Magnetic and plasmonic properties combined in a single nanoparticle provide a synergy that is advantageous in a number of biomedical applications including contrast enhancement in novel magnetomotive imaging modalities, simultaneous capture and detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and multimodal molecular imaging combined with photothermal therapy of cancer cells. These applications have stimulated significant interest in development of protocols for synthesis of magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles with optical absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR) region and a strong magnetic moment. Here, we present a novel protocol for synthesis of such hybrid nanoparticles that is based on an oil-in-water microemulsion method. The unique feature of the protocol described herein is synthesis of magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles of various sizes from primary blocks which also have magneto-plasmonic characteristics. This approach yields nanoparticles with a high density of magnetic and plasmonic functionalities which are uniformly distributed throughout the nanoparticle volume. The hybrid nanoparticles can be easily functionalized by attaching antibodies through the Fc moiety leaving the Fab portion that is responsible for antigen binding available for targeting.
16 Related JoVE Articles!
Labeling Stem Cells with Ferumoxytol, an FDA-Approved Iron Oxide Nanoparticle
Institutions: Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS) , Stanford University .
Stem cell based therapies offer significant potential for the field of regenerative medicine. However, much remains to be understood regarding the in vivo
kinetics of transplanted cells. A non-invasive method to repetitively monitor transplanted stem cells in vivo
would allow investigators to directly monitor stem cell transplants and identify successful or unsuccessful engraftment outcomes.
A wide range of stem cells continues to be investigated for countless applications. This protocol focuses on 3 different stem cell populations: human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. HEK 293 cells are derived from human embryonic kidney cells grown in culture with sheared adenovirus 5 DNA. These cells are widely used in research because they are easily cultured, grow quickly and are easily transfected. hMSCs are found in adult marrow. These cells can be replicated as undifferentiated cells while maintaining multipotency or the potential to differentiate into a limited number of cell fates. hMSCs can differentiate to lineages of mesenchymal tissues, including osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes, tendon, muscle, and marrow stroma. iPS cells are genetically reprogrammed adult cells that have been modified to express genes and factors similar to defining properties of embryonic stem cells. These cells are pluripotent meaning they have the capacity to differentiate into all cell lineages 1
. Both hMSCs and iPS cells have demonstrated tissue regenerative capacity in-vivo
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging together with the use of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle cell labels have proven effective for in vivo
tracking of stem cells due to the near microscopic anatomical resolution, a longer blood half-life that permits longitudinal imaging and the high sensitivity for cell detection provided by MR imaging of SPIO nanoparticles 2-4
. In addition, MR imaging with the use of SPIOs is clinically translatable. SPIOs are composed of an iron oxide core with a dextran, carboxydextran or starch surface coat that serves to contain the bioreactive iron core from plasma components. These agents create local magnetic field inhomogeneities that lead to a decreased signal on T2-weighted MR images 5
. Unfortunately, SPIOs are no longer being manufactured. Second generation, ultrasmall SPIOs (USPIO), however, offer a viable alternative. Ferumoxytol (FerahemeTM) is one USPIO composed of a non-stoichiometric magnetite core surrounded by a polyglucose sorbitol carboxymethylether coat. The colloidal, particle size of ferumoxytol is 17-30 nm as determined by light scattering. The molecular weight is 750 kDa, and the relaxivity constant at 2T MRI field is 58.609 mM-1 sec-1 strength4
. Ferumoxytol was recently FDA-approved as an iron supplement for treatment of iron deficiency in patients with renal failure 6
. Our group has applied this agent in an “off label” use for cell labeling applications. Our technique demonstrates efficient labeling of stem cells with ferumoxytol that leads to significant MR signal effects of labeled cells on MR images. This technique may be applied for non-invasive monitoring of stem cell therapies in pre-clinical and clinical settings.
Medicine, Issue 57, USPIO, cell labeling, MR imaging, MRI, molecular imaging, iron oxides, ferumoxytol, cellular imaging, nanoparticles
Multimodal Imaging of Stem Cell Implantation in the Central Nervous System of Mice
Institutions: University of Antwerp, University of Antwerp.
During the past decade, stem cell transplantation has gained increasing interest as primary or secondary therapeutic modality for a variety of diseases, both in preclinical and clinical studies. However, to date results regarding functional outcome and/or tissue regeneration following stem cell transplantation are quite diverse. Generally, a clinical benefit is observed without profound understanding of the underlying mechanism(s)1
. Therefore, multiple efforts have led to the development of different molecular imaging modalities to monitor stem cell grafting with the ultimate aim to accurately evaluate survival, fate and physiology of grafted stem cells and/or their micro-environment. Changes observed in one or more parameters determined by molecular imaging might be related to the observed clinical effect. In this context, our studies focus on the combined use of bioluminescence imaging (BLI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analysis to evaluate stem cell grafting.
BLI is commonly used to non-invasively perform cell tracking and monitor cell survival in time following transplantation2-7
, based on a biochemical reaction where cells expressing the Luciferase-reporter gene are able to emit light following interaction with its substrate (e.g. D-luciferin)8, 9
. MRI on the other hand is a non-invasive technique which is clinically applicable10
and can be used to precisely locate cellular grafts with very high resolution11-15
, although its sensitivity highly depends on the contrast generated after cell labeling with an MRI contrast agent. Finally, post-mortem histological analysis is the method of choice to validate research results obtained with non-invasive techniques with highest resolution and sensitivity. Moreover end-point histological analysis allows us to perform detailed phenotypic analysis of grafted cells and/or the surrounding tissue, based on the use of fluorescent reporter proteins and/or direct cell labeling with specific antibodies.
In summary, we here visually demonstrate the complementarities of BLI, MRI and histology to unravel different stem cell- and/or environment-associated characteristics following stem cell grafting in the CNS of mice. As an example, bone marrow-derived stromal cells, genetically engineered to express the enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP) and firefly Luciferase (fLuc), and labeled with blue fluorescent micron-sized iron oxide particles (MPIOs), will be grafted in the CNS of immune-competent mice and outcome will be monitored by BLI, MRI and histology (Figure 1
Neuroscience, Issue 64, Stem cell biology, Cell labeling, Cell Transplantation, Brain, Bioluminescence Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Histology
Monitoring Dendritic Cell Migration using 19F / 1H Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Institutions: A joint cooperation between the Charité Medical Faculty and the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine.
Continuous advancements in noninvasive imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have greatly improved our ability to study physiological or pathological processes in living organisms. MRI is also proving to be a valuable tool for capturing transplanted cells in vivo
. Initial cell labeling strategies for MRI made use of contrast agents that influence the MR relaxation times (T1, T2, T2*) and lead to an enhancement (T1) or depletion (T2*) of signal where labeled cells are present. T2* enhancement agents such as ultrasmall iron oxide agents (USPIO) have been employed to study cell migration and some have also been approved by the FDA for clinical application. A drawback of T2* agents is the difficulty to distinguish the signal extinction created by the labeled cells from other artifacts such as blood clots, micro bleeds or air bubbles. In this article, we describe an emerging technique for tracking cells in vivo
that is based on labeling the cells with fluorine (19
F)-rich particles. These particles are prepared by emulsifying perfluorocarbon (PFC) compounds and then used to label cells, which subsequently can be imaged by 19
F MRI. Important advantages of PFCs for cell tracking in vivo
include (i) the absence of carbon-bound 19
F in vivo
, which then yields background-free images and complete cell selectivityand(ii) the possibility to quantify the cell signal by 19
F MR spectroscopy.
Molecular Biology, Issue 73, Immunology, Cellular Biology, Physiology, Anatomy, Biomedical Engineering, Hematology, nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR, Fluorine, dendritic cells, migration, lymph nodes, magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, MRS, spectroscopy, imaging, cell tracking, clinical techniques
In vivo Macrophage Imaging Using MR Targeted Contrast Agent for Longitudinal Evaluation of Septic Arthritis
Institutions: University Hospital of Strasbourg, University of Strasbourg, University Hospital of Strasbourg.
Macrophages are key-cells in the initiation, the development and the regulation of the inflammatory response to bacterial infection. Macrophages are intensively and increasingly recruited in septic joints from the early phases of infection and the infiltration is supposed to regress once efficient removal of the pathogens is obtained. The ability to identify in vivo
macrophage activity in an infected joint can therefore provide two main applications: early detection of acute synovitis and monitoring of therapy.
noninvasive detection of macrophages can be performed with magnetic resonance imaging using iron nanoparticles such as ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO). After intravascular or intraarticular administration, USPIO are specifically phagocytized by activated macrophages, and, due to their magnetic properties, induce signal changes in tissues presenting macrophage infiltration. A quantitative evaluation of the infiltrate is feasible, as the area with signal loss (number of dark pixels) observed on gradient echo MR images after particles injection is correlated with the amount of iron within the tissue and therefore reflects the number of USPIO-loaded cells.
We present here a protocol to perform macrophage imaging using USPIO-enhanced MR imaging in an animal model of septic arthritis, allowing an initial and longitudinal in vivo
noninvasive evaluation of macrophages infiltration and an assessment of therapy action.
Medicine, Issue 80, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Diagnostic Imaging, Musculoskeletal System, Bacterial Infections and Mycoses, Macrophage, MR imaging, infection, arthritis, USPIO, imaging, clinical techniques
In vitro Labeling of Human Embryonic Stem Cells for Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Institutions: Stanford University .
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have demonstrated the ability to restore the injured myocardium. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as one of the predominant imaging modalities to assess the restoration of the injured myocardium. Furthermore, ex-vivo labeling agents, such as iron-oxide nanoparticles, have been employed to track and localize the transplanted stem cells. However, this method does not monitor a fundamental cellular biology property regarding the viability of transplanted cells. It has been known that manganese chloride (MnCl2
) enters the cells via voltage-gated calcium (Ca2+
) channels when the cells are biologically active, and accumulates intracellularly to generate T1
shortening effect. Therefore, we suggest that manganese-guided MRI can be useful to monitor cell viability after the transplantation of hESC into the myocardium.
In this video, we will show how to label hESC with MnCl2
and how those cells can be clearly seen by using MRI in vitro. At the same time, biological activity of Ca2+
-channels will be modulated utilizing both Ca2+
-channel agonist and antagonist to evaluate concomitant signal changes.
Cell Biology, Issue 18, cellular MRI, manganese, human embryonic stem cells, cell labeling, cardiology
Noninvasive In Vivo Small Animal MRI and MRS: Basic Experimental Procedures
Institutions: University of Washington, University of Washington.
Small animal Magnetic Resonance (MR) research has emerged as an important element of modern biomedical research due to its non-invasive nature and the richness of biological information it provides. MR does not require any ionizing radiation and can noninvasively provide higher resolution and better signal-to-noise ratio in comparison to other tomographic or spectroscopic modalities. In this protocol, we will focus on small animal MR imaging and MR spectroscopy (MRI/MRS) to noninvasively acquire relaxation weighted 1
H images of mouse and to obtain 31
P spectra of mouse muscle. This work does not attempt to cover every aspect of small animal MRI/MRS but rather introduces basic procedures of mouse MRI/MRS experiments. The main goal of this work is to inform researchers of the basic procedures for in vivo
MR experiments on small animals. The goal is to provide a better understanding of basic experimental procedures to allow researchers new to the MR field to better plan for non-MR components of their studies so that both MR and non-MR procedures are seamlessly integrated.
Medicine, Issue 32, Small animal, MRI, MRS, mouse, brain, skeletal muscle, tumor, ischemia
Bridging the Bio-Electronic Interface with Biofabrication
Institutions: University of Maryland , University of Maryland , University of Maryland .
Advancements in lab-on-a-chip technology promise to revolutionize both research and medicine through lower costs, better sensitivity, portability, and higher throughput. The incorporation of biological components onto biological microelectromechanical systems (bioMEMS) has shown great potential for achieving these goals. Microfabricated electronic chips allow for micrometer-scale features as well as an electrical connection for sensing and actuation. Functional biological components give the system the capacity for specific detection of analytes, enzymatic functions, and whole-cell capabilities. Standard microfabrication processes and bio-analytical techniques have been successfully utilized for decades in the computer and biological industries, respectively. Their combination and interfacing in a lab-on-a-chip environment, however, brings forth new challenges. There is a call for techniques that can build an interface between the electrode and biological component that is mild and is easy to fabricate and pattern.
Biofabrication, described here, is one such approach that has shown great promise for its easy-to-assemble incorporation of biological components with versatility in the on-chip functions that are enabled. Biofabrication uses biological materials and biological mechanisms (self-assembly, enzymatic assembly) for bottom-up hierarchical assembly. While our labs have demonstrated these concepts in many formats 1,2,3
, here we demonstrate the assembly process based on electrodeposition followed by multiple applications of signal-based interactions. The assembly process consists of the electrodeposition of biocompatible stimuli-responsive polymer films on electrodes and their subsequent functionalization with biological components such as DNA, enzymes, or live cells 4,5
. Electrodeposition takes advantage of the pH gradient created at the surface of a biased electrode from the electrolysis of water 6,7
,. Chitosan and alginate are stimuli-responsive biological polymers that can be triggered to self-assemble into hydrogel films in response to imposed electrical signals 8
. The thickness of these hydrogels is determined by the extent to which the pH gradient extends from the electrode. This can be modified using varying current densities and deposition times 6,7
. This protocol will describe how chitosan films are deposited and functionalized by covalently attaching biological components to the abundant primary amine groups present on the film through either enzymatic or electrochemical methods 9,10
. Alginate films and their entrapment of live cells will also be addressed 11
. Finally, the utility of biofabrication is demonstrated through examples of signal-based interaction, including chemical-to-electrical, cell-to-cell, and also enzyme-to-cell signal transmission.
Both the electrodeposition and functionalization can be performed under near-physiological conditions without the need for reagents and thus spare labile biological components from harsh conditions. Additionally, both chitosan and alginate have long been used for biologically-relevant purposes 12,13
. Overall, biofabrication, a rapid technique that can be simply performed on a benchtop, can be used for creating micron scale patterns of functional biological components on electrodes and can be used for a variety of lab-on-a-chip applications.
Bioengineering, Issue 64, Biomedical Engineering, electrodeposition, biofabrication, chitosan, alginate, lab-on-a-chip, microfluidic, DTRA
Magnetic Tweezers for the Measurement of Twist and Torque
Institutions: Delft University of Technology.
Single-molecule techniques make it possible to investigate the behavior of individual biological molecules in solution in real time. These techniques include so-called force spectroscopy approaches such as atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers, flow stretching, and magnetic tweezers. Amongst these approaches, magnetic tweezers have distinguished themselves by their ability to apply torque while maintaining a constant stretching force. Here, it is illustrated how such a “conventional” magnetic tweezers experimental configuration can, through a straightforward modification of its field configuration to minimize the magnitude of the transverse field, be adapted to measure the degree of twist in a biological molecule. The resulting configuration is termed the freely-orbiting magnetic tweezers. Additionally, it is shown how further modification of the field configuration can yield a transverse field with a magnitude intermediate between that of the “conventional” magnetic tweezers and the freely-orbiting magnetic tweezers, which makes it possible to directly measure the torque stored in a biological molecule. This configuration is termed the magnetic torque tweezers. The accompanying video explains in detail how the conversion of conventional magnetic tweezers into freely-orbiting magnetic tweezers and magnetic torque tweezers can be accomplished, and demonstrates the use of these techniques. These adaptations maintain all the strengths of conventional magnetic tweezers while greatly expanding the versatility of this powerful instrument.
Bioengineering, Issue 87, magnetic tweezers, magnetic torque tweezers, freely-orbiting magnetic tweezers, twist, torque, DNA, single-molecule techniques
Implantation of Ferumoxides Labeled Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Cartilage Defects
Institutions: Medical Center, University of California San Francisco.
The field of tissue engineering integrates the principles of engineering, cell biology and medicine towards the regeneration of specific cells and functional tissue. Matrix associated stem cell implants (MASI) aim to regenerate cartilage defects due to arthritic or traumatic joint injuries. Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to differentiate into cells of the chondrogenic lineage and have shown promising results for cell-based articular cartilage repair technologies. Autologous MSCs can be isolated from a variety of tissues, can be expanded in cell cultures without losing their differentiation potential, and have demonstrated chondrogenic differentiation in vitro
and in vivo1, 2
In order to provide local retention and viability of transplanted MSCs in cartilage defects, a scaffold is needed, which also supports subsequent differentiation and proliferation. The architecture of the scaffold guides tissue formation and permits the extracellular matrix, produced by the stem cells, to expand. Previous investigations have shown that a 2% agarose scaffold may support the development of stable hyaline cartilage and does not induce immune responses3
Long term retention of transplanted stem cells in MASI is critical for cartilage regeneration. Labeling of MSCs with iron oxide nanoparticles allows for long-term in vivo
tracking with non-invasive MR imaging techniques4
This presentation will demonstrate techniques for labeling MSCs with iron oxide nanoparticles, the generation of cell-agarose constructs and implantation of these constructs into cartilage defects. The labeled constructs can be tracked non-invasively with MR-Imaging.
Cellular Biology, Issue 38, Stem cells, cartilage defect, agarose, scaffold, tissue engineering, implantation, MASI
The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Measurement of Bi-hemispheric Transcranial Electric Stimulation Effects on Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism
Institutions: University of Montréal, McGill University, University of Minnesota.
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulation technique that has been increasingly used over the past decade in the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as stroke and depression. Yet, the mechanisms underlying its ability to modulate brain excitability to improve clinical symptoms remains poorly understood 33
. To help improve this understanding, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1
H-MRS) can be used as it allows the in vivo
quantification of brain metabolites such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate in a region-specific manner 41
. In fact, a recent study demonstrated that 1
H-MRS is indeed a powerful means to better understand the effects of tDCS on neurotransmitter concentration 34
. This article aims to describe the complete protocol for combining tDCS (NeuroConn MR compatible stimulator) with 1
H-MRS at 3 T using a MEGA-PRESS sequence. We will describe the impact of a protocol that has shown great promise for the treatment of motor dysfunctions after stroke, which consists of bilateral stimulation of primary motor cortices 27,30,31
. Methodological factors to consider and possible modifications to the protocol are also discussed.
Neuroscience, Issue 93, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, transcranial direct current stimulation, primary motor cortex, GABA, glutamate, stroke
A Method for Mouse Pancreatic Islet Isolation and Intracellular cAMP Determination
Institutions: University of Wisconsin-Madison, University of Wisconsin-Madison, University of Waterloo.
Uncontrolled glycemia is a hallmark of diabetes mellitus and promotes morbidities like neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy. With the increasing prevalence of diabetes, both immune-mediated type 1 and obesity-linked type 2, studies aimed at delineating diabetes pathophysiology and therapeutic mechanisms are of critical importance. The β-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are responsible for appropriately secreting insulin in response to elevated blood glucose concentrations. In addition to glucose and other nutrients, the β-cells are also stimulated by specific hormones, termed incretins, which are secreted from the gut in response to a meal and act on β-cell receptors that increase the production of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Decreased β-cell function, mass, and incretin responsiveness are well-understood to contribute to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and are also being increasingly linked with type 1 diabetes. The present mouse islet isolation and cAMP determination protocol can be a tool to help delineate mechanisms promoting disease progression and therapeutic interventions, particularly those that are mediated by the incretin receptors or related receptors that act through modulation of intracellular cAMP production. While only cAMP measurements will be described, the described islet isolation protocol creates a clean preparation that also allows for many other downstream applications, including glucose stimulated insulin secretion, [3H
]-thymidine incorporation, protein abundance, and mRNA expression.
Physiology, Issue 88, islet, isolation, insulin secretion, β-cell, diabetes, cAMP production, mouse
A Method for Murine Islet Isolation and Subcapsular Kidney Transplantation
Institutions: The Ohio State University, The Ohio State University, The Ohio State University.
Since the early pioneering work of Ballinger and Reckard demonstrating that transplantation of islets of Langerhans into diabetic rodents could normalize their blood glucose levels, islet transplantation has been proposed to be a potential treatment for type 1 diabetes 1,2
. More recently, advances in human islet transplantation have further strengthened this view 1,3
. However, two major limitations prevent islet transplantation from being a widespread clinical reality: (a) the requirement for large numbers of islets per patient, which severely reduces the number of potential recipients, and (b) the need for heavy immunosuppression, which significantly affects the pediatric population of patients due to their vulnerability to long-term immunosuppression. Strategies that can overcome these limitations have the potential to enhance the therapeutic utility of islet transplantation.
Islet transplantation under the mouse kidney capsule is a widely accepted model to investigate various strategies to improve islet transplantation. This experiment requires the isolation of high quality islets and implantation of islets to the diabetic recipients. Both procedures require surgical steps that can be better demonstrated by video than by text. Here, we document the detailed steps for these procedures by both video and written protocol. We also briefly discuss different transplantation models: syngeneic, allogeneic, syngeneic autoimmune, and allogeneic autoimmune.
Medicine, Issue 50, islet isolation, islet transplantation, diabetes, murine, pancreas
Synthesis of an In vivo MRI-detectable Apoptosis Probe
Institutions: Stanford University Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco , San Francisco VAMC.
Cellular apoptosis is a prominent feature of many diseases, and this programmed cell death typically occurs before clinical manifestations of disease are evident. A means to detect apoptosis in its earliest, reversible stages would afford a pre-clinical 'window' during which preventive or therapeutic measures could be taken to protect the heart from permanent damage. We present herein a simple and robust method to conjugate human Annexin V (ANX), which avidly binds to cells in the earliest, reversible stages of apoptosis, to superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, which serve as an MRI-detectable contrast agent. The conjugation method begins with an oxidation of the SPIO nanoparticles, which oxidizes carboxyl groups on the polysaccharide shell of SPIO. Purified ANX protein is then added in the setting of a sodium borate solution to facilitate covalent interaction of ANX with SPIO in a reducing buffer. A final reduction step with sodium borohydride is performed to complete the reduction, and then the reaction is quenched. Unconjugated ANX is removed from the mix by microcentrifuge filtration. The size and purity of the ANX-SPIO product is verified by dynamic light scattering (DLS). This method does not require addition to, or modification of, the polysaccharide SPIO shell, as opposed to cross-linked iron oxide particle conjugation methods or biotin-labeled nanoparticles. As a result, this method represents a simple, robust approach that may be extended to conjugation of other proteins of interest.
Molecular Biology, Issue 65, Biomedical Engineering, conjugation, annexin, iron oxide, nanoparticle, MRI, molecular imaging
Registered Bioimaging of Nanomaterials for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Monitoring
Institutions: University of Nebraska Medical Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center.
Nanomedications can be carried by blood borne monocyte-macrophages into the reticuloendothelial system (RES; spleen, liver, lymph nodes) and to end organs. The latter include the lung, RES, and brain and are operative during human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) infection. Macrophage entry into tissues is notable in areas of active HIV-1 replication and sites of inflammation. In order to assess the potential of macrophages as nanocarriers, superparamagnetic iron-oxide and/or drug laden particles coated with surfactants were parenterally injected into HIV-1 encephalitic mice. This was done to quantitatively assess particle and drug biodistribution. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) test results were validated by histological coregistration and enhanced image processing. End organ disease as typified by altered brain histology were assessed by MRI. The demonstration of robust migration of nanoformulations into areas of focal encephalitis provides '"proof of concept" for the use of advanced bioimaging techniques to monitor macrophage migration. Importantly, histopathological aberrations in brain correlate with bioimaging parameters making the general utility of MRI in studies of cell distribution in disease feasible. We posit that using such methods can provide a real time index of disease burden and therapeutic efficacy with translational potential to humans.
Infectious Disease, Issue 46, neuroimaging, mouse, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Labeling hESCs and hMSCs with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Non-Invasive in vivo Tracking with MR Imaging
Institutions: Contrast Agent Research Group at the Center for Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco.
In recent years, stem cell research has led to a better understanding of developmental biology, various diseases and its potential impact on regenerative medicine. A non-invasive method to monitor the transplanted stem cells repeatedly in vivo would greatly enhance our ability to understand the mechanisms that control stem cell death and identify trophic factors and signaling pathways that improve stem cell engraftment. MR imaging has been proven to be an effective tool for the in vivo depiction of stem cells with near microscopic anatomical resolution. In order to detect stem cells with MR, the cells have to be labeled with cell specific MR contrast agents. For this purpose, iron oxide nanoparticles, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO), are applied, because of their high sensitivity for cell detection and their excellent biocompatibility. SPIO particles are composed of an iron oxide core and a dextran, carboxydextran or starch coat, and function by creating local field inhomogeneities, that cause a decreased signal on T2-weighted MR images. This presentation will demonstrate techniques for labeling of stem cells with clinically applicable MR contrast agents for subsequent non-invasive in vivo tracking of the labeled cells with MR imaging.
Cell Biology, Issue 13, cell labeling, stem cell, MR imaging, cell tracking, iron oxide, contrast agents, mesenchymal stem cells
In Situ SIMS and IR Spectroscopy of Well-defined Surfaces Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-selected Ions
Institutions: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of materials that are inaccessible using conventional synthesis techniques. Coupling soft landing with in situ
characterization using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) enables analysis of well-defined surfaces under clean vacuum conditions. The capabilities of three soft-landing instruments constructed in our laboratory are illustrated for the representative system of surface-bound organometallics prepared by soft landing of mass-selected ruthenium tris(bipyridine) dications, [Ru(bpy)3
(bpy = bipyridine), onto carboxylic acid terminated self-assembled monolayer surfaces on gold (COOH-SAMs). In situ
time-of-flight (TOF)-SIMS provides insight into the reactivity of the soft-landed ions. In addition, the kinetics of charge reduction, neutralization and desorption occurring on the COOH-SAM both during and after ion soft landing are studied using in situ
Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR)-SIMS measurements. In situ
IRRAS experiments provide insight into how the structure of organic ligands surrounding metal centers is perturbed through immobilization of organometallic ions on COOH-SAM surfaces by soft landing. Collectively, the three instruments provide complementary information about the chemical composition, reactivity and structure of well-defined species supported on surfaces.
Chemistry, Issue 88, soft landing, mass selected ions, electrospray, secondary ion mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, organometallic, catalysis