Mistakes in chromosome segregation lead to aneuploid cells. In somatic cells, aneuploidy is associated with cancer but in gametes, aneuploidy leads to infertility, miscarriages or developmental disorders like Down syndrome. Haploid gametes form through species-specific developmental programs that are coupled to meiosis. The first meiotic division (MI) is unique to meiosis because sister chromatids remain attached while homologous chromosomes are segregated. For reasons not fully understood, this reductional division is prone to errors and is more commonly the source of aneuploidy than errors in meiosis II (MII) or than errors in male meiosis 1,2.
In mammals, oocytes arrest at prophase of MI with a large, intact germinal vesicle (GV; nucleus) and only resume meiosis when they receive ovulatory cues. Once meiosis resumes, oocytes complete MI and undergo an asymmetric cell division, arresting again at metaphase of MII. Eggs will not complete MII until they are fertilized by sperm. Oocytes also can undergo meiotic maturation using established in vitro culture conditions 3. Because generation of transgenic and gene-targeted mouse mutants is costly and can take long periods of time, manipulation of female gametes in vitro is a more economical and time-saving strategy.
Here, we describe methods to isolate prophase-arrested oocytes from mice and for microinjection. Any material of choice may be introduced into the oocyte, but because meiotically-competent oocytes are transcriptionally silent 4,5 cRNA, and not DNA, must be injected for ectopic expression studies. To assess ploidy, we describe our conditions for in vitro maturation of oocytes to MII eggs. Historically, chromosome-spreading techniques are used for counting chromosome number 6. This method is technically challenging and is limited to only identifying hyperploidies. Here, we describe a method to determine hypo-and hyperploidies using intact eggs 7-8. This method uses monastrol, a kinesin-5 inhibitor, that collapses the bipolar spindle into a monopolar spindle 9 thus separating chromosomes such that individual kinetochores can readily be detected and counted by using an anti-CREST autoimmune serum. Because this method is performed in intact eggs, chromosomes are not lost due to operator error.
20 Related JoVE Articles!
A Method for Ovarian Follicle Encapsulation and Culture in a Proteolytically Degradable 3 Dimensional System
Institutions: Northwestern University, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Northwestern University, Northwestern University.
The ovarian follicle is the functional unit of the ovary that secretes sex hormones and supports oocyte maturation. In vitro
follicle techniques provide a tool to model follicle development in order to investigate basic biology, and are further being developed as a technique to preserve fertility in the clinic1-4
. Our in vitro
culture system employs hydrogels in order to mimic the native ovarian environment by maintaining the 3D follicular architecture, cell-cell interactions and paracrine signaling that direct follicle development 5
. Previously, follicles were successfully cultured in alginate, an inert algae-derived polysaccharide that undergoes gelation with calcium ions6-8
. Alginate hydrogels formed at a concentration of 0.25% w/v were the most permissive for follicle culture, and retained the highest developmental competence 9
. Alginate hydrogels are not degradable, thus an increase in the follicle diameter results in a compressive force on the follicle that can impact follicle growth10
. We subsequently developed a culture system based on a fibrin-alginate interpenetrating network (FA-IPN), in which a mixture of fibrin and alginate are gelled simultaneously. This combination provides a dynamic mechanical environment because both components contribute to matrix rigidity initially; however, proteases secreted by the growing follicle degrade fibrin in the matrix leaving only alginate to provide support. With the IPN, the alginate content can be reduced below 0.25%, which is not possible with alginate alone 5
. Thus, as the follicle expands, it will experience a reduced compressive force due to the reduced solids content. Herein, we describe an encapsulation method and an in vitro
culture system for ovarian follicles within a FA-IPN. The dynamic mechanical environment mimics the natural ovarian environment in which small follicles reside in a rigid cortex and move to a more permissive medulla as they increase in size11
. The degradable component may be particularly critical for clinical translation in order to support the greater than 106
-fold increase in volume that human follicles normally undergo in vivo
Bioengineering, Issue 49, Ovarian follicle, fibrin-alginate, 3D culture system, dynamic environment
Differentiation of Newborn Mouse Skin Derived Stem Cells into Germ-like Cells In vitro
Institutions: The University of Western Ontario, Children's Health Research Institute.
Studying germ cell formation and differentiation has traditionally been very difficult due to low cell numbers and their location deep within developing embryos. The availability of a "closed" in vitro
based system could prove invaluable for our understanding of gametogenesis. The formation of oocyte-like cells (OLCs) from somatic stem cells, isolated from newborn mouse skin, has been demonstrated and can be visualized in this video protocol. The resulting OLCs express various markers consistent with oocytes such as Oct4 , Vasa , Bmp15
, and Scp3
. However, they remain unable to undergo maturation or fertilization due to a failure to complete meiosis. This protocol will provide a system that is useful for studying the early stage formation and differentiation of germ cells into more mature gametes. During early differentiation the number of cells expressing Oct4 (potential germ-like cells) reaches ~5%, however currently the formation of OLCs remains relatively inefficient. The protocol is relatively straight forward though special care should be taken to ensure the starting cell population is healthy and at an early passage.
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 77, Developmental Biology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Physiology, Adult Stem Cells, Pluripotent Stem Cells, Germ Cells, Oocytes, Reproductive Physiological Processes, Stem cell, skin, germ cell, oocyte, cell, differentiation, cell culture, mouse, animal model
Live Imaging of GFP-labeled Proteins in Drosophila Oocytes
Institutions: Vassar College.
oocyte has been established as a versatile system for investigating fundamental questions such as cytoskeletal function, cell organization, and organelle structure and function. The availability of various GFP-tagged proteins means that many cellular processes can be monitored in living cells over the course of minutes or hours, and using this technique, processes such as RNP transport, epithelial morphogenesis, and tissue remodeling have been described in great detail in Drosophila
The ability to perform video imaging combined with a rich repertoire of mutants allows an enormous variety of genes and processes to be examined in incredible detail. One such example is the process of ooplasmic streaming, which initiates at mid-oogenesis3,4
. This vigorous movement of cytoplasmic vesicles is microtubule and kinesin-dependent5
and provides a useful system for investigating cytoskeleton function at these stages.
Here I present a protocol for time lapse imaging of living oocytes using virtually any confocal microscopy setup.
Developmental Biology, Issue 73, Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Proteins, Anatomy, Physiology, Drosophila melanogaster, fruit fly, Cell Biology, Drosophila oocytes, oogenesis, oocytes, ovaries, GFP, Live Imaging, Time Lapse Video, imaging, confocal microscopy, dissection, animal model
Retrieval of Mouse Oocytes
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI).
To date, only a few studies have reported successful manipulations of Peromyscus embryogenesis or reproductive biology. Together with the Peromyscus Genetic Stock Center (https://stkctr.biol.sc.edu), we are characterizing the salient differences needed to develop this system. A primary goal has been to optimize oocyte/early embryo retrieval.
Developmental Biology, Issue 3, oocyte, egg, mouse, dissection
Visualizing RNA Localization in Xenopus Oocytes
Institutions: Brown University.
RNA localization is a conserved mechanism of establishing cell polarity. Vg1 mRNA localizes to the vegetal pole of Xenopus laevis
oocytes and acts to spatially restrict gene expression of Vg1 protein. Tight control of Vg1 distribution in this manner is required for proper germ layer specification in the developing embryo. RNA sequence elements in the 3' UTR of the mRNA, the Vg1 localization element (VLE) are required and sufficient to direct transport. To study the recognition and transport of Vg1 mRNA in vivo
, we have developed an imaging technique that allows extensive analysis of trans-factor directed transport mechanisms via a simple visual readout.
To visualize RNA localization, we synthesize fluorescently labeled VLE RNA and microinject this transcript into individual oocytes. After oocyte culture to allow transport of the injected RNA, oocytes are fixed and dehydrated prior to imaging by confocal microscopy. Visualization of mRNA localization patterns provides a readout for monitoring the complete pathway of RNA transport and for identifying roles in directing RNA transport for cis-acting elements within the transcript and trans-acting factors that bind to the VLE (Lewis et al., 2008, Messitt et al., 2008). We have extended this technique through co-localization with additional RNAs and proteins (Gagnon and Mowry, 2009, Messitt et al., 2008), and in combination with disruption of motor proteins and the cytoskeleton (Messitt et al., 2008) to probe mechanisms underlying mRNA localization.
Developmental Biology, Issue 35, RNA, Developmental Biology, Microinjection, RNA Localization, Xenopus, oocytes, VLE
Flow Cytometry Purification of Mouse Meiotic Cells
Institutions: The Scripps Research Institute, The Scripps Research Institute.
The heterogeneous nature of cell types in the testis and the absence of meiotic cell culture models have been significant hurdles to the study of the unique differentiation programs that are manifest during meiosis. Two principal methods have been developed to purify, to varying degrees, various meiotic fractions from both adult and immature animals: elutriation or Staput (sedimentation) using BSA and/or percoll gradients. Both of these methods rely on cell size and density to separate meiotic cells1-5
. Overall, except for few cell populations6
, these protocols fail to yield sufficient purity of the numerous meiotic cell populations that are necessary for detailed molecular analyses. Moreover, with such methods usually one type of meiotic cells can be purified at a given time, which adds an extra level of complexity regarding the reproducibility and homogeneity when comparing meiotic cell samples.
Here, we describe a refined method that allows one to easily visualize, identify, and purify meiotic cells, from germ cells to round spermatids, using FACS combined with Hoechst 33342 staining7,8
. This method provides an overall snapshot of the entire meiotic process and allows one to highly purify viable cells from most stage of meiosis. These purified cells can then be analyzed in detail for molecular changes that accompany progression through meiosis, for example changes in gene expression9,10
and the dynamics of nucleosome occupancy at hotspots of meiotic recombination11
Cellular Biology, Issue 50, meiosis, mouse, FACS, purification, testis
The Xenopus Oocyte Cut-open Vaseline Gap Voltage-clamp Technique With Fluorometry
Institutions: Washington University in St. Louis.
The cut-open oocyte Vaseline gap (COVG) voltage clamp technique allows for analysis of electrophysiological and kinetic properties of heterologous ion channels in oocytes. Recordings from the cut-open setup are particularly useful for resolving low magnitude gating currents, rapid ionic current activation, and deactivation. The main benefits over the two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) technique include increased clamp speed, improved signal-to-noise ratio, and the ability to modulate the intracellular and extracellular milieu.
Here, we employ the human cardiac sodium channel (hNaV
1.5), expressed in Xenopus
oocytes, to demonstrate the cut-open setup and protocol as well as modifications that are required to add voltage clamp fluorometry capability.
The properties of fast activating ion channels, such as hNaV
1.5, cannot be fully resolved near room temperature using TEVC, in which the entirety of the oocyte membrane is clamped, making voltage control difficult. However, in the cut-open technique, isolation of only a small portion of the cell membrane allows for the rapid clamping required to accurately record fast kinetics while preventing channel run-down associated with patch clamp techniques.
In conjunction with the COVG technique, ion channel kinetics and electrophysiological properties can be further assayed by using voltage clamp fluorometry, where protein motion is tracked via cysteine conjugation of extracellularly applied fluorophores, insertion of genetically encoded fluorescent proteins, or the incorporation of unnatural amino acids into the region of interest1
. This additional data yields kinetic information about voltage-dependent conformational rearrangements of the protein via changes in the microenvironment surrounding the fluorescent molecule.
Developmental Biology, Issue 85, Voltage clamp, Cut-open, Oocyte, Voltage Clamp Fluorometry, Sodium Channels, Ionic Currents, Xenopus laevis
Single Oocyte Bisulfite Mutagenesis
Institutions: Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, Children's Health Research Institute.
Epigenetics encompasses all heritable and reversible modifications to chromatin that alter gene accessibility, and thus are the primary mechanisms for regulating gene transcription1
. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that acts predominantly as a repressive mark. Through the covalent addition of a methyl group onto cytosines in CpG dinucleotides, it can recruit additional repressive proteins and histone modifications to initiate processes involved in condensing chromatin and silencing genes2
. DNA methylation is essential for normal development as it plays a critical role in developmental programming, cell differentiation, repression of retroviral elements, X-chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting.
One of the most powerful methods for DNA methylation analysis is bisulfite mutagenesis. Sodium bisulfite is a DNA mutagen that deaminates cytosines into uracils. Following PCR amplification and sequencing, these conversion events are detected as thymines. Methylated cytosines are protected from deamination and thus remain as cytosines, enabling identification of DNA methylation at the individual nucleotide level3
. Development of the bisulfite mutagenesis assay has advanced from those originally reported4-6
towards ones that are more sensitive and reproducible7
. One key advancement was embedding smaller amounts of DNA in an agarose bead, thereby protecting DNA from the harsh bisulfite treatment8
. This enabled methylation analysis to be performed on pools of oocytes and blastocyst-stage embryos9
. The most sophisticated bisulfite mutagenesis protocol to date is for individual blastocyst-stage embryos10
. However, since blastocysts have on average 64 cells (containing 120-720 pg of genomic DNA), this method is not efficacious for methylation studies on individual oocytes or cleavage-stage embryos.
Taking clues from agarose embedding of minute DNA amounts including oocytes11
, here we present a method whereby oocytes are directly embedded in an agarose and lysis solution bead immediately following retrieval and removal of the zona pellucida from the oocyte. This enables us to bypass the two main challenges of single oocyte bisulfite mutagenesis: protecting a minute amount of DNA from degradation, and subsequent loss during the numerous protocol steps. Importantly, as data are obtained from single oocytes, the issue of PCR bias within pools is eliminated. Furthermore, inadvertent cumulus cell contamination is detectable by this method since any sample with more than one methylation pattern may be excluded from analysis12
. This protocol provides an improved method for successful and reproducible analyses of DNA methylation at the single-cell level and is ideally suited for individual oocytes as well as cleavage-stage embryos.
Genetics, Issue 64, Developmental Biology, Biochemistry, Bisulfite mutagenesis, DNA methylation, individual oocyte, individual embryo, mouse model, PCR, epigenetics
Modeling Astrocytoma Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo Using Cortical Astrocytes or Neural Stem Cells from Conditional, Genetically Engineered Mice
Institutions: University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine.
Current astrocytoma models are limited in their ability to define the roles of oncogenic mutations in specific brain cell types during disease pathogenesis and their utility for preclinical drug development. In order to design a better model system for these applications, phenotypically wild-type cortical astrocytes and neural stem cells (NSC) from conditional, genetically engineered mice (GEM) that harbor various combinations of floxed oncogenic alleles were harvested and grown in culture. Genetic recombination was induced in vitro
using adenoviral Cre-mediated recombination, resulting in expression of mutated oncogenes and deletion of tumor suppressor genes. The phenotypic consequences of these mutations were defined by measuring proliferation, transformation, and drug response in vitro
. Orthotopic allograft models, whereby transformed cells are stereotactically injected into the brains of immune-competent, syngeneic littermates, were developed to define the role of oncogenic mutations and cell type on tumorigenesis in vivo
. Unlike most established human glioblastoma cell line xenografts, injection of transformed GEM-derived cortical astrocytes into the brains of immune-competent littermates produced astrocytomas, including the most aggressive subtype, glioblastoma, that recapitulated the histopathological hallmarks of human astrocytomas, including diffuse invasion of normal brain parenchyma. Bioluminescence imaging of orthotopic allografts from transformed astrocytes engineered to express luciferase was utilized to monitor in vivo
tumor growth over time. Thus, astrocytoma models using astrocytes and NSC harvested from GEM with conditional oncogenic alleles provide an integrated system to study the genetics and cell biology of astrocytoma pathogenesis in vitro
and in vivo
and may be useful in preclinical drug development for these devastating diseases.
Neuroscience, Issue 90, astrocytoma, cortical astrocytes, genetically engineered mice, glioblastoma, neural stem cells, orthotopic allograft
Reconstitution Of β-catenin Degradation In Xenopus Egg Extract
Institutions: Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.
egg extract is a well-characterized, robust system for studying the biochemistry of diverse cellular processes. Xenopus
egg extract has been used to study protein turnover in many cellular contexts, including the cell cycle and signal transduction pathways1-3
. Herein, a method is described for isolating Xenopus
egg extract that has been optimized to promote the degradation of the critical Wnt pathway component, β-catenin. Two different methods are described to assess β-catenin protein degradation in Xenopus
egg extract. One method is visually informative ([35
S]-radiolabeled proteins), while the other is more readily scaled for high-throughput assays (firefly luciferase-tagged fusion proteins). The techniques described can be used to, but are not limited to, assess β-catenin protein turnover and identify molecular components contributing to its turnover. Additionally, the ability to purify large volumes of homogenous Xenopus
egg extract combined with the quantitative and facile readout of luciferase-tagged proteins allows this system to be easily adapted for high-throughput screening for modulators of β-catenin degradation.
Molecular Biology, Issue 88, Xenopus laevis, Xenopus egg extracts, protein degradation, radiolabel, luciferase, autoradiography, high-throughput screening
Imaging Centrosomes in Fly Testes
Institutions: University of Toledo.
Centrosomes are conserved microtubule-based organelles whose structure and function change dramatically throughout the cell cycle and cell differentiation. Centrosomes are essential to determine the cell division axis during mitosis and to nucleate cilia during interphase. The identity of the proteins that mediate these dynamic changes remains only partially known, and the function of many of the proteins that have been implicated in these processes is still rudimentary. Recent work has shown that Drosophila
spermatogenesis provides a powerful system to identify new proteins critical for centrosome function and formation as well as to gain insight into the particular function of known players in centrosome-related processes. Drosophila
is an established genetic model organism where mutants in centrosomal genes can be readily obtained and easily analyzed. Furthermore, recent advances in the sensitivity and resolution of light microscopy and the development of robust genetically tagged centrosomal markers have transformed the ability to use Drosophila
testes as a simple and accessible model system to study centrosomes. This paper describes the use of genetically-tagged centrosomal markers to perform genetic screens for new centrosomal mutants and to gain insight into the specific function of newly identified genes.
Developmental Biology, Issue 79, biology (general), genetics (animal and plant), animal biology, animal models, Life Sciences (General), Centrosome, Spermatogenesis, Spermiogenesis, Drosophila, Centriole, Cilium, Mitosis, Meiosis
Measuring Cation Transport by Na,K- and H,K-ATPase in Xenopus Oocytes by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry: An Alternative to Radioisotope Assays
Institutions: Technical University of Berlin, Oregon Health & Science University.
Whereas cation transport by the electrogenic membrane transporter Na+
-ATPase can be measured by electrophysiology, the electroneutrally operating gastric H+
-ATPase is more difficult to investigate. Many transport assays utilize radioisotopes to achieve a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio, however, the necessary security measures impose severe restrictions regarding human exposure or assay design. Furthermore, ion transport across cell membranes is critically influenced by the membrane potential, which is not straightforwardly controlled in cell culture or in proteoliposome preparations. Here, we make use of the outstanding sensitivity of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) towards trace amounts of chemical elements to measure Rb+
transport by Na+
- or gastric H+
-ATPase in single cells. Using Xenopus
oocytes as expression system, we determine the amount of Rb+
) transported into the cells by measuring samples of single-oocyte homogenates in an AAS device equipped with a transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA) furnace, which is loaded from an autosampler. Since the background of unspecific Rb+
uptake into control oocytes or during application of ATPase-specific inhibitors is very small, it is possible to implement complex kinetic assay schemes involving a large number of experimental conditions simultaneously, or to compare the transport capacity and kinetics of site-specifically mutated transporters with high precision. Furthermore, since cation uptake is determined on single cells, the flux experiments can be carried out in combination with two-electrode voltage-clamping (TEVC) to achieve accurate control of the membrane potential and current. This allowed e.g.
to quantitatively determine the 3Na+
transport stoichiometry of the Na+
-ATPase and enabled for the first time to investigate the voltage dependence of cation transport by the electroneutrally operating gastric H+
-ATPase. In principle, the assay is not limited to K+
-transporting membrane proteins, but it may work equally well to address the activity of heavy or transition metal transporters, or uptake of chemical elements by endocytotic processes.
Biochemistry, Issue 72, Chemistry, Biophysics, Bioengineering, Physiology, Molecular Biology, electrochemical processes, physical chemistry, spectrophotometry (application), spectroscopic chemical analysis (application), life sciences, temperature effects (biological, animal and plant), Life Sciences (General), Na+,K+-ATPase, H+,K+-ATPase, Cation Uptake, P-type ATPases, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), Two-Electrode Voltage-Clamp, Xenopus Oocytes, Rb+ Flux, Transversely Heated Graphite Atomizer (THGA) Furnace, electrophysiology, animal model
Demonstration of Proteolytic Activation of the Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC) by Combining Current Measurements with Detection of Cleavage Fragments
Institutions: Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU).
The described methods can be used to investigate the effect of proteases on ion channels, receptors, and other plasma membrane proteins heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis
oocytes. In combination with site-directed mutagenesis, this approach provides a powerful tool to identify functionally relevant cleavage sites. Proteolytic activation is a characteristic feature of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). The final activating step involves cleavage of the channel’s γ-subunit in a critical region potentially targeted by several proteases including chymotrypsin and plasmin. To determine the stimulatory effect of these serine proteases on ENaC, the amiloride-sensitive whole-cell current (ΔIami
) was measured twice in the same oocyte before and after exposure to the protease using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. In parallel to the electrophysiological experiments, a biotinylation approach was used to monitor the appearance of γENaC cleavage fragments at the cell surface. Using the methods described, it was demonstrated that the time course of proteolytic activation of ENaC-mediated whole-cell currents correlates with the appearance of a γENaC cleavage product at the cell surface. These results suggest a causal link between channel cleavage and channel activation. Moreover, they confirm the concept that a cleavage event in γENaC is required as a final step in proteolytic channel activation. The methods described here may well be applicable to address similar questions for other types of ion channels or membrane proteins.
Biochemistry, Issue 89, two-electrode voltage-clamp, electrophysiology, biotinylation, Xenopus laevis oocytes, epithelial sodium channel, ENaC, proteases, proteolytic channel activation, ion channel, cleavage sites, cleavage fragments
The Utility of Stage-specific Mid-to-late Drosophila Follicle Isolation
Institutions: University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine.
oogenesis or follicle development has been widely used to advance the understanding of complex developmental and cell biologic processes. This methods paper describes how to isolate mid-to-late stage follicles (Stage 10B-14) and utilize them to provide new insights into the molecular and morphologic events occurring during tight windows of developmental time. Isolated follicles can be used for a variety of experimental techniques, including in vitro
development assays, live imaging, mRNA expression analysis and western blot analysis of proteins. Follicles at Stage 10B (S10B) or later will complete development in culture; this allows one to combine genetic or pharmacologic perturbations with in vitro
development to define the effects of such manipulations on the processes occurring during specific periods of development. Additionally, because these follicles develop in culture, they are ideally suited for live imaging studies, which often reveal new mechanisms that mediate morphological events. Isolated follicles can also be used for molecular analyses. For example, changes in gene expression that result from genetic perturbations can be defined for specific developmental windows. Additionally, protein level, stability, and/or posttranslational modification state during a particular stage of follicle development can be examined through western blot analyses. Thus, stage-specific isolation of Drosophila
follicles provides a rich source of information into widely conserved processes of development and morphogenesis.
Developmental Biology, Issue 82, Drosophila melanogaster, Organ Culture Techniques, Gene Expression Profiling, Microscopy, Confocal, Cell Biology, Genetic Research, Molecular Biology, Pharmacology, Drosophila, oogenesis, follicle, live-imaging, gene expression, development
Use of Time Lapse Microscopy to Visualize Anoxia-induced Suspended Animation in C. elegans Embryos
Institutions: University of North Texas.
has been used extensively in the study of stress resistance, which is facilitated by the transparency of the adult and embryo stages as well as by the availability of genetic mutants and transgenic strains expressing a myriad of fusion proteins1-4
. In addition, dynamic processes such as cell division can be viewed using fluorescently labeled reporter proteins. The study of mitosis can be facilitated through the use of time-lapse experiments in various systems including intact organisms; thus the early C. elegans
embryo is well suited for this study. Presented here is a technique by which in vivo
imaging of sub-cellular structures in response to anoxic (99.999% N2
; <2 ppm O2
) stress is possible using a simple gas flow through setup on a high-powered microscope. A microincubation chamber is used in conjunction with nitrogen gas flow through and a spinning disc confocal microscope to create a controlled environment in which animals can be imaged in vivo
. Using GFP-tagged gamma tubulin and histone, the dynamics and arrest of cell division can be monitored before, during and after exposure to an oxygen-deprived environment. The results of this technique are high resolution, detailed videos and images of cellular structures within blastomeres of embryos exposed to oxygen deprivation.
Developmental Biology, Issue 70, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, C. elegans, Caenorhabdits elegans, anoxia, suspended animation, in vivo imaging, microscopy, oxygen deprivation, cell cycle, animal model
Nuclear Transfer into Mouse Oocytes
Nuclear transfer into an unfertilized oocyte can restore developmental potential to a differentiated cell. This demonstrates that the processes underlying development, differentiation and aging are epigenetic rather than genetic processes. The reversibility of these processes opens exciting perspectives in basic research, and in the more distant future, in regenerative medicine. In the mouse, embryonic stem cells can be derived from cloned preimplantation stage embryos. Such embryonic stem cells have the ability to give rise to all cell types of the adult organism. Importantly, these cells are genetically identical to the donor. If applicable to human, this would allow the derivation of stem cells from a patient. These cells could then be differentiated into the affected cell type of the patient and studied in vitro, or used to replace the damaged or missing cells. The study of nuclear transfer in the mouse remains important as it can inform us about the principles of nuclear reprogramming. This movie and the accompanying protocol are intended to help learning nuclear transfer in the mouse, a method initially developed in the group of Prof. Yanagimachi (WAKAYAMA et al. 1998).
Developmental Biology, Issue 1, oocytes, nuclear transfer, stem cells
Ex vivo Culture of Drosophila Pupal Testis and Single Male Germ-line Cysts: Dissection, Imaging, and Pharmacological Treatment
Institutions: Philipps-Universität Marburg, Philipps-Universität Marburg.
During spermatogenesis in mammals and in Drosophila melanogaster,
male germ cells develop in a series of essential developmental processes. This includes differentiation from a stem cell population, mitotic amplification, and meiosis. In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin—the histone-to-protamine switch.
Studying the role of a protein in post-meiotic spermatogenesis using mutagenesis or other genetic tools is often impeded by essential embryonic, pre-meiotic, or meiotic functions of the protein under investigation. The post-meiotic phenotype of a mutant of such a protein could be obscured through an earlier developmental block, or the interpretation of the phenotype could be complicated. The model organism Drosophila melanogaster
offers a bypass to this problem: intact testes and even cysts of germ cells dissected from early pupae are able to develop ex vivo
in culture medium. Making use of such cultures allows microscopic imaging of living germ cells in testes and of germ-line cysts. Importantly, the cultivated testes and germ cells also become accessible to pharmacological inhibitors, thereby permitting manipulation of enzymatic functions during spermatogenesis, including post-meiotic stages.
The protocol presented describes how to dissect and cultivate pupal testes and germ-line cysts. Information on the development of pupal testes and culture conditions are provided alongside microscope imaging data of live testes and germ-line cysts in culture. We also describe a pharmacological assay to study post-meiotic spermatogenesis, exemplified by an assay targeting the histone-to-protamine switch using the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor anacardic acid. In principle, this cultivation method could be adapted to address many other research questions in pre- and post-meiotic spermatogenesis.
Developmental Biology, Issue 91,
Ex vivo culture, testis, male germ-line cells, Drosophila, imaging, pharmacological assay
Cytological Analysis of Spermatogenesis: Live and Fixed Preparations of Drosophila Testes
Institutions: Vanderbilt University Medical Center.
is a powerful model system that has been widely used to elucidate a variety of biological processes. For example, studies of both the female and male germ lines of Drosophila
have contributed greatly to the current understanding of meiosis as well as stem cell biology. Excellent protocols are available in the literature for the isolation and imaging of Drosophila
ovaries and testes3-12
. Herein, methods for the dissection and preparation of Drosophila
testes for microscopic analysis are described with an accompanying video demonstration. A protocol for isolating testes from the abdomen of adult males and preparing slides of live tissue for analysis by phase-contrast microscopy as well as a protocol for fixing and immunostaining testes for analysis by fluorescence microscopy are presented. These techniques can be applied in the characterization of Drosophila
mutants that exhibit defects in spermatogenesis as well as in the visualization of subcellular localizations of proteins.
Basic Protocol, Issue 83, Drosophila melanogaster, dissection, testes, spermatogenesis, meiosis, germ cells, phase-contrast microscopy, immunofluorescence
Chromatin Interaction Analysis with Paired-End Tag Sequencing (ChIA-PET) for Mapping Chromatin Interactions and Understanding Transcription Regulation
Institutions: Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore, A*STAR-Duke-NUS Neuroscience Research Partnership, Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
Genomes are organized into three-dimensional structures, adopting higher-order conformations inside the micron-sized nuclear spaces 7, 2, 12
. Such architectures are not random and involve interactions between gene promoters and regulatory elements 13
. The binding of transcription factors to specific regulatory sequences brings about a network of transcription regulation and coordination 1, 14
Chromatin Interaction Analysis by Paired-End Tag Sequencing (ChIA-PET) was developed to identify these higher-order chromatin structures 5,6
. Cells are fixed and interacting loci are captured by covalent DNA-protein cross-links. To minimize non-specific noise and reduce complexity, as well as to increase the specificity of the chromatin interaction analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is used against specific protein factors to enrich chromatin fragments of interest before proximity ligation. Ligation involving half-linkers subsequently forms covalent links between pairs of DNA fragments tethered together within individual chromatin complexes. The flanking MmeI restriction enzyme sites in the half-linkers allow extraction of paired end tag-linker-tag constructs (PETs) upon MmeI digestion. As the half-linkers are biotinylated, these PET constructs are purified using streptavidin-magnetic beads. The purified PETs are ligated with next-generation sequencing adaptors and a catalog of interacting fragments is generated via next-generation sequencers such as the Illumina Genome Analyzer. Mapping and bioinformatics analysis is then performed to identify ChIP-enriched binding sites and ChIP-enriched chromatin interactions 8
We have produced a video to demonstrate critical aspects of the ChIA-PET protocol, especially the preparation of ChIP as the quality of ChIP plays a major role in the outcome of a ChIA-PET library. As the protocols are very long, only the critical steps are shown in the video.
Genetics, Issue 62, ChIP, ChIA-PET, Chromatin Interactions, Genomics, Next-Generation Sequencing
Microinjection of Xenopus Laevis Oocytes
Institutions: University of British Columbia - UBC.
Microinjection of Xenopus laevis
oocytes followed by thin-sectioning electron microscopy (EM) is an excellent system for studying nucleocytoplasmic transport. Because of its large nucleus and high density of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), nuclear transport can be easily visualized in the Xenopus
oocyte. Much insight into the mechanisms of nuclear import and export has been gained through use of this system (reviewed by Panté, 2006). In addition, we have used microinjection of Xenopus
oocytes to dissect the nuclear import pathways of several viruses that replicate in the host nucleus.
Here we demonstrate the cytoplasmic microinjection of Xenopus
oocytes with a nuclear import substrate. We also show preparation of the injected oocytes for visualization by thin-sectioning EM, including dissection, dehydration, and embedding of the oocytes into an epoxy embedding resin. Finally, we provide representative results for oocytes that have been microinjected with the capsid of the baculovirus Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus
(AcMNPV) or the parvovirus Minute Virus of Mice (MVM), and discuss potential applications of the technique.
Cellular biology, Issue 24, nuclear import, nuclear pore complex, Xenopus oocyte, microinjection, electron microscopy, nuclear membrane, nuclear import of viruses