well as long-term (LT) and short term (ST) reconstituting HSCs from pooled bone marrow cell suspensions by magnetic enrichment of cells expressing c-Kit. The resulting cell preparation can be used to sort selected subsets for in vitro and in vivo
functional studies (Fig. 2
Both trabecular osteoblasts2,3
and sinusoidal endothelium4
constitute functional niches supporting HSCs in the bone marrow. Several mechanisms in the osteoblastic niche, including a subset of N-cadherin+
and interaction of the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 expressed in HSCs with its ligand angiopoietin-15
concur in determining HSCs quiescence. "Hibernation" in the bone marrow is crucial to protect HSCs from replication and eventual exhaustion upon excessive cycling activity6
. Exogenous stimuli acting on cells of the innate immune system such as Toll-like receptor ligands7
can also induce proliferation and differentiation of HSCs into lineage committed progenitors. Recently, a population of dormant mouse HSCs within the lin-
population has been described8
. Sorting of cells based on CD34 expression from the hematopoietic progenitors-enriched cell suspension as described here allows the isolation of both quiescent self-renewing LT-HSCs and ST-HSCs9
. A similar procedure based on depletion of lineage positive cells and sorting of LT-HSC with CD48 and Flk2 antibodies has been previously described10
. In the present report we provide a protocol for the phenotypic characterization and ex vivo cell cycle analysis of hematopoietic progenitors, which can be useful for monitoring hematopoiesis in different physiological and pathological conditions. Moreover, we describe a FACS sorting procedure for HSCs, which can be used to define factors and mechanisms regulating their self-renewal, expansion and differentiation in cell biology and signal transduction assays as well as for transplantation.
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 65, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Hematopoiesis, hematopoietic stem cell, hematopoietic progenitors, bone marrow, flow cytometry
High Efficiency Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Cardiomyocytes and Characterization by Flow Cytometry
Institutions: Medical College of Wisconsin, Stanford University School of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Hong Kong University, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin.
There is an urgent need to develop approaches for repairing the damaged heart, discovering new therapeutic drugs that do not have toxic effects on the heart, and improving strategies to accurately model heart disease. The potential of exploiting human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology to generate cardiac muscle “in a dish” for these applications continues to generate high enthusiasm. In recent years, the ability to efficiently generate cardiomyogenic cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has greatly improved, offering us new opportunities to model very early stages of human cardiac development not otherwise accessible. In contrast to many previous methods, the cardiomyocyte differentiation protocol described here does not require cell aggregation or the addition of Activin A or BMP4 and robustly generates cultures of cells that are highly positive for cardiac troponin I and T (TNNI3, TNNT2), iroquois-class homeodomain protein IRX-4 (IRX4), myosin regulatory light chain 2, ventricular/cardiac muscle isoform (MLC2v) and myosin regulatory light chain 2, atrial isoform (MLC2a) by day 10 across all human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and hiPSC lines tested to date. Cells can be passaged and maintained for more than 90 days in culture. The strategy is technically simple to implement and cost-effective. Characterization of cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent cells often includes the analysis of reference markers, both at the mRNA and protein level. For protein analysis, flow cytometry is a powerful analytical tool for assessing quality of cells in culture and determining subpopulation homogeneity. However, technical variation in sample preparation can significantly affect quality of flow cytometry data. Thus, standardization of staining protocols should facilitate comparisons among various differentiation strategies. Accordingly, optimized staining protocols for the analysis of IRX4, MLC2v, MLC2a, TNNI3, and TNNT2 by flow cytometry are described.
Cellular Biology, Issue 91, human induced pluripotent stem cell, flow cytometry, directed differentiation, cardiomyocyte, IRX4, TNNI3, TNNT2, MCL2v, MLC2a
Identification of Key Factors Regulating Self-renewal and Differentiation in EML Hematopoietic Precursor Cells by RNA-sequencing Analysis
Institutions: The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are used clinically for transplantation treatment to rebuild a patient's hematopoietic system in many diseases such as leukemia and lymphoma. Elucidating the mechanisms controlling HSCs self-renewal and differentiation is important for application of HSCs for research and clinical uses. However, it is not possible to obtain large quantity of HSCs due to their inability to proliferate in vitro
. To overcome this hurdle, we used a mouse bone marrow derived cell line, the EML (Erythroid, Myeloid, and Lymphocytic) cell line, as a model system for this study.
RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) has been increasingly used to replace microarray for gene expression studies. We report here a detailed method of using RNA-Seq technology to investigate the potential key factors in regulation of EML cell self-renewal and differentiation. The protocol provided in this paper is divided into three parts. The first part explains how to culture EML cells and separate Lin-CD34+ and Lin-CD34- cells. The second part of the protocol offers detailed procedures for total RNA preparation and the subsequent library construction for high-throughput sequencing. The last part describes the method for RNA-Seq data analysis and explains how to use the data to identify differentially expressed transcription factors between Lin-CD34+ and Lin-CD34- cells. The most significantly differentially expressed transcription factors were identified to be the potential key regulators controlling EML cell self-renewal and differentiation. In the discussion section of this paper, we highlight the key steps for successful performance of this experiment.
In summary, this paper offers a method of using RNA-Seq technology to identify potential regulators of self-renewal and differentiation in EML cells. The key factors identified are subjected to downstream functional analysis in vitro
and in vivo
Genetics, Issue 93, EML Cells, Self-renewal, Differentiation, Hematopoietic precursor cell, RNA-Sequencing, Data analysis
Identifying DNA Mutations in Purified Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells
Institutions: UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio.
In recent years, it has become apparent that genomic instability is tightly related to many developmental disorders, cancers, and aging. Given that stem cells are responsible for ensuring tissue homeostasis and repair throughout life, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the stem cell population is critical for preserving genomic integrity of tissues. Therefore, significant interest has arisen in assessing the impact of endogenous and environmental factors on genomic integrity in stem cells and their progeny, aiming to understand the etiology of stem-cell based diseases.
transgenic mice carry a recoverable λ phage vector encoding the LacI
reporter system, in which the LacI
gene serves as the mutation reporter. The result of a mutated LacI
gene is the production of β-galactosidase that cleaves a chromogenic substrate, turning it blue. The LacI
reporter system is carried in all cells, including stem/progenitor cells and can easily be recovered and used to subsequently infect E. coli
. After incubating infected E. coli
on agarose that contains the correct substrate, plaques can be scored; blue plaques indicate a mutant LacI
gene, while clear plaques harbor wild-type. The frequency of blue (among clear) plaques indicates the mutant frequency in the original cell population the DNA was extracted from. Sequencing the mutant LacI
gene will show the location of the mutations in the gene and the type of mutation.
transgenic mouse model is well-established as an in vivo
mutagenesis assay. Moreover, the mice and the reagents for the assay are commercially available. Here we describe in detail how this model can be adapted to measure the frequency of spontaneously occurring DNA mutants in stem cell-enriched Lin-
(LSK) cells and other subpopulations of the hematopoietic system.
Infection, Issue 84, In vivo mutagenesis, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, LacI mouse model, DNA mutations, E. coli
Isolation and Transplantation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs)
Institutions: Harvard Medical School.
Cellular Biology, Issue 2, HSC, stem cells, bone marrow
Derivation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells from Murine Embryonic Stem Cells
Institutions: Harvard Medical School.
A stem cell is defined as a cell with the capacity to both self-renew and generate multiple differentiated progeny. Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are derived from the blastocyst of the early embryo and are pluripotent in differentiative ability. Their vast differentiative potential has made them the focus of much research centered on deducing how to coax them to generate clinically useful cell types. The successful derivation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) from mouse ESC has recently been accomplished and can be visualized in this video protocol. HSC, arguably the most clinically exploited cell population, are used to treat a myriad of hematopoietic malignancies and disorders. However, many patients that might benefit from HSC therapy lack access to suitable donors. ESC could provide an alternative source of HSC for these patients. The following protocol establishes a baseline from which ESC-HSC can be studied and inform efforts to isolate HSC from human ESC. In this protocol, ESC are differentiated as embryoid bodies (EBs) for 6 days in commercially available serum pre-screened for optimal hematopoietic differentiation. EBs are then dissociated and infected with retroviral HoxB4. Infected EB-derived cells are plated on OP9 stroma, a bone marrow stromal cell line derived from the calvaria of M-CSF-/- mice, and co-cultured in the presence of hematopoiesis promoting cytokines for ten days. During this co-culture, the infected cells expand greatly, resulting in the generation a heterogeneous pool of 100s of millions of cells. These cells can then be used to rescue and reconstitute lethally irradiated mice.
Cellular Biology, Issue 2, ES cells, stem cells, HSC, transplantation, HoxB4
Isolation of Early Hematopoietic Stem Cells from Murine Yolk Sac and AGM
Institutions: Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Erasmus University Medical Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School.
In the mouse embryo, early hematopoiesis occurs simultaneously in multiple organs, which includes the yolk sac and aorta-gonad-mesonephros region. These regions are crucial in establishing the blood system in the embryos and leads to the eventual movement of stem cells into the fetal liver and then development of adult stem cells in the bonemarrow. Early hematopoietic stem cells can be isolated from these organs through microdissection of the embryo followed by flow cytometric sorting to obtain a more pure population. It remains unclear how these stem cell populations contribute to the fetal and adult stem cell pool. Also, our lab investigates how early stem cells functionally differ from fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells. Furthermore, our lab sorts different populations of hematopoietic stem cells and test their functional role in the context of a variety of genetic models. In this video, we demonstrate the micro-dissection procedure we commonly use and also show the results of a typical FACS plotfter isolating these rare populations, it is possible to perform a variety of functional assays including: colony assays and bone marrow transplants.
Cell biology, Issue 16, yolk sac, aorta-gonad-mesonephros, AGM, stem cell, dissection, embryo
Transplantation of Whole Kidney Marrow in Adult Zebrafish
Institutions: Harvard Medical School.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are a rare population of pluripotent cells that maintain all the differentiated blood lineages throughout the life of an organism. The functional definition of a HSC is a transplanted cell that has the ability to reconstitute all the blood lineages of an irradiated recipient long term. This designation was established by decades of seminal work in mammalian systems. Using hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and reverse genetic manipulations in the mouse, the underlying regulatory factors of HSC biology are beginning to be unveiled, but are still largely under-explored. Recently, the zebrafish has emerged as a powerful genetic model to study vertebrate hematopoiesis. Establishing HCT in zebrafish will allow scientists to utilize the large-scale genetic and chemical screening methodologies available in zebrafish to reveal novel mechanisms underlying HSC regulation. In this article, we demonstrate a method to perform HCT in adult zebrafish. We show the dissection and preparation of zebrafish whole kidney marrow, the site of adult hematopoiesis in the zebrafish, and the introduction of these donor cells into the circulation of irradiated recipient fish via intracardiac injection. Additionally, we describe the post-transplant care of fish in an "ICU" to increase their long-term health. In general, gentle care of the fish before, during, and after the transplant is critical to increase the number of fish that will survive more than one month following the procedure, which is essential for assessment of long term (<3 month) engraftment. The experimental data used to establish this protocol will be published elsewhere. The establishment of this protocol will allow for the merger of large-scale zebrafish genetics and transplant biology.
Developmental Biology, Issue 2, zebrafish, HSC, stem cells, transplant