Previous studies showed that cell delivery promotes cardiac function amelioration by release of cytokines and factors that increase cardiac tissue revascularization and cell survival. In addition, further observations revealed that specific stem cells, such as cardiac stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and cardiospheres have the ability to integrate within the surrounding myocardium by differentiating into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells.
Here, we present the materials and methods to reliably deliver noncontractile cells into the left ventricular wall of immunodepleted mice. The salient steps of this microsurgical procedure involve anesthesia and analgesia injection, intratracheal intubation, incision to open the chest and expose the heart and delivery of cells by a sterile 30-gauge needle and a precision microliter syringe.
Tissue processing consisting of heart harvesting, embedding, sectioning and histological staining showed that intramyocardial cell injection produced a small damage in the epicardial area, as well as in the ventricular wall. Noncontractile cells were retained into the myocardial wall of immunocompromised mice and were surrounded by a layer of fibrotic tissue, likely to protect from cardiac pressure and mechanical load.
23 Related JoVE Articles!
A Novel Surgical Approach for Intratracheal Administration of Bioactive Agents in a Fetal Mouse Model
Institutions: KU Leuven, KU Leuven, KU Leuven, KU Leuven, KU Leuven.
Prenatal pulmonary delivery of cells, genes or pharmacologic agents could provide the basis for new therapeutic strategies for a variety of genetic and acquired diseases. Apart from congenital or inherited abnormalities with the requirement for long-term expression of the delivered gene, several non-inherited perinatal conditions, where short-term gene expression or pharmacological intervention is sufficient to achieve therapeutic effects, are considered as potential future indications for this kind of approach. Candidate diseases for the application of short-term prenatal therapy could be the transient neonatal deficiency of surfactant protein B causing neonatal respiratory distress syndrome1,2
or hyperoxic injuries of the neonatal lung3
. Candidate diseases for permanent therapeutic correction are Cystic Fibrosis (CF)4
, genetic variants of surfactant deficiencies5
and α1-antitrypsin deficiency6
Generally, an important advantage of prenatal gene therapy is the ability to start therapeutic intervention early in development, at or even prior to clinical manifestations in the patient, thus preventing irreparable damage to the individual. In addition, fetal organs have an increased cell proliferation rate as compared to adult organs, which could allow a more efficient gene or stem cell transfer into the fetus. Furthermore, in utero
gene delivery is performed when the individual's immune system is not completely mature. Therefore, transplantation of heterologous cells or supplementation of a non-functional or absent protein with a correct version should not cause immune sensitization to the cell, vector or transgene product, which has recently been proven to be the case with both cellular and genetic therapies7
In the present study, we investigated the potential to directly target the fetal trachea in a mouse model. This procedure is in use in larger animal models such as rabbits and sheep8
, and even in a clinical setting9
, but has to date not been performed before in a mouse model. When studying the potential of fetal gene therapy for genetic diseases such as CF, the mouse model is very useful as a first proof-of-concept because of the wide availability of different transgenic mouse strains, the well documented embryogenesis and fetal development, less stringent ethical regulations, short gestation and the large litter size.
Different access routes have been described to target the fetal rodent lung, including intra-amniotic injection10-12
, (ultrasound-guided) intrapulmonary injection13,14
and intravenous administration into the yolk sac vessels15,16
or umbilical vein17
. Our novel surgical procedure enables researchers to inject the agent of choice directly into the fetal mouse trachea which allows for a more efficient delivery to the airways than existing techniques18
Medicine, Issue 68, Fetal, intratracheal, intra-amniotic, cross-fostering, lung, microsurgery, gene therapy, mice, rAAV
Stem Cell Transplantation in an in vitro Simulated Ischemia/Reperfusion Model
Institutions: Semmelweis University.
Stem cell transplantation protocols are finding their way into clinical practice1,2,3
. Getting better results, making the protocols more robust, and finding new sources for implantable cells are the focus of recent research4,5
. Investigating the effectiveness of cell therapies is not an easy task and new tools are needed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the treatment process6
. We designed an experimental protocol of ischemia/reperfusion in order to allow the observation of cellular connections and even subcellular mechanisms during ischemia/reperfusion injury and after stem cell transplantation and to evaluate the efficacy of cell therapy. H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells were placed onto cell culture plates7,8
. Ischemia was simulated with 150 minutes in a glucose free medium with oxygen level below 0.5%. Then, normal media and oxygen levels were reintroduced to simulate reperfusion. After oxygen glucose deprivation, the damaged cells were treated with transplantation of labeled human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells by adding them to the culture. Mesenchymal stem cells are preferred in clinical trials because they are easily accessible with minimal invasive surgery, easily expandable and autologous. After 24 hours of co-cultivation, cells were stained with calcein and ethidium-homodimer to differentiate between live and dead cells. This setup allowed us to investigate the intercellular connections using confocal fluorescent microscopy and to quantify the survival rate of postischemic cells by flow cytometry. Confocal microscopy showed the interactions of the two cell populations such as cell fusion and formation of intercellular nanotubes. Flow cytometry analysis revealed 3 clusters of damaged cells which can be plotted on a graph and analyzed statistically. These populations can be investigated separately and conclusions can be drawn on these data on the effectiveness of the simulated therapeutical approach.
Medicine, Issue 57, ischemia/reperfusion model, stem cell transplantation, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry
Gene Transfer for Ischemic Heart Failure in a Preclinical Model
Institutions: Mount Sinai School of Medicine .
Various emerging technologies are being developed for patients with heart failure. Well-established preclinical evaluations are necessary to determine their efficacy and safety.
Gene therapy using viral vectors is one of the most promising approaches for treating cardiac diseases. Viral delivery of various different genes by changing the carrier gene has immeasurable therapeutic potential.
In this video, the full process of an animal model of heart failure creation followed by gene transfer is presented using a swine model. First, myocardial infarction is created by occluding the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. Heart remodeling results in chronic heart failure. Unique to our model is a fairly large scar which truly reflects patients with severe heart failure who require aggressive therapy for positive outcomes. After myocardial infarct creation and development of scar tissue, an intracoronary injection of virus is demonstrated with simultaneous nitroglycerine infusion. Our injection method provides simple and efficient gene transfer with enhanced gene expression. This combination of a myocardial infarct swine model with intracoronary virus delivery has proven to be a consistent and reproducible methodology, which helps not only to test the effect of individual gene, but also compare the efficacy of many genes as therapeutic candidates.
Medicine, Issue 51, Myocardial infarction, Gene therapy, Intracoronary injection, Viral vector, Ischemic heart failure
Bioluminescence Imaging for Assessment of Immune Responses Following Implantation of Engineered Heart Tissue (EHT)
Institutions: University Heart Center Hamburg, University Heart Center Hamburg, Stanford University School of Medicine.
Various techniques of cardiac tissue engineering have been pursued in the past decades including scaffolding strategies using either native or bioartificial scaffold materials, entrapment of cardiac myocytes in hydrogels such as fibrin or collagen and stacking of myocyte monolayers 1
. These concepts aim at restoration of compromised cardiac function (e.g. after myocardial infarction) or as experimental models (e.g. predictive toxicology and substance screening or disease modelling). Precise monitoring of cell survival after implantation of engineered heart tissue (EHT) has now become possible using in-vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) techniques 2
. Here we describe the generation of fibrin-based EHT from a transgenic rat strain with ubiquitous expression of firefly luciferase (ROSA/luciferase-LEW Tg; 3
). Implantation is performed into the greater omentum of different rat strains to assess immune responses of the recipient organism following EHT implantation. Comparison of results generated by BLI and the Enzyme Linked Immuno Spot Technique (ELISPOT) confirm the usability of BLI for the assessment of immune responses.
Bioengineering, Issue 52, Engineered heart tissue, bioluminescence imaging, rejection, rats, immune response
A Mouse Model of in Utero Transplantation
Institutions: University of California, University of California, University of California.
The transplantation of stem cells and viruses in utero
has tremendous potential for treating congenital disorders in the human fetus. For example, in utero
transplantation (IUT) of hematopoietic stem cells has been used to successfully treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency.1,2
In several other conditions, however, IUT has been attempted without success.3
Given these mixed results, the availability of an efficient non-human model to study the biological sequelae of stem cell transplantation and gene therapy is critical to advance this field. We and others have used the mouse model of IUT to study factors affecting successful engraftment of in utero
transplanted hematopoietic stem cells in both wild-type mice4-7
and those with genetic diseases.8,9
The fetal environment also offers considerable advantages for the success of in utero
gene therapy. For example, the delivery of adenoviral10
, adeno-associated viral10
, and lentiviral vectors12,13
into the fetus has resulted in the transduction of multiple organs distant from the site of injection with long-term gene expression. in utero
gene therapy may therefore be considered as a possible treatment strategy for single gene disorders such as muscular dystrophy or cystic fibrosis. Another potential advantage of IUT is the ability to induce immune tolerance to a specific antigen. As seen in mice with hemophilia, the introduction of Factor IX early in development results in tolerance to this protein.14
In addition to its use in investigating potential human therapies, the mouse model of IUT can be a powerful tool to study basic questions in developmental and stem cell biology. For example, one can deliver various small molecules to induce or inhibit specific gene expression at defined gestational stages and manipulate developmental pathways. The impact of these alterations can be assessed at various timepoints after the initial transplantation. Furthermore, one can transplant pluripotent or lineage specific progenitor cells into the fetal environment to study stem cell differentiation in a non-irradiated and unperturbed host environment.
The mouse model of IUT has already provided numerous insights within the fields of immunology, and developmental and stem cell biology. In this video-based protocol, we describe a step-by-step approach to performing IUT in mouse fetuses and outline the critical steps and potential pitfalls of this technique.
Medicine, Issue 47, development, stem cells, transplantation, in utero
Ultrasound-guided Transthoracic Intramyocardial Injection in Mice
Institutions: Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard University.
Murine models of cardiovascular disease are important for investigating pathophysiological mechanisms and exploring potential regenerative therapies. Experiments involving myocardial injection are currently performed by direct surgical access through a thoracotomy. While convenient when performed at the time of another experimental manipulation such as coronary artery ligation, the need for an invasive procedure for intramyocardial delivery limits potential experimental designs. With ever improving ultrasound resolution and advanced noninvasive imaging modalities, it is now feasible to routinely perform ultrasound-guided, percutaneous intramyocardial injection. This modality efficiently and reliably delivers agents to a targeted region of myocardium. Advantages of this technique include the avoidance of surgical morbidity, the facility to target regions of myocardium selectively under ultrasound guidance, and the opportunity to deliver injectate to the myocardium at multiple, predetermined time intervals. With practiced technique, complications from intramyocardial injection are rare, and mice quickly return to normal activity on recovery from anesthetic. Following the steps outlined in this protocol, the operator with basic echocardiography experience can quickly become competent in this versatile, minimally invasive technique.
Medicine, Issue 90, microinjection, mouse, echocardiography, transthoracic, myocardium, percutaneous administration
Coronary Artery Ligation and Intramyocardial Injection in a Murine Model of Infarction
Institutions: East Carolina University.
Mouse models are a valuable tool for studying acute injury and chronic remodeling of the myocardium in vivo
. With the advent of genetic modifications to the whole organism or the myocardium and an array of biological and/or synthetic materials, there is great potential for any combination of these to assuage the extent of acute ischemic injury and impede the onset of heart failure pursuant to myocardial remodeling.
Here we present the methods and materials used to reliably perform this microsurgery and the modifications involved for temporary (with reperfusion) or permanent coronary artery occlusion studies as well as intramyocardial injections. The effects on the heart that can be seen during the procedure and at the termination of the experiment in addition to histological evaluation will verify efficacy.
Briefly, surgical preparation involves anesthetizing the mice, removing the fur on the chest, and then disinfecting the surgical area. Intratracheal intubation is achieved by transesophageal illumination using a fiber optic light. The tubing is then connected to a ventilator. An incision made on the chest exposes the pectoral muscles which will be cut to view the ribs. For ischemia/reperfusion studies, a 1 cm piece of PE tubing placed over the heart is used to tie the ligature to so that occlusion/reperfusion can be customized. For intramyocardial injections, a Hamilton syringe with sterile 30gauge beveled needle is used. When the myocardial manipulations are complete, the rib cage, the pectoral muscles, and the skin are closed sequentially. Line block analgesia is effected by 0.25% marcaine in sterile saline which is applied to muscle layer prior to closure of the skin. The mice are given a subcutaneous injection of saline and placed in a warming chamber until they are sternally recumbent. They are then returned to the vivarium and housed under standard conditions until the time of tissue collection. At the time of sacrifice, the mice are anesthetized, the heart is arrested in diastole with KCl or BDM, rinsed with saline, and immersed in fixative. Subsequently, routine procedures for processing, embedding, sectioning, and histological staining are performed.
Nonsurgical intubation of a mouse and the microsurgical manipulations described make this a technically challenging model to learn and achieve reproducibility. These procedures, combined with the difficulty in performing consistent manipulations of the ligature for timed occlusion(s) and reperfusion or intramyocardial injections, can also affect the survival rate so optimization and consistency are critical.
Medicine, Issue 52, infarct, ischemia/reperfusion, mice, intramyocardial injection, coronary artery, heart, grafting
Fetal Echocardiography and Pulsed-wave Doppler Ultrasound in a Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction
Institutions: University Hospitals Leuven, Monash University, Victoria, Australia, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Universitat de Barcelona, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER).
Fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results in abnormal cardiac function that is apparent antenatally due to advances in fetoplacental Doppler ultrasound and fetal echocardiography. Increasingly, these imaging modalities are being employed clinically to examine cardiac function and assess wellbeing in utero
, thereby guiding timing of birth decisions. Here, we used a rabbit model of IUGR that allows analysis of cardiac function in a clinically relevant way. Using isoflurane induced anesthesia, IUGR is surgically created at gestational age day 25 by performing a laparotomy, exposing the bicornuate uterus and then ligating 40-50% of uteroplacental vessels supplying each gestational sac in a single uterine horn. The other horn in the rabbit bicornuate uterus serves as internal control fetuses. Then, after recovery at gestational age day 30 (full term), the same rabbit undergoes examination of fetal cardiac function. Anesthesia is induced with ketamine and xylazine intramuscularly, then maintained by a continuous intravenous infusion of ketamine and xylazine to minimize iatrogenic effects on fetal cardiac function. A repeat laparotomy is performed to expose each gestational sac and a microultrasound examination (VisualSonics VEVO 2100) of fetal cardiac function is performed. Placental insufficiency is evident by a raised pulsatility index or an absent or reversed end diastolic flow of the umbilical artery Doppler waveform. The ductus venosus and middle cerebral artery Doppler is then examined. Fetal echocardiography is performed by recording B mode, M mode and flow velocity waveforms in lateral and apical views. Offline calculations determine standard M-mode cardiac variables, tricuspid and mitral annular plane systolic excursion, speckle tracking and strain analysis, modified myocardial performance index and vascular flow velocity waveforms of interest. This small animal model of IUGR therefore affords examination of in utero
cardiac function that is consistent with current clinical practice and is therefore useful in a translational research setting.
Medicine, Issue 76, Developmental Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Cardiology, Fetal Therapies, Obstetric Surgical Procedures, Fetal Development, Surgical Procedures, Operative, intrauterine growth restriction, fetal echocardiography, Doppler ultrasound, fetal hemodynamics, animal model, clinical techniques
Cell-based Therapy for Heart Failure in Rat: Double Thoracotomy for Myocardial Infarction and Epicardial Implantation of Cells and Biomatrix
Institutions: University of Fribourg.
Cardiac cell therapy has gained increasing interest and implantation of biomaterials associated with cells has become a major issue to optimize myocardial cell delivery. Rodent model of myocardial infarction (MI) consisting of Left Anterior Descending Artery (LAD) ligation has commonly been performed via
a thoracotomy; a second open-heart surgery via
a sternotomy has traditionally been performed for epicardial application of the treatment. Since the description of LAD ligation model, post-surgery mortality rate has dropped from 35-13%, however the second surgery has remained critical. In order to improve post-surgery recovery and reduce pain and infection, minimally invasive surgical procedures are presented. Two thoracotomies were performed, the initial one for LAD ligation and the second one for treatment epicardial administration. Biografts consisting of cells associated with solid or gel type matrices were applied onto the infarcted area. LAD ligation resulted in loss of heart function as confirmed by echocardiography performed after 2 and 6 weeks. Goldner trichrome staining performed on heart sections confirmed transmural scar formation. First and second surgeries resulted in less that 10% post-operative mortality.
Bioengineering, Issue 91, myocardial infarction (MI), fibrin sealant, thoracotomy, Left Anterior Descending Artery (LAD) ligation, cardiac cell therapy, cardiac microsurgery
Modeling Astrocytoma Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo Using Cortical Astrocytes or Neural Stem Cells from Conditional, Genetically Engineered Mice
Institutions: University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine.
Current astrocytoma models are limited in their ability to define the roles of oncogenic mutations in specific brain cell types during disease pathogenesis and their utility for preclinical drug development. In order to design a better model system for these applications, phenotypically wild-type cortical astrocytes and neural stem cells (NSC) from conditional, genetically engineered mice (GEM) that harbor various combinations of floxed oncogenic alleles were harvested and grown in culture. Genetic recombination was induced in vitro
using adenoviral Cre-mediated recombination, resulting in expression of mutated oncogenes and deletion of tumor suppressor genes. The phenotypic consequences of these mutations were defined by measuring proliferation, transformation, and drug response in vitro
. Orthotopic allograft models, whereby transformed cells are stereotactically injected into the brains of immune-competent, syngeneic littermates, were developed to define the role of oncogenic mutations and cell type on tumorigenesis in vivo
. Unlike most established human glioblastoma cell line xenografts, injection of transformed GEM-derived cortical astrocytes into the brains of immune-competent littermates produced astrocytomas, including the most aggressive subtype, glioblastoma, that recapitulated the histopathological hallmarks of human astrocytomas, including diffuse invasion of normal brain parenchyma. Bioluminescence imaging of orthotopic allografts from transformed astrocytes engineered to express luciferase was utilized to monitor in vivo
tumor growth over time. Thus, astrocytoma models using astrocytes and NSC harvested from GEM with conditional oncogenic alleles provide an integrated system to study the genetics and cell biology of astrocytoma pathogenesis in vitro
and in vivo
and may be useful in preclinical drug development for these devastating diseases.
Neuroscience, Issue 90, astrocytoma, cortical astrocytes, genetically engineered mice, glioblastoma, neural stem cells, orthotopic allograft
Treatment of Osteochondral Defects in the Rabbit's Knee Joint by Implantation of Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Fibrin Clots
Institutions: Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Uniklinik Köln.
The treatment of osteochondral articular defects has been challenging physicians for many years. The better understanding of interactions of articular cartilage and subchondral bone in recent years led to increased attention to restoration of the entire osteochondral unit. In comparison to chondral lesions the regeneration of osteochondral defects is much more complex and a far greater surgical and therapeutic challenge. The damaged tissue does not only include the superficial cartilage layer but also the subchondral bone. For deep, osteochondral damage, as it occurs for example with osteochondrosis dissecans, the full thickness of the defect needs to be replaced to restore the joint surface 1
. Eligible therapeutic procedures have to consider these two different tissues with their different intrinsic healing potential 2
. In the last decades, several surgical treatment options have emerged and have already been clinically established 3-6
Autologous or allogeneic osteochondral transplants consist of articular cartilage and subchondral bone and allow the replacement of the entire osteochondral unit. The defects are filled with cylindrical osteochondral grafts that aim to provide a congruent hyaline cartilage covered surface 3,7,8
. Disadvantages are the limited amount of available grafts, donor site morbidity (for autologous transplants) and the incongruence of the surface; thereby the application of this method is especially limited for large defects.
New approaches in the field of tissue engineering opened up promising possibilities for regenerative osteochondral therapy. The implantation of autologous chondrocytes marked the first cell based biological approach for the treatment of full-thickness cartilage lesions and is now worldwide established with good clinical results even 10 to 20 years after implantation 9,10
. However, to date, this technique is not suitable for the treatment of all types of lesions such as deep defects involving the subchondral bone 11
combines bone grafting with current approaches in Tissue Engineering 5,6
. This combination seems to be able to overcome the limitations seen in osteochondral grafts alone. After autologous bone grafting to the subchondral defect area, a membrane seeded with autologous chondrocytes is sutured above and facilitates to match the topology of the graft with the injured site. Of course, the previous bone reconstruction needs additional surgical time and often even an additional surgery. Moreover, to date, long-term data is missing 12
Tissue Engineering without additional bone grafting aims to restore the complex structure and properties of native articular cartilage by chondrogenic and osteogenic potential of the transplanted cells. However, again, it is usually only the cartilage tissue that is more or less regenerated. Additional osteochondral damage needs a specific further treatment. In order to achieve a regeneration of the multilayered structure of osteochondral defects, three-dimensional tissue engineered products seeded with autologous/allogeneic cells might provide a good regeneration capacity 11
Beside autologous chondrocytes, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) seem to be an attractive alternative for the development of a full-thickness cartilage tissue. In numerous preclinical in vitro
and in vivo
studies, mesenchymal stem cells have displayed excellent tissue regeneration potential 13,14
. The important advantage of mesenchymal stem cells especially for the treatment of osteochondral defects is that they have the capacity to differentiate in osteocytes as well as chondrocytes. Therefore, they potentially allow a multilayered regeneration of the defect.
In recent years, several scaffolds with osteochondral regenerative potential have therefore been developed and evaluated with promising preliminary results 1,15-18
. Furthermore, fibrin glue as a cell carrier became one of the preferred techniques in experimental cartilage repair and has already successfully been used in several animal studies 19-21
and even first human trials 22
The following protocol will demonstrate an experimental technique for isolating mesenchymal stem cells from a rabbit's bone marrow, for subsequent proliferation in cell culture and for preparing a standardized in vitro
-model for fibrin-cell-clots. Finally, a technique for the implantation of pre-established fibrin-cell-clots into artificial osteochondral defects of the rabbit's knee joint will be described.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 75, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Stem Cell Biology, Tissue Engineering, Surgery, Mesenchymal stem cells, fibrin clot, cartilage, osteochondral defect, rabbit, experimental, subchondral bone, knee injury, bone grafting, regenerative therapy, chondrocytes, cell culture, isolation, transplantation, animal model
Systemic Injection of Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells in Mice with Chronic EAE
Institutions: University of Cambridge, UK, University of Cambridge, UK.
Neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are a promising stem cell source for transplantation approaches aiming at brain repair or restoration in regenerative neurology. This directive has arisen from the extensive evidence that brain repair is achieved after focal or systemic NPC transplantation in several preclinical models of neurological diseases.
These experimental data have identified the cell delivery route as one of the main hurdles of restorative stem cell therapies for brain diseases that requires urgent assessment. Intraparenchymal stem cell grafting represents a logical approach to those pathologies characterized by isolated and accessible brain lesions such as spinal cord injuries and Parkinson's disease. Unfortunately, this principle is poorly applicable to conditions characterized by a multifocal, inflammatory and disseminated (both in time and space) nature, including multiple sclerosis (MS). As such, brain targeting by systemic NPC delivery has become a low invasive and therapeutically efficacious protocol to deliver cells to the brain and spinal cord of rodents and nonhuman primates affected by experimental chronic inflammatory damage of the central nervous system (CNS).
This alternative method of cell delivery relies on the NPC pathotropism, specifically their innate capacity to (i) sense the environment via
functional cell adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokine and chemokine receptors; (ii) cross the leaking anatomical barriers after intravenous (i.v
.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.
) injection; (iii) accumulate at the level of multiple perivascular site(s) of inflammatory brain and spinal cord damage; and (i.v.
) exert remarkable tissue trophic and immune regulatory effects onto different host target cells in vivo
Here we describe the methods that we have developed for the i.v
. and i.c.v.
delivery of syngeneic NPCs in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), as model of chronic CNS inflammatory demyelination, and envisage the systemic stem cell delivery as a valuable technique for the selective targeting of the inflamed brain in regenerative neurology.
Immunology, Issue 86, Somatic neural stem/precursor cells, neurodegenerative disorders, regenerative medicine, multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, systemic delivery, intravenous, intracerebroventricular
Cell Labeling and Injection in Developing Embryonic Mouse Hearts
Institutions: Aix-Marseille University, University of California, San Diego.
Testing the fate of embryonic or pluripotent stem cell-derivatives in in vitro
protocols has led to controversial outcomes that do not necessarily reflect their in vivo
potential. Preferably, these cells should be placed in a proper embryonic environment in order to acquire their definite phenotype. Furthermore, cell lineage tracing studies in the mouse after labeling cells with dyes or retroviral vectors has remained mostly limited to early stage mouse embryos with still poorly developed organs. To overcome these limitations, we designed standard and ultrasound-mediated microinjection protocols to inject various agents in targeted regions of the heart in mouse embryos at E9.5 and later stages of development. Embryonic explant or embryos are then cultured or left to further develop in utero
. These agents include fluorescent dyes, virus, shRNAs, or stem cell-derived progenitor cells. Our approaches allow for preservation of the function of the organ while monitoring migration and fate of labeled and/or injected cells. These technologies can be extended to other organs and will be very helpful to address key biological questions in biology of development.
Developmental Biology, Issue 86, Cell, DNA, dye injection, mouse embryo, embryo culture, ultrasound, mouse heart, stem cells
A Restriction Enzyme Based Cloning Method to Assess the In vitro Replication Capacity of HIV-1 Subtype C Gag-MJ4 Chimeric Viruses
Institutions: Emory University, Emory University.
The protective effect of many HLA class I alleles on HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease progression is, in part, attributed to their ability to target conserved portions of the HIV-1 genome that escape with difficulty. Sequence changes attributed to cellular immune pressure arise across the genome during infection, and if found within conserved regions of the genome such as Gag, can affect the ability of the virus to replicate in vitro
. Transmission of HLA-linked polymorphisms in Gag to HLA-mismatched recipients has been associated with reduced set point viral loads. We hypothesized this may be due to a reduced replication capacity of the virus. Here we present a novel method for assessing the in vitro
replication of HIV-1 as influenced by the gag
gene isolated from acute time points from subtype C infected Zambians. This method uses restriction enzyme based cloning to insert the gag
gene into a common subtype C HIV-1 proviral backbone, MJ4. This makes it more appropriate to the study of subtype C sequences than previous recombination based methods that have assessed the in vitro
replication of chronically derived gag-pro
sequences. Nevertheless, the protocol could be readily modified for studies of viruses from other subtypes. Moreover, this protocol details a robust and reproducible method for assessing the replication capacity of the Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses on a CEM-based T cell line. This method was utilized for the study of Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses derived from 149 subtype C acutely infected Zambians, and has allowed for the identification of residues in Gag that affect replication. More importantly, the implementation of this technique has facilitated a deeper understanding of how viral replication defines parameters of early HIV-1 pathogenesis such as set point viral load and longitudinal CD4+ T cell decline.
Infectious Diseases, Issue 90, HIV-1, Gag, viral replication, replication capacity, viral fitness, MJ4, CEM, GXR25
The Use of Fluorescent Target Arrays for Assessment of T Cell Responses In vivo
Institutions: Australian National University.
The ability to monitor T cell responses in vivo
is important for the development of our understanding of the immune response and the design of immunotherapies. Here we describe the use of fluorescent target array (FTA) technology, which utilizes vital dyes such as carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE), violet laser excitable dyes (CellTrace Violet: CTV) and red laser excitable dyes (Cell Proliferation Dye eFluor 670: CPD) to combinatorially label mouse lymphocytes into >250 discernable fluorescent cell clusters. Cell clusters within these FTAs can be pulsed with major histocompatibility (MHC) class-I and MHC class-II binding peptides and thereby act as target cells for CD8+
T cells, respectively. These FTA cells remain viable and fully functional, and can therefore be administered into mice to allow assessment of CD8+
T cell-mediated killing of FTA target cells and CD4+
T cell-meditated help of FTA B cell target cells in real time in vivo
by flow cytometry. Since >250 target cells can be assessed at once, the technique allows the monitoring of T cell responses against several antigen epitopes at several concentrations and in multiple replicates. As such, the technique can measure T cell responses at both a quantitative (e.g.
the cumulative magnitude of the response) and a qualitative (e.g
. functional avidity and epitope-cross reactivity of the response) level. Herein, we describe how these FTAs are constructed and give an example of how they can be applied to assess T cell responses induced by a recombinant pox virus vaccine.
Immunology, Issue 88, Investigative Techniques, T cell response, Flow Cytometry, Multiparameter, CTL assay in vivo, carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE), CellTrace Violet (CTV), Cell Proliferation Dye eFluor 670 (CPD)
Analysis of Tubular Membrane Networks in Cardiac Myocytes from Atria and Ventricles
Institutions: Heart Research Center Goettingen, University Medical Center Goettingen, German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) partner site Goettingen, University of Maryland School of Medicine.
In cardiac myocytes a complex network of membrane tubules - the transverse-axial tubule system (TATS) - controls deep intracellular signaling functions. While the outer surface membrane and associated TATS membrane components appear to be continuous, there are substantial differences in lipid and protein content. In ventricular myocytes (VMs), certain TATS components are highly abundant contributing to rectilinear tubule networks and regular branching 3D architectures. It is thought that peripheral TATS components propagate action potentials from the cell surface to thousands of remote intracellular sarcoendoplasmic reticulum (SER) membrane contact domains, thereby activating intracellular Ca2+
release units (CRUs). In contrast to VMs, the organization and functional role of TATS membranes in atrial myocytes (AMs) is significantly different and much less understood. Taken together, quantitative structural characterization of TATS membrane networks in healthy and diseased myocytes is an essential prerequisite towards better understanding of functional plasticity and pathophysiological reorganization. Here, we present a strategic combination of protocols for direct quantitative analysis of TATS membrane networks in living VMs and AMs. For this, we accompany primary cell isolations of mouse VMs and/or AMs with critical quality control steps and direct membrane staining protocols for fluorescence imaging of TATS membranes. Using an optimized workflow for confocal or superresolution TATS image processing, binarized and skeletonized data are generated for quantitative analysis of the TATS network and its components. Unlike previously published indirect regional aggregate image analysis strategies, our protocols enable direct characterization of specific components and derive complex physiological properties of TATS membrane networks in living myocytes with high throughput and open access software tools. In summary, the combined protocol strategy can be readily applied for quantitative TATS network studies during physiological myocyte adaptation or disease changes, comparison of different cardiac or skeletal muscle cell types, phenotyping of transgenic models, and pharmacological or therapeutic interventions.
Bioengineering, Issue 92, cardiac myocyte, atria, ventricle, heart, primary cell isolation, fluorescence microscopy, membrane tubule, transverse-axial tubule system, image analysis, image processing, T-tubule, collagenase
Transplantation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Mesoangioblast-like Myogenic Progenitors in Mouse Models of Muscle Regeneration
Institutions: University College London, San Raffaele Hospital.
Patient-derived iPSCs could be an invaluable source of cells for future autologous cell therapy protocols. iPSC-derived myogenic stem/progenitor cells similar to pericyte-derived mesoangioblasts (iPSC-derived mesoangioblast-like stem/progenitor cells: IDEMs) can be established from iPSCs generated from patients affected by different forms of muscular dystrophy. Patient-specific IDEMs can be genetically corrected with different strategies (e.g.
lentiviral vectors, human artificial chromosomes) and enhanced in their myogenic differentiation potential upon overexpression of the myogenesis regulator MyoD. This myogenic potential is then assessed in vitro
with specific differentiation assays and analyzed by immunofluorescence. The regenerative potential of IDEMs is further evaluated in vivo
, upon intramuscular and intra-arterial transplantation in two representative mouse models displaying acute and chronic muscle regeneration. The contribution of IDEMs to the host skeletal muscle is then confirmed by different functional tests in transplanted mice. In particular, the amelioration of the motor capacity of the animals is studied with treadmill tests. Cell engraftment and differentiation are then assessed by a number of histological and immunofluorescence assays on transplanted muscles. Overall, this paper describes the assays and tools currently utilized to evaluate the differentiation capacity of IDEMs, focusing on the transplantation methods and subsequent outcome measures to analyze the efficacy of cell transplantation.
Bioengineering, Issue 83, Skeletal Muscle, Muscle Cells, Muscle Fibers, Skeletal, Pericytes, Stem Cells, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs), Muscular Dystrophies, Cell Differentiation, animal models, muscle stem/progenitor cells, mesoangioblasts, muscle regeneration, iPSC-derived mesoangioblasts (IDEMs)
Murine Model for Non-invasive Imaging to Detect and Monitor Ovarian Cancer Recurrence
Institutions: Yale University School of Medicine, NatureMost Laboratories, Bruker Preclinical Imaging.
Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy in the United States. Although patients initially respond to the current standard of care consisting of surgical debulking and combination chemotherapy consisting of platinum and taxane compounds, almost 90% of patients recur within a few years. In these patients the development of chemoresistant disease limits the efficacy of currently available chemotherapy agents and therefore contributes to the high mortality. To discover novel therapy options that can target recurrent disease, appropriate animal models that closely mimic the clinical profile of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer are required. The challenge in monitoring intra-peritoneal (i.p.) disease limits the use of i.p. models and thus most xenografts are established subcutaneously. We have developed a sensitive optical imaging platform that allows the detection and anatomical location of i.p. tumor mass. The platform includes the use of optical reporters that extend from the visible light range to near infrared, which in combination with 2-dimensional X-ray co-registration can provide anatomical location of molecular signals. Detection is significantly improved by the use of a rotation system that drives the animal to multiple angular positions for 360 degree imaging, allowing the identification of tumors that are not visible in single orientation. This platform provides a unique model to non-invasively monitor tumor growth and evaluate the efficacy of new therapies for the prevention or treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer.
Cancer Biology, Issue 93, ovarian cancer, recurrence, in vivo imaging, tumor burden, cancer stem cells, chemotherapy
High Efficiency Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Cardiomyocytes and Characterization by Flow Cytometry
Institutions: Medical College of Wisconsin, Stanford University School of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Hong Kong University, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin.
There is an urgent need to develop approaches for repairing the damaged heart, discovering new therapeutic drugs that do not have toxic effects on the heart, and improving strategies to accurately model heart disease. The potential of exploiting human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology to generate cardiac muscle “in a dish” for these applications continues to generate high enthusiasm. In recent years, the ability to efficiently generate cardiomyogenic cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has greatly improved, offering us new opportunities to model very early stages of human cardiac development not otherwise accessible. In contrast to many previous methods, the cardiomyocyte differentiation protocol described here does not require cell aggregation or the addition of Activin A or BMP4 and robustly generates cultures of cells that are highly positive for cardiac troponin I and T (TNNI3, TNNT2), iroquois-class homeodomain protein IRX-4 (IRX4), myosin regulatory light chain 2, ventricular/cardiac muscle isoform (MLC2v) and myosin regulatory light chain 2, atrial isoform (MLC2a) by day 10 across all human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and hiPSC lines tested to date. Cells can be passaged and maintained for more than 90 days in culture. The strategy is technically simple to implement and cost-effective. Characterization of cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent cells often includes the analysis of reference markers, both at the mRNA and protein level. For protein analysis, flow cytometry is a powerful analytical tool for assessing quality of cells in culture and determining subpopulation homogeneity. However, technical variation in sample preparation can significantly affect quality of flow cytometry data. Thus, standardization of staining protocols should facilitate comparisons among various differentiation strategies. Accordingly, optimized staining protocols for the analysis of IRX4, MLC2v, MLC2a, TNNI3, and TNNT2 by flow cytometry are described.
Cellular Biology, Issue 91, human induced pluripotent stem cell, flow cytometry, directed differentiation, cardiomyocyte, IRX4, TNNI3, TNNT2, MCL2v, MLC2a
LAD-Ligation: A Murine Model of Myocardial Infarction
Institutions: University Heart Center Hamburg, University Hospital Hamburg, Stanford University School of Medicine.
Research models of infarction and myocardial ischemia are essential to investigate the acute and chronic pathobiological and pathophysiological processes in myocardial ischemia and to develop and optimize future treatment.
Two different methods of creating myocardial ischemia are performed in laboratory rodents. The first method is to create cryo infarction, a fast but inaccurate technique, where a cryo-pen is applied on the surface of the heart (1-3). Using this method the scientist can not guarantee that the cryo-scar leads to ischemia, also a vast myocardial injury is created that shows pathophysiological side effects that are not related to myocardial infarction. The second method is the permanent ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Here the LAD is ligated with one single stitch, forming an ischemia that can be seen almost immediately. By closing the LAD, no further blood flow is permitted in that area, while the surrounding myocardial tissue is nearly not affected. This surgical procedure imitates the pathobiological and pathophysiological aspects occurring in infarction-related myocardial ischemia.
The method introduced in this video demonstrates the surgical procedure of a mouse infarction model by ligating the LAD. This model is convenient for pathobiological and pathophysiological as well as immunobiological studies on cardiac infarction. The shown technique provides high accuracy and correlates well with histological sections.
Medicine, Issue 32, myocardial infarction, mice, LAD ligation, ischemia, histology, validation
Monitoring Tumor Metastases and Osteolytic Lesions with Bioluminescence and Micro CT Imaging
Institutions: Caliper Life Sciences.
Following intracardiac delivery of MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2LN cells to Nu/Nu mice, systemic metastases developed in the injected animals. Bioluminescence imaging using IVIS Spectrum was employed to monitor the distribution and development of the tumor cells following the delivery procedure including DLIT reconstruction to measure the tumor signal and its location.
Development of metastatic lesions to the bone tissues triggers osteolytic activity and lesions to tibia and femur were evaluated longitudinally using micro CT. Imaging was performed using a Quantum FX micro CT system with fast imaging and low X-ray dose. The low radiation dose allows multiple imaging sessions to be performed with a cumulative X-ray dosage far below LD50. A mouse imaging shuttle device was used to sequentially image the mice with both IVIS Spectrum and Quantum FX achieving accurate animal positioning in both the bioluminescence and CT images. The optical and CT data sets were co-registered in 3-dimentions using the Living Image 4.1 software. This multi-mode approach allows close monitoring of tumor growth and development simultaneously with osteolytic activity.
Medicine, Issue 50, osteolytic lesions, micro CT, tumor, bioluminescence, in vivo, imaging, IVIS, luciferase, low dose, co-registration, 3D reconstruction
In Utero Intraventricular Injection and Electroporation of E16 Rat Embryos
Institutions: University of California, San Francisco - UCSF.
In-utero in-vivo injection and electroporation of the embryonic rat neocortex provides a powerful tool for the manipulation of individual progenitors lining the walls of the lateral ventricle. This technique is now widely used to study the processes involved in corticogenesis by over-expressing or knocking down genes and observing the effects on cellular proliferation, migration, and differentiation. In comparison to traditional knockout strategies, in-utero electroporation provides a rapid means to manipulate a population of cells during a specific temporal window. In this video protocol, we outline the experimental methodology for preparing rats for surgery, exposing the uterine horns through laporatomy, injecting DNA into the lateral ventricles of the developing embryo, electroporating DNA into the progenitors lining the lateral wall, and caring for animals post-surgery. Our laboratory uses this protocol for surgeries on E15-E21 rats, however it is most commonly performed at E16 as shown in this video.
Neuroscience, Issue 6, Protocol, Stem Cells, Cerebral Cortex, Brain Development, Electroporation, Intra Uterine Injections, transfection
Modified Technique for Coronary Artery Ligation in Mice
Institutions: Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the most important causes of mortality in humans1-3
. In order to improve morbidity and mortality in patients with MI we need better knowledge about pathophysiology of myocardial ischemia. This knowledge may be valuable to define new therapeutic targets for innovative cardiovascular therapies4
. Experimental MI model in mice is an increasingly popular small-animal model in preclinical research in which MI is induced by means of permanent or temporary ligation of left coronary artery (LCA)5
. In this video, we describe the step-by-step method of how to induce experimental MI in mice.
The animal is first anesthetized with 2% isoflurane. The unconscious mouse is then intubated and connected to a ventilator for artificial ventilation. The left chest is shaved and 1.5 cm incision along mid-axillary line is made in the skin. The left pectoralis major muscle is bluntly dissociated until the ribs are exposed. The muscle layers are pulled aside and fixed with an eyelid-retractor. After these preparations, left thoracotomy is performed between the third and fourth ribs in order to visualize the anterior surface of the heart and left lung. The proximal segment of LCA artery is then ligated with a 7-0 ethilon suture which typically induces an infarct size ~40% of left ventricle. At the end, the chest is closed and the animals receive postoperative analgesia (Temgesic, 0.3 mg/50 ml, ip). The animals are kept in a warm cage until spontaneous recovery.
Medicine, Issue 73, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Surgery, Cardiology, Hematology, myocardial infarction, coronary artery, ligation, ischemia, ECG, electrocardiology, mice, animal model