Dendritic cells (DCs) are the key players involved in initiation of adaptive immune response by activating antigen-specific T cells. DCs are present in peripheral tissues in steady state; however in response to antigen stimulation, DCs take up the antigen and rapidly migrate to the draining lymph nodes where they initiate T cell response against the antigen1,2. Additionally, DCs also play a key role in initiating autoimmune as well as allergic immune response3.
DCs play an essential role in both initiation of immune response and induction of tolerance in the setting of lung environment4. Lung environment is largely tolerogenic, owing to the exposure to vast array of environmental antigens5. However, in some individuals there is a break in tolerance, which leads to induction of allergy and asthma. In this study, we describe a strategy, which can be used to monitor airway DC maturation and migration in response to the antigen used for sensitization. The measurement of airway DC maturation and migration allows for assessment of the kinetics of immune response during airway allergic inflammation and also assists in understanding the magnitude of the subsequent immune response along with the underlying mechanisms.
Our strategy is based on the use of ovalbumin as a sensitizing agent. Ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma is a widely used model to reproduce the airway eosinophilia, pulmonary inflammation and elevated IgE levels found during asthma6,7. After sensitization, mice are challenged by intranasal delivery of FITC labeled ovalbumin, which allows for specific labeling of airway DCs which uptake ovalbumin. Next, using several DC specific markers, we can assess the maturation of these DCs and can also assess their migration to the draining lymph nodes by employing flow cytometry.
20 Related JoVE Articles!
Measuring Respiratory Function in Mice Using Unrestrained Whole-body Plethysmography
Institutions: Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash Medical Centre, Animal Resource Centre, Perth, Australia, Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine.
Respiratory dysfunction is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world and the rates of mortality continue to rise. Quantitative assessment of lung function in rodent models is an important tool in the development of future therapies. Commonly used techniques for assessing respiratory function including invasive plethysmography and forced oscillation. While these techniques provide valuable information, data collection can be fraught with artefacts and experimental variability due to the need for anesthesia and/or invasive instrumentation of the animal. In contrast, unrestrained whole-body plethysmography (UWBP) offers a precise, non-invasive, quantitative way by which to analyze respiratory parameters. This technique avoids the use of anesthesia and restraints, which is common to traditional plethysmography techniques. This video will demonstrate the UWBP procedure including the equipment set up, calibration and lung function recording. It will explain how to analyze the collected data, as well as identify experimental outliers and artefacts that results from animal movement. The respiratory parameters obtained using this technique include tidal volume, minute volume, inspiratory duty cycle, inspiratory flow rate and the ratio of inspiration time to expiration time. UWBP does not rely on specialized skills and is inexpensive to perform. A key feature of UWBP, and most appealing to potential users, is the ability to perform repeated measures of lung function on the same animal.
Physiology, Issue 90, Unrestrained Whole Body Plethysmography, Lung function, Respiratory Disease, Rodents
Investigation of Macrophage Polarization Using Bone Marrow Derived Macrophages
Institutions: Texas A&M University, Texas A&M University, Texas A&M University.
The article describes a readily easy adaptive in vitro model to investigate macrophage polarization. In the presence of GM-CSF/M-CSF, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells from the bone marrow are directed into monocytic differentiation, followed by M1 or M2 stimulation. The activation status can be tracked by changes in cell surface antigens, gene expression and cell signaling pathways.
Immunology, Issue 76, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Genetics, Biomedical Engineering, biology (general), genetics (animal and plant), immunology, life sciences, Life Sciences (General), macrophage polarization, bone marrow derived macrophage, flow cytometry, PCR, animal model
Murine Model of Allergen Induced Asthma
Institutions: Emory University and Atlanta VA Medical Center.
Asthma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, affecting some 300 million people throughout the world.1
More than 8% of the US population has asthma, with the prevalence increasing.2
As with other diseases, animal models of allergic airway disease greatly facilitate understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, help identify potential therapeutic targets, and allow preclinical testing of possible new therapies. Models of allergic airway disease have been developed in several animal species, but murine models are particularly attractive due to the low cost, ready availability, and well-characterized immune systems of these animals.3
Availability of a variety of transgenic strains further increases the attractiveness of these models.4
Here we describe two murine models of allergic airway disease, both employing ovalbumin as the antigen. Following initial sensitization by intraperitoneal injection, one model delivers the antigen challenge by nebulization, the other by intratracheal delivery. These two models offer complementary advantages, with each mimicking the major features of human asthma.5
The major features of acute asthma include an exaggerated airway response to stimuli such as methacholine (airway hyperresponsiveness; AHR) and eosinophil-rich airway inflammation. These are also prominent effects of allergen challenge in our murine models,5,6
and we describe techniques for measuring them and thus evaluating the effects of experimental manipulation. Specifically, we describe both invasive7
techniques for measuring airway hyperresponsiveness as well as methods for assessing infiltration of inflammatory cells into the airways and the lung. Airway inflammatory cells are collected by bronchoalveolar lavage while lung histopathology is used to assess markers of inflammation throughout the organ. These techniques provide powerful tools for studying asthma in ways that would not be possible in humans.
Immunology, Issue 63, Allergy, airway hyperresponsiveness, pulmonary function, eosinophil, ovalbumin, methacholine, airway resistance, plethysmography, flexiVent, bronchoalveolar lavage, physiology
Development of an in vitro model system for studying the interaction of Equus caballus IgE with its high-affinity receptor FcεRI
Institutions: King Abdulaziz University, The University of Sheffield.
The interaction of IgE with its high-affinity Fc receptor (FcεRI) followed by an antigenic challenge is the principal pathway in IgE mediated allergic reactions. As a consequence of the high affinity binding between IgE and FcεRI, along with the continuous production of IgE by B cells, allergies usually persist throughout life, with currently no permanent cure available. Horses, especially race horses, which are commonly inbred, are a species of mammals that are very prone to the development of hypersensitivity responses, which can seriously affect their performance. Physiological responses to allergic sensitization in horses mirror that observed in humans and dogs. In this paper we describe the development of an in situ
assay system for the quantitative assessment of the release of mediators of the allergic response pertaining to the equine system. To this end, the gene encoding equine FcεRIα was transfected into and expressed onto the surface of parental Rat Basophil Leukemia (RBL-2H3.1) cells. The gene product of the transfected equine α-chain formed a functional receptor complex with the endogenous rat β- and γ-chains 1
. The resultant assay system facilitated an assessment of the quantity of mediator secreted from equine FcεRIα transfected RBL-2H3.1 cells following sensitization with equine IgE and antigenic challenge using β-hexosaminidase release as a readout 2, 3
. Mediator release peaked at 36.68% ± 4.88% at 100 ng ml-1
of antigen. This assay was modified from previous assays used to study human and canine allergic responses 4, 5
. We have also shown that this type of assay system has multiple applications for the development of diagnostic tools and the safety assessment of potential therapeutic intervention strategies in allergic disease 6, 2, 3
Immunology, Issue 93, Allergy, Immunology, IgE, Fcε, RI, horse (Equus caballus), Immunoassay
The Utilization of Oropharyngeal Intratracheal PAMP Administration and Bronchoalveolar Lavage to Evaluate the Host Immune Response in Mice
Institutions: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
The host immune response to pathogens is a complex biological process. The majority of in vivo
studies classically employed to characterize host-pathogen interactions take advantage of intraperitoneal injections of select bacteria or pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in mice. While these techniques have yielded tremendous data associated with infectious disease pathobiology, intraperitoneal injection models are not always appropriate for host-pathogen interaction studies in the lung. Utilizing an acute lung inflammation model in mice, it is possible to conduct a high resolution analysis of the host innate immune response utilizing lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, we describe the methods to administer LPS using nonsurgical oropharyngeal intratracheal administration, monitor clinical parameters associated with disease pathogenesis, and utilize bronchoalveolar lavage fluid to evaluate the host immune response. The techniques that are described are widely applicable for studying the host innate immune response to a diverse range of PAMPs and pathogens. Likewise, with minor modifications, these techniques can also be applied in studies evaluating allergic airway inflammation and in pharmacological applications.
Infection, Issue 86, LPS, Lipopolysaccharide, mouse, pneumonia, gram negative bacteria, inflammation, acute lung inflammation, innate immunity, host pathogen interaction, lung, respiratory disease
Isolation of Brain-infiltrating Leukocytes
Institutions: Mayo Clinic College of Medicine.
We describe a method for preparing brain infiltrating leukocytes (BILs) from mice. We demonstrate how to infect mice with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) via a rapid intracranial injection technique and how to purify a leukocyte-enriched population of infiltrating cells from whole brain. Briefly, mice are anesthetized with isoflurane in a closed chamber and are free-hand injected with a Hamilton syringe into the frontal cortex. Mice are then killed at various times after infection by isoflurane overdose and whole brains are extracted and homogenized in RPMI with a Tenbroeck tissue grinder. Brain homogenates are centrifuged through a continuous 30% Percoll gradient to remove the myelin and other cell debris. The cell suspension is then strained at 40 μm, washed and centrifuged on a discontinuous Ficoll-Paque Plus gradient to select and purify the leukocytes. The leukocytes are then washed and resuspended in appropriate buffers for immunophenotyping by flow cytometry. Flow cytometry reveals a population of innate immune cells at the early stages of infection in C57BL/6 mice. At 24 hours post infection, multiple subsets of immune cells are present in the BILs, with an enriched population of Gr1+
cells. Therefore, this method is useful in characterizing the immune response to acute infection in the brain.
Neuroscience, Issue 52, Leukocytes, brain, mouse, neuroimmunology, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, flow cytometry
Measuring Local Anaphylaxis in Mice
Institutions: Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.
Allergic responses are the result of the activation of mast cells and basophils, and the subsequent release of vasoactive and proinflammatory mediators. Exposure to an allergen in a sensitized individual can result in clinical symptoms that vary from minor erythema to life threatening anaphylaxis. In the laboratory, various animal models have been developed to understand the mechanisms driving allergic responses. Herein, we describe a detailed method for measuring changes in vascular permeability to quantify localized allergic responses. The local anaphylaxis assay was first reported in the 1920s, and has been adapted from the technique published by Kojima et al
. in 20071
. In this assay, mice sensitized to OVA are challenged in the left ear with vehicle and in the right ear with OVA. This is followed by an intravenous injection of Evans Blue dye. Ten min after injecting Evans Blue, the animal is euthanized and the dye that has extravasated into the ears is extracted overnight in formamide. The absorbance of the extracted dye is then quantified with a spectrophotometer. This method reliably results in a visual and quantifiable manifestation of a local allergic response.
Immunology, Issue 92, Allergy, sensitization, hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis, mouse, IgE, mast cell, activation, vascular permeability
Evaluation of Respiratory System Mechanics in Mice using the Forced Oscillation Technique
Institutions: McGill University , SCIREQ Scientific Respiratory Equipment Inc..
The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a powerful, integrative and translational tool permitting the experimental assessment of lung function in mice in a comprehensive, detailed, precise and reproducible manner. It provides measurements of respiratory system mechanics through the analysis of pressure and volume signals acquired in reaction to predefined, small amplitude, oscillatory airflow waveforms, which are typically applied at the subject's airway opening. The present protocol details the steps required to adequately execute forced oscillation measurements in mice using a computer-controlled piston ventilator (flexiVent
; SCIREQ Inc, Montreal, Qc, Canada). The description is divided into four parts: preparatory steps, mechanical ventilation, lung function measurements, and data analysis. It also includes details of how to assess airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine in anesthetized mice, a common application of this technique which also extends to other outcomes and various lung pathologies. Measurements obtained in naïve mice as well as from an oxidative-stress driven model of airway damage are presented to illustrate how this tool can contribute to a better characterization and understanding of studied physiological changes or disease models as well as to applications in new research areas.
Medicine, Issue 75, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Biophysics, Pathology, lung diseases, asthma, respiratory function tests, respiratory system, forced oscillation technique, respiratory system mechanics, airway hyperresponsiveness, flexiVent, lung physiology, lung, oxidative stress, ventilator, cannula, mice, animal model, clinical techniques
Isolation of Mouse Lung Dendritic Cells
Institutions: Louisiana State University .
Lung dendritic cells (DC) play a fundamental role in sensing invading pathogens 1,2
as well as in the control of tolerogenic responses 3
in the respiratory tract. At least three main subsets of lung dendritic cells have been described in mice: conventional DC (cDC) 4
, plasmacytoid DC (pDC) 5
and the IFN-producing killer DC (IKDC) 6,7
. The cDC subset is the most prominent DC subset in the lung 8
The common marker known to identify DC subsets is CD11c, a type I transmembrane integrin (β2) that is also expressed on monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and some B cells 9
. In some tissues, using CD11c as a marker to identify mouse DC is valid, as in spleen, where most CD11c+
cells represent the cDC subset which expresses high levels of the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II). However, the lung is a more heterogeneous tissue where beside DC subsets, there is a high percentage of a distinct cell population that expresses high levels of CD11c bout low levels of MHC-II. Based on its characterization and mostly on its expression of F4/80, an splenic macrophage marker, the CD11chi
lung cell population has been identified as pulmonary macrophages 10 and more recently, as a potential DC precursor 11
In contrast to mouse pDC, the study of the specific role of cDC in the pulmonary immune response has been limited due to the lack of a specific marker that could help in the isolation of these cells. Therefore, in this work, we describe a procedure to isolate highly purified mouse lung cDC. The isolation of pulmonary DC subsets represents a very useful tool to gain insights into the function of these cells in response to respiratory pathogens as well as environmental factors that can trigger the host immune response in the lung.
Immunology, Issue 57, Lung, dendritic cells, classical, conventional, isolation, mouse, innate immunity, pulmonary
Isolating And Immunostaining Lymphocytes and Dendritic Cells from Murine Peyer's Patches
Institutions: New York State Department of Health.
Peyer's patches (PPs) are integral components of the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) and play a central role in intestinal immunosurveillance and homeostasis. Particulate antigens and microbes in the intestinal lumen are continuously sampled by PP M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) and transported to an underlying network of dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and lymphocytes. In this article, we describe protocols in which murine PPs are (i) dissociated into single cell suspensions and subjected to flow cytometry and (ii) prepared for cryosectioning and immunostaining. For flow cytometry, PPs are mechanically dissociated and then filtered through 70 μm membranes to generate single cell suspensions free of epithelial cells and large debris. Starting with 20-25 PPs (from four mice), this quick and reproducible method yields a population of >2.5 x 106
cells with >90% cell viability. For cryosectioning, freshly isolated PPs are immersed in Optimal Cutting Temperature (OCT) medium, snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen, and then sectioned using a cryomicrotome. Tissue sections (5-12 μm) are air-dried, fixed with acetone or methanol, and then subjected to immunolabeling.
Infection, Issue 73, Infectious Diseases, Immunology, Microbiology, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Surgery, Bacterial Infections and Mycoses, Immune System Diseases, Digestive System Diseases, Peyer's patch, intestine, Mucosal, lymphoid tissue, lymphocyte, Dendritic, flow cytometry, cryosectioning, oral gavage, immunostaining, isolation, cell culture, animal model
Isolation and Characterization of Dendritic Cells and Macrophages from the Mouse Intestine
Institutions: Emory University, Emory University.
Within the intestine reside unique populations of innate and adaptive immune cells that are involved in promoting tolerance towards commensal flora and food antigens while concomitantly remaining poised to mount inflammatory responses toward invasive pathogens1,2
. Antigen presenting cells, particularly DCs and macrophages, play critical roles in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis via their ability to sense and appropriately respond to the microbiota3-14
. Efficient isolation of intestinal DCs and macrophages is a critical step in characterizing the phenotype and function of these cells. While many effective methods of isolating intestinal immune cells, including DCs and macrophages, have been described6,10,15-24
, many rely upon long digestions times that may negatively influence cell surface antigen expression, cell viability, and/or cell yield. Here, we detail a methodology for the rapid isolation of large numbers of viable, intestinal DCs and macrophages. Phenotypic characterization of intestinal DCs and macrophages is carried out by directly staining isolated intestinal cells with specific fluorescence-labeled monoclonal antibodies for multi-color flow cytometric analysis. Furthermore, highly pure DC and macrophage populations are isolated for functional studies utilizing CD11c and CD11b magnetic-activated cell sorting beads followed by cell sorting.
Immunology, Issue 63, intestine, immunology, APCs, dendritic cells, macrophages, cell culture
Assessing the Development of Murine Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in Peyer's Patches Using Adoptive Transfer of Hematopoietic Progenitors
Institutions: The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.
This protocol details a method to analyze the ability of purified hematopoietic progenitors to generate plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) in intestinal Peyer's patch (PP). Common dendritic cell progenitors (CDPs, lin-
) were purified from the bone marrow of C57BL6 mice by FACS and transferred to recipient mice that lack a significant pDC population in PP; in this case, Ifnar-/-
mice were used as the transfer recipients. In some mice, overexpression of the dendritic cell growth factor Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) was enforced prior to adoptive transfer of CDPs, using hydrodynamic gene transfer (HGT) of Flt3L-encoding plasmid. Flt3L overexpression expands DC populations originating from transferred (or endogenous) hematopoietic progenitors. At 7-10 days after progenitor transfer, pDCs that arise from the adoptively transferred progenitors were distinguished from recipient cells on the basis of CD45 marker expression, with pDCs from transferred CDPs being CD45.1+
and recipients being CD45.2+
. The ability of transferred CDPs to contribute to the pDC population in PP and to respond to Flt3L was evaluated by flow cytometry of PP single cell suspensions from recipient mice. This method may be used to test whether other progenitor populations are capable of generating PP pDCs. In addition, this approach could be used to examine the role of factors that are predicted to affect pDC development in PP, by transferring progenitor subsets with an appropriate knockdown, knockout or overexpression of the putative developmental factor and/or by manipulating circulating cytokines via HGT. This method may also allow analysis of how PP pDCs affect the frequency or function of other immune subsets in PPs. A unique feature of this method is the use of Ifnar-/-
mice, which show severely depleted PP pDCs relative to wild type animals, thus allowing reconstitution of PP pDCs in the absence of confounding effects from lethal irradiation.
Immunology, Issue 85, hematopoiesis, dendritic cells, Peyer's patch, cytokines, adoptive transfer
Preparation of Tumor Antigen-loaded Mature Dendritic Cells for Immunotherapy
Institutions: NYU Langone Medical Center, NYU Langone Medical Center.
While clinical studies have established that antigen-loaded DC vaccines are safe and promising therapy for tumors 1
, their clinical efficacy remains to be established. The method described below, prepared in accordance with Good Manufacturing Process (GMP) guidelines, is an optimization of the most common ex vivo
preparation method for generating large numbers of DCs for clinical studies 2
Our method utilizes the synthetic TLR 3 agonist Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid-poly-L-lysine Carboxymethylcellulose (Poly-ICLC) to stimulate the DCs. Our previous study established that Poly-ICLC is the most potent individual maturation stimulus for human DCs as assessed by an upregulation of CD83 and CD86, induction of interleukin-12 (IL-12), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interleukmin 1 (IL-1), and type I interferons (IFN), and minimal interleukin 10 (IL-10) production.
DCs are differentiated from frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained by leukapheresis. PBMCs are isolated by Ficoll gradient centrifugation and frozen in aliquots. On Day 1, PBMCs are thawed and plated onto tissue culture flasks to select for monocytes which adhere to the plastic surface after 1-2 hr incubation at 37 °C in the tissue culture incubator. After incubation, the lymphocytes are washed off and the adherent monocytes are cultured for 5 days in the presence of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to differentiate to immature DCs. On Day 6, immature DCs are pulsed with the keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) protein which serves as a control for the quality of the vaccine and may boost the immunogenicity of the vaccine 3
. The DCs are stimulated to mature, loaded with peptide antigens, and incubated overnight. On Day 7, the cells are washed, and frozen in 1 ml aliquots containing 4 - 20 x 106
cells using a controlled-rate freezer. Lot release testing for the batches of DCs is performed and must meet minimum specifications before they are injected into patients.
Cancer Biology, Issue 78, Medicine, Immunology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Dendritic Cells, Immunotherapy, dendritic cell, immunotherapy, vaccine, cell, isolation, flow cytometry, cell culture, clinical techniques
Characterization of Inflammatory Responses During Intranasal Colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae
Institutions: McMaster University .
Nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae
is a prerequisite to invasion to the lungs or bloodstream1
. This organism is capable of colonizing the mucosal surface of the nasopharynx, where it can reside, multiply and eventually overcome host defences to invade to other tissues of the host. Establishment of an infection in the normally lower respiratory tract results in pneumonia. Alternatively, the bacteria can disseminate into the bloodstream causing bacteraemia, which is associated with high mortality rates2
, or else lead directly to the development of pneumococcal meningitis. Understanding the kinetics of, and immune responses to, nasopharyngeal colonization is an important aspect of S. pneumoniae
Our mouse model of intranasal colonization is adapted from human models3
and has been used by multiple research groups in the study of host-pathogen responses in the nasopharynx4-7
. In the first part of the model, we use a clinical isolate of S. pneumoniae
to establish a self-limiting bacterial colonization that is similar to carriage events in human adults. The procedure detailed herein involves preparation of a bacterial inoculum, followed by the establishment of a colonization event through delivery of the inoculum via an intranasal route of administration. Resident macrophages are the predominant cell type in the nasopharynx during the steady state. Typically, there are few lymphocytes present in uninfected mice8
, however mucosal colonization will lead to low- to high-grade inflammation (depending on the virulence of the bacterial species and strain) that will result in an immune response and the subsequent recruitment of host immune cells. These cells can be isolated by a lavage of the tracheal contents through the nares, and correlated to the density of colonization bacteria to better understand the kinetics of the infection.
Immunology, Issue 83, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Nasal lavage, nasopharynx, murine, flow cytometry, RNA, Quantitative PCR, recruited macrophages, neutrophils, T-cells, effector cells, intranasal colonization
Sublingual Immunotherapy as an Alternative to Induce Protection Against Acute Respiratory Infections
Institutions: Universidad de la República, Trinity College Dublin.
Sublingual route has been widely used to deliver small molecules into the bloodstream and to modulate the immune response at different sites. It has been shown to effectively induce humoral and cellular responses at systemic and mucosal sites, namely the lungs and urogenital tract. Sublingual vaccination can promote protection against infections at the lower and upper respiratory tract; it can also promote tolerance to allergens and ameliorate asthma symptoms. Modulation of lung’s immune response by sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is safer than direct administration of formulations by intranasal route because it does not require delivery of potentially harmful molecules directly into the airways. In contrast to intranasal delivery, side effects involving brain toxicity or facial paralysis are not promoted by SLIT. The immune mechanisms underlying SLIT remain elusive and its use for the treatment of acute lung infections has not yet been explored. Thus, development of appropriate animal models of SLIT is needed to further explore its potential advantages.
This work shows how to perform sublingual administration of therapeutic agents in mice to evaluate their ability to protect against acute pneumococcal pneumonia. Technical aspects of mouse handling during sublingual inoculation, precise identification of sublingual mucosa, draining lymph nodes and isolation of tissues, bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs are illustrated. Protocols for single cell suspension preparation for FACS analysis are described in detail. Other downstream applications for the analysis of the immune response are discussed. Technical aspects of the preparation of Streptococcus pneumoniae
inoculum and intranasal challenge of mice are also explained.
SLIT is a simple technique that allows screening of candidate molecules to modulate lungs’ immune response. Parameters affecting the success of SLIT are related to molecular size, susceptibility to degradation and stability of highly concentrated formulations.
Medicine, Issue 90, Sublingual immunotherapy, Pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Lungs, Flagellin, TLR5, NLRC4
Activation and Measurement of NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity Using IL-1β in Human Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells
Institutions: New York University School of Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Mount Sinai Medical Center.
Inflammatory processes resulting from the secretion of Interleukin (IL)-1 family cytokines by immune cells lead to local or systemic inflammation, tissue remodeling and repair, and virologic control1,2
. Interleukin-1β is an essential element of the innate immune response and contributes to eliminate invading pathogens while preventing the establishment of persistent infection1-5
Inflammasomes are the key signaling platform for the activation of interleukin 1 converting enzyme (ICE or Caspase-1). The NLRP3 inflammasome requires at least two signals in DCs to cause IL-1β secretion6
. Pro-IL-1β protein expression is limited in resting cells; therefore a priming signal is required for IL-1β transcription and protein expression. A second signal sensed by NLRP3 results in the formation of the multi-protein NLRP3 inflammasome. The ability of dendritic cells to respond to the signals required for IL-1β secretion can be tested using a synthetic purine, R848, which is sensed by TLR8 in human monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs) to prime cells, followed by activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome with the bacterial toxin and potassium ionophore, nigericin.
Monocyte derived DCs are easily produced in culture and provide significantly more cells than purified human myeloid DCs. The method presented here differs from other inflammasome assays in that it uses in vitro
human, instead of mouse derived, DCs thus allowing for the study of the inflammasome in human disease and infection.
Immunology, Issue 87, NLRP3, inflammasome, IL-1beta, Interleukin-1 beta, dendritic, cell, Nigericin, Toll-Like Receptor 8, TLR8, R848, Monocyte Derived Dendritic Cells
Isolation of Myeloid Dendritic Cells and Epithelial Cells from Human Thymus
Institutions: Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Bern, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, University Clinic Tuebingen, University Hospital Erlangen.
In this protocol we provide a method to isolate dendritic cells (DC) and epithelial cells (TEC) from the human thymus. DC and TEC are the major antigen presenting cell (APC) types found in a normal thymus and it is well established that they play distinct roles during thymic selection. These cells are localized in distinct microenvironments in the thymus and each APC type makes up only a minor population of cells. To further understand the biology of these cell types, characterization of these cell populations is highly desirable but due to their low frequency, isolation of any of these cell types requires an efficient and reproducible procedure. This protocol details a method to obtain cells suitable for characterization of diverse cellular properties. Thymic tissue is mechanically disrupted and after different steps of enzymatic digestion, the resulting cell suspension is enriched using a Percoll density centrifugation step. For isolation of myeloid DC (CD11c+
), cells from the low-density fraction (LDF) are immunoselected by magnetic cell sorting. Enrichment of TEC populations (mTEC, cTEC) is achieved by depletion of hematopoietic (CD45hi
) cells from the low-density Percoll cell fraction allowing their subsequent isolation via fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) using specific cell markers. The isolated cells can be used for different downstream applications.
Immunology, Issue 79, Immune System Processes, Biological Processes, immunology, Immune System Diseases, Immune System Phenomena, Life Sciences (General), immunology, human thymus, isolation, dendritic cells, mTEC, cTEC
Generation of Bone Marrow Derived Murine Dendritic Cells for Use in 2-photon Imaging
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI), University of California, Irvine (UCI).
Several methods for the preparation of murine dendritic cells can be found in the literature. Here, we present a method that produces greater than 85% CD11c high dendritic cells in culture that home to the draining lymph node after subcutaneous injection and present antigen to antigen specific T cells (see video). Additionally, we use Essen Instruments Incucyte to track dendritic cell maturation, where, at day 10, the morphology of the cultured cells is typical of a mature dendritic cell and <85% of cells are CD11chigh. The study of antigen presentation in peripheral lymph nodes by 2-photon imaging revealed that there are three distinct phases of dendritic cell and T cell interaction1, 2
. Phase I consists of brief serial contacts between highly motile antigen specific T cells and antigen carrying dendritic cells1, 2
. Phase two is marked by prolonged contacts between antigen-specific T cell and antigen bearing dendritic cells1, 2
. Finally, phase III is characterized by T cells detaching from dendritic cells, regaining motility and beginning to divide1, 2
. This is one example of the type of antigen-specific interactions that can be analyzed by two-photon imaging of antigen-loaded cell tracker dye-labeled dendritic cells.
Immunology, Issue 17, dendritic cells, mouse, bone marrow, 2-photon imaging, cell culture
Culture of myeloid dendritic cells from bone marrow precursors
Institutions: McMaster University, McMaster University, University of Waterloo.
Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) are frequently used to study the interactions between innate and adaptive immune mechanisms and the early response to infection. Because these are the most potent antigen presenting cells, DCs are being increasingly used as a vaccine vector to study the induction of antigen-specific immune responses. In this video, we demonstrate the procedure for harvesting tibias and femurs from a donor mouse, processing the bone marrow and differentiating DCs in vitro. The properties of DCs change following stimulation: immature dendritic cells are potent phagocytes, whereas mature DCs are capable of antigen presentation and interaction with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. This change in functional activity corresponds with the upregulation of cell surface markers and cytokine production. Many agents can be used to mature DCs, including cytokines and toll-like receptor ligands. In this video, we demonstrate flow cytometric comparisons of expression of two co-stimulatory molecules, CD86 and CD40, and the cytokine, IL-12, following overnight stimulation with CpG or mock treatment. After differentiation, DCs can be further manipulated for use as a vaccine vector or to generate antigen-specific immune responses by in vitro pulsing using peptides or proteins, or transduced using recombinant viral vectors.
Immunology, Issue 17, dendritic cells, GM-CSF, culture, bone marrow
Standardized Preparation of Single-Cell Suspensions from Mouse Lung Tissue using the gentleMACS Dissociator
Institutions: Miltenyi Biotec,GmbH.
The preparation of single-cell suspensions from tissues is an important prerequisite for many experiments in cellular research. The process of dissociating whole organs requires specific parameters in order to obtain a high number of viable cells in a reproducible manner. The gentleMACS Dissociator optimizes this task with a simple, practical protocol. The instrument contains pre-programmed settings that are optimized for the efficient but gentle dissociation of a variety of tissue types, including mouse lungs. In this publication the use of the gentleMACS Dissociator on lung tissue derived from mice is demonstrated.
Cell Biology, Issue 29, cell culture, cell dissociation, lung, mouse