Pneumonia is one of the major health care problems in developing and industrialized countries and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in knowledge of this illness, the availability of intensive care units (ICU), and the use of potent antimicrobial agents and effective vaccines, the mortality rates remain high1. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and one of the most common causes of bacteremia in humans. This pathogen is equipped with an armamentarium of surface-exposed adhesins and virulence factors contributing to pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The assessment of the in vivo role of bacterial fitness or virulence factors is of utmost importance to unravel S. pneumoniae pathogenicity mechanisms. Murine models of pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis are being used to determine the impact of pneumococcal factors at different stages of the infection. Here we describe a protocol to monitor in real-time pneumococcal dissemination in mice after intranasal or intraperitoneal infections with bioluminescent bacteria. The results show the multiplication and dissemination of pneumococci in the lower respiratory tract and blood, which can be visualized and evaluated using an imaging system and the accompanying analysis software.
15 Related JoVE Articles!
Non-Invasive Model of Neuropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection in the Neonatal Rat
Institutions: University College London, University of Gothenburg.
Investigation of the interactions between animal host and bacterial pathogen is only meaningful if the infection model employed replicates the principal features of the natural infection. This protocol describes procedures for the establishment and evaluation of systemic infection due to neuropathogenic Escherichia coli
K1 in the neonatal rat. Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract leads to dissemination of the pathogen along the gut-lymph-blood-brain course of infection and the model displays strong age dependency. A strain of E. coli
O18:K1 with enhanced virulence for the neonatal rat produces exceptionally high rates of colonization, translocation to the blood compartment and invasion of the meninges following transit through the choroid plexus. As in the human host, penetration of the central nervous system is accompanied by local inflammation and an invariably lethal outcome. The model is of proven utility for studies of the mechanism of pathogenesis, for evaluation of therapeutic interventions and for assessment of bacterial virulence.
Infection, Issue 92, Bacterial infection, neonatal bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, sepsis, animal model, K1 polysaccharide, systemic infection, gastrointestinal tract, age dependency
Experimental Human Pneumococcal Carriage
Institutions: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, University Hospital Trust, Comprehensive Local Research Network, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals NHS Trust, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust & University of Leicester, University of Liverpool .
Experimental human pneumococcal carriage (EHPC) is scientifically important because nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae
is both the major source of transmission and the prerequisite of invasive disease. A model of carriage will allow accurate determination of the immunological correlates of protection, the immunizing effect of carriage and the effect of host pressure on the pathogen in the nasopharyngeal niche. Further, methods of carriage detection useful in epidemiologic studies, including vaccine studies, can be compared.
We aim to develop an EHPC platform that is a safe and useful reproducible method that could be used to down-select candidate novel pneumococcal vaccines with prevention of carriage as a surrogate of vaccine induced immunity. It will work towards testing of candidate vaccines and descriptions of the mechanisms underlying EHPC and vaccine protection from carriage1
. Current conjugate vaccines against pneumococcus protect children from invasive disease although new vaccines are urgently needed as the current vaccine does not confer optimal protection against non-bacteraemic pneumonia and there has been evidence of serotype replacement with non-vaccine serotypes2-4
We inoculate with S. pneumoniae
suspended in 100 μl of saline. Safety is a major factor in the development of the EHPC model and is achieved through intensive volunteer screening and monitoring. A safety committee consisting of clinicians and scientists that are independent from the study provides objective feedback on a weekly basis.
The bacterial inoculum is standardized and requires that no animal products are inoculated into volunteers (vegetable-based media and saline). The doses required for colonization (104
) are much lower than those used in animal models (107
. Detecting pneumococcal carriage is enhanced by a high volume (ideally >10 ml) nasal wash that is relatively mucus free. This protocol will deal with the most important parts of the protocol in turn. These are (a) volunteer selection, (b) pneumococcal inoculum preparation, (c) inoculation, (d) follow-up and (e) carriage detection.
Our current protocol has been safe in over 100 volunteers at a range of doses using two different bacterial serotypes6
. A dose ranging study using S. pneumoniae
6B and 23F is currently being conducted to determine the optimal inoculation dose for 50% carriage. A predicted 50% rate of carriage will allow the EHPC model to have high sensitivity for vaccine efficacy with small study numbers.
Infection, Issue 72, Medicine, Immmunology, Microbiology, Infectious Diseases, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Streptococcus pneumoniae, carriage, nasal wash, inoculation, human, vaccine studies, pneumonia, volunteer selection, clinical
Investigating the Effects of Probiotics on Pneumococcal Colonization Using an In Vitro Adherence Assay
Institutions: Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, The University of Melbourne, The University of Melbourne.
Adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae
(the pneumococcus) to the epithelial lining of the nasopharynx can result in colonization and is considered a prerequisite for pneumococcal infections such as pneumonia and otitis media. In vitro
adherence assays can be used to study the attachment of pneumococci to epithelial cell monolayers and to investigate potential interventions, such as the use of probiotics, to inhibit pneumococcal colonization. The protocol described here is used to investigate the effects of the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius
on the adherence of pneumococci to the human epithelial cell line CCL-23 (sometimes referred to as HEp-2 cells). The assay involves three main steps: 1) preparation of epithelial and bacterial cells, 2) addition of bacteria to epithelial cell monolayers, and 3) detection of adherent pneumococci by viable counts (serial dilution and plating) or quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). This technique is relatively straightforward and does not require specialized equipment other than a tissue culture setup. The assay can be used to test other probiotic species and/or potential inhibitors of pneumococcal colonization and can be easily modified to address other scientific questions regarding pneumococcal adherence and invasion.
Immunology, Issue 86, Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections, Pneumonia, Bacterial, Lung Diseases, Respiratory Tract Infections, Streptococcus pneumoniae, adherence, colonization, probiotics, Streptococcus salivarius, In Vitro assays
Capsular Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae by Latex Agglutination
Institutions: Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, The University of Melbourne.
Latex agglutination reagents are widely used in microbial diagnosis, identification and serotyping. Streptococcus pneumonia
e (the pneumococcus) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide. Current vaccines target the pneumococcal capsule, and there are over 90 capsular serotypes. Serotyping pneumococcal isolates is therefore important for assessing the impact of vaccination programs and for epidemiological purposes. The World Health Organization has recommended latex agglutination as an alternative method to the ‘gold standard’ Quellung test for serotyping pneumococci. Latex agglutination is a relatively simple, quick and inexpensive method; and is therefore suitable for resource-poor settings as well as laboratories with high-volume workloads. Latex agglutination reagents can be prepared in-house utilizing commercially-sourced antibodies that are passively attached to latex particles. This manuscript describes a method of production and quality control of latex agglutination reagents, and details a sequential testing approach which is time- and cost-effective.
This method of production and quality control may also be suitable for other testing purposes.
Immunology, Issue 91, Antisera, pneumococci, polysaccharide capsule, slide agglutination
Capsular Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae Using the Quellung Reaction
Institutions: Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, The University of Melbourne.
There are over 90 different capsular serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae
(the pneumococcus). As well as being a tool for understanding pneumococcal epidemiology, capsular serotyping can provide useful information for vaccine efficacy and impact studies. The Quellung reaction is the gold standard method for pneumococcal capsular serotyping. The method involves testing a pneumococcal cell suspension with pooled and specific antisera directed against the capsular polysaccharide. The antigen-antibody reactions are observed microscopically. The protocol has three main steps: 1) preparation of a bacterial cell suspension, 2) mixing of cells and antisera on a glass slide, and 3) reading the Quellung reaction using a microscope. The Quellung reaction is reasonably simple to perform and can be applied wherever a suitable microscope and antisera are available.
Immunology, Issue 84, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Quellung, serotyping, Neufeld, pneumococcus
Humanized Mouse Model to Study Bacterial Infections Targeting the Microvasculature
Institutions: Paris Cardiovascular Research Centre, Université Paris Descartes.
causes a severe, frequently fatal sepsis when it enters the human blood stream. Infection leads to extensive damage of the blood vessels resulting in vascular leak, the development of purpuric rashes and eventual tissue necrosis. Studying the pathogenesis of this infection was previously limited by the human specificity of the bacteria, which makes in vivo
models difficult. In this protocol, we describe a humanized model for this infection in which human skin, containing dermal microvessels, is grafted onto immunocompromised mice. These vessels anastomose with the mouse circulation while maintaining their human characteristics. Once introduced into this model, N. meningitidis
adhere exclusively to the human vessels, resulting in extensive vascular damage, inflammation and in some cases the development of purpuric rash. This protocol describes the grafting, infection and evaluation steps of this model in the context of N. meningitidis
infection. The technique may be applied to numerous human specific pathogens that infect the blood stream.
Infection, Issue 86, Disease Models, Bacteria, Bacterial Infections and Mycoses, Neisseria meningitidis, purpura, vascular infection, humanized model
Generation of a Novel Dendritic-cell Vaccine Using Melanoma and Squamous Cancer Stem Cells
Institutions: University of Michigan, University of Michigan, University of Michigan.
We identified cancer stem cell (CSC)-enriched populations from murine melanoma D5 syngeneic to C57BL/6 mice and the squamous cancer SCC7 syngeneic to C3H mice using ALDEFLUOR/ALDH as a marker, and tested their immunogenicity using the cell lysate as a source of antigens to pulse dendritic cells (DCs). DCs pulsed with ALDHhigh
CSC lysates induced significantly higher protective antitumor immunity than DCs pulsed with the lysates of unsorted whole tumor cell lysates in both models and in a lung metastasis setting and a s.c.
tumor growth setting, respectively. This phenomenon was due to CSC vaccine-induced humoral as well as cellular anti-CSC responses. In particular, splenocytes isolated from the host subjected to CSC-DC vaccine produced significantly higher amount of IFNγ and GM-CSF than splenocytes isolated from the host subjected to unsorted tumor cell lysate pulsed-DC vaccine. These results support the efforts to develop an autologous CSC-based therapeutic vaccine for clinical use in an adjuvant setting.
Cancer Biology, Issue 83, Cancer stem cell (CSC), Dendritic cells (DC), Vaccine, Cancer immunotherapy, antitumor immunity, aldehyde dehydrogenase
Protocol for Recombinant RBD-based SARS Vaccines: Protein Preparation, Animal Vaccination and Neutralization Detection
Institutions: New York Blood Center.
Based on their safety profile and ability to induce potent immune responses against infections, subunit vaccines have been used as candidates for a wide variety of pathogens 1-3
. Since the mammalian cell system is capable of post-translational modification, thus forming properly folded and glycosylated proteins, recombinant proteins expressed in mammalian cells have shown the greatest potential to maintain high antigenicity and immunogenicity 4-6
Although no new cases of SARS have been reported since 2004, future outbreaks are a constant threat; therefore, the development of vaccines against SARS-CoV is a prudent preventive step and should be carried out. The RBD of SARS-CoV S protein plays important roles in receptor binding and induction of specific neutralizing antibodies against virus infection 7-9
. Therefore, in this protocol, we describe novel methods for developing a RBD-based subunit vaccine against SARS. Briefly, the recombinant RBD protein (rRBD) was expressed in culture supernatant of mammalian 293T cells to obtain a correctly folded protein with proper conformation and high immunogenicity 6
. The transfection of the recombinant plasmid encoding RBD to the cells was then performed using a calcium phosphate transfection method 6,10
with some modifications. Compared with the lipid transfection method 11,12
, this modified calcium phosphate transfection method is cheaper, easier to handle, and has the potential to reach high efficacy once a transfection complex with suitable size and shape is formed 13,14
. Finally, a SARS pseudovirus neutralization assay was introduced in the protocol and used to detect the neutralizing activity of sera of mice vaccinated with rRBD protein. This assay is relatively safe, does not involve an infectious SARS-CoV, and can be performed without the requirement of a biosafety-3 laboratory 15
The protocol described here can also be used to design and study recombinant subunit vaccines against other viruses with class I fusion proteins, for example, HIV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Ebola virus, influenza virus, as well as Nipah and Handra viruses. In addition, the methods for generating a pseudovirus and subsequently establishing a pseudovirus neutralization assay can be applied to all these viruses.
Immunology, Issue 51, SARS, receptor-binding domain, subunit vaccines, immunization, neutralization detection
Skin Tattooing As A Novel Approach For DNA Vaccine Delivery
Institutions: New York University School of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Veterans Affairs New York Harbor.
Nucleic acid-based vaccination is a topic of growing interest, especially plasmid DNA (pDNA) encoding immunologically important antigens. After the engineered pDNA is administered to the vaccines, it is transcribed and translated into immunogen proteins that can elicit responses from the immune system. Many ways of delivering DNA vaccines have been investigated; however each delivery route has its own advantages and pitfalls. Skin tattooing is a novel technique that is safe, cost-effective, and convenient. In addition, the punctures inflicted by the needle could also serve as a potent adjuvant. Here, we a) demonstrate the intradermal delivery of plasmid DNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (pCX-EGFP) in a mouse model using a tattooing device and b) confirm the effective expression of EGFP in the skin cells using confocal microscopy.
Bioengineering, Issue 68, Biomedical Engineering, Genetics, Medicine, DNA, vaccine, immunization method, skin tattooing, intradermal delivery, GFP
A Restriction Enzyme Based Cloning Method to Assess the In vitro Replication Capacity of HIV-1 Subtype C Gag-MJ4 Chimeric Viruses
Institutions: Emory University, Emory University.
The protective effect of many HLA class I alleles on HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease progression is, in part, attributed to their ability to target conserved portions of the HIV-1 genome that escape with difficulty. Sequence changes attributed to cellular immune pressure arise across the genome during infection, and if found within conserved regions of the genome such as Gag, can affect the ability of the virus to replicate in vitro
. Transmission of HLA-linked polymorphisms in Gag to HLA-mismatched recipients has been associated with reduced set point viral loads. We hypothesized this may be due to a reduced replication capacity of the virus. Here we present a novel method for assessing the in vitro
replication of HIV-1 as influenced by the gag
gene isolated from acute time points from subtype C infected Zambians. This method uses restriction enzyme based cloning to insert the gag
gene into a common subtype C HIV-1 proviral backbone, MJ4. This makes it more appropriate to the study of subtype C sequences than previous recombination based methods that have assessed the in vitro
replication of chronically derived gag-pro
sequences. Nevertheless, the protocol could be readily modified for studies of viruses from other subtypes. Moreover, this protocol details a robust and reproducible method for assessing the replication capacity of the Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses on a CEM-based T cell line. This method was utilized for the study of Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses derived from 149 subtype C acutely infected Zambians, and has allowed for the identification of residues in Gag that affect replication. More importantly, the implementation of this technique has facilitated a deeper understanding of how viral replication defines parameters of early HIV-1 pathogenesis such as set point viral load and longitudinal CD4+ T cell decline.
Infectious Diseases, Issue 90, HIV-1, Gag, viral replication, replication capacity, viral fitness, MJ4, CEM, GXR25
Optimization and Utilization of Agrobacterium-mediated Transient Protein Production in Nicotiana
Institutions: Fraunhofer USA Center for Molecular Biotechnology.
-mediated transient protein production in plants is a promising approach to produce vaccine antigens and therapeutic proteins within a short period of time. However, this technology is only just beginning to be applied to large-scale production as many technological obstacles to scale up are now being overcome. Here, we demonstrate a simple and reproducible method for industrial-scale transient protein production based on vacuum infiltration of Nicotiana
plants with Agrobacteria
carrying launch vectors. Optimization of Agrobacterium
cultivation in AB medium allows direct dilution of the bacterial culture in Milli-Q water, simplifying the infiltration process. Among three tested species of Nicotiana
, N. excelsiana
× N. excelsior
) was selected as the most promising host due to the ease of infiltration, high level of reporter protein production, and about two-fold higher biomass production under controlled environmental conditions. Induction of Agrobacterium
harboring pBID4-GFP (Tobacco mosaic virus
-based) using chemicals such as acetosyringone and monosaccharide had no effect on the protein production level. Infiltrating plant under 50 to 100 mbar for 30 or 60 sec resulted in about 95% infiltration of plant leaf tissues. Infiltration with Agrobacterium
laboratory strain GV3101 showed the highest protein production compared to Agrobacteria
laboratory strains LBA4404 and C58C1 and wild-type Agrobacteria
strains at6, at10, at77 and A4. Co-expression of a viral RNA silencing suppressor, p23 or p19, in N. benthamiana
resulted in earlier accumulation and increased production (15-25%) of target protein (influenza virus hemagglutinin).
Plant Biology, Issue 86, Agroinfiltration, Nicotiana benthamiana, transient protein production, plant-based expression, viral vector, Agrobacteria
Characterization of Inflammatory Responses During Intranasal Colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae
Institutions: McMaster University .
Nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae
is a prerequisite to invasion to the lungs or bloodstream1
. This organism is capable of colonizing the mucosal surface of the nasopharynx, where it can reside, multiply and eventually overcome host defences to invade to other tissues of the host. Establishment of an infection in the normally lower respiratory tract results in pneumonia. Alternatively, the bacteria can disseminate into the bloodstream causing bacteraemia, which is associated with high mortality rates2
, or else lead directly to the development of pneumococcal meningitis. Understanding the kinetics of, and immune responses to, nasopharyngeal colonization is an important aspect of S. pneumoniae
Our mouse model of intranasal colonization is adapted from human models3
and has been used by multiple research groups in the study of host-pathogen responses in the nasopharynx4-7
. In the first part of the model, we use a clinical isolate of S. pneumoniae
to establish a self-limiting bacterial colonization that is similar to carriage events in human adults. The procedure detailed herein involves preparation of a bacterial inoculum, followed by the establishment of a colonization event through delivery of the inoculum via an intranasal route of administration. Resident macrophages are the predominant cell type in the nasopharynx during the steady state. Typically, there are few lymphocytes present in uninfected mice8
, however mucosal colonization will lead to low- to high-grade inflammation (depending on the virulence of the bacterial species and strain) that will result in an immune response and the subsequent recruitment of host immune cells. These cells can be isolated by a lavage of the tracheal contents through the nares, and correlated to the density of colonization bacteria to better understand the kinetics of the infection.
Immunology, Issue 83, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Nasal lavage, nasopharynx, murine, flow cytometry, RNA, Quantitative PCR, recruited macrophages, neutrophils, T-cells, effector cells, intranasal colonization
Sublingual Immunotherapy as an Alternative to Induce Protection Against Acute Respiratory Infections
Institutions: Universidad de la República, Trinity College Dublin.
Sublingual route has been widely used to deliver small molecules into the bloodstream and to modulate the immune response at different sites. It has been shown to effectively induce humoral and cellular responses at systemic and mucosal sites, namely the lungs and urogenital tract. Sublingual vaccination can promote protection against infections at the lower and upper respiratory tract; it can also promote tolerance to allergens and ameliorate asthma symptoms. Modulation of lung’s immune response by sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is safer than direct administration of formulations by intranasal route because it does not require delivery of potentially harmful molecules directly into the airways. In contrast to intranasal delivery, side effects involving brain toxicity or facial paralysis are not promoted by SLIT. The immune mechanisms underlying SLIT remain elusive and its use for the treatment of acute lung infections has not yet been explored. Thus, development of appropriate animal models of SLIT is needed to further explore its potential advantages.
This work shows how to perform sublingual administration of therapeutic agents in mice to evaluate their ability to protect against acute pneumococcal pneumonia. Technical aspects of mouse handling during sublingual inoculation, precise identification of sublingual mucosa, draining lymph nodes and isolation of tissues, bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs are illustrated. Protocols for single cell suspension preparation for FACS analysis are described in detail. Other downstream applications for the analysis of the immune response are discussed. Technical aspects of the preparation of Streptococcus pneumoniae
inoculum and intranasal challenge of mice are also explained.
SLIT is a simple technique that allows screening of candidate molecules to modulate lungs’ immune response. Parameters affecting the success of SLIT are related to molecular size, susceptibility to degradation and stability of highly concentrated formulations.
Medicine, Issue 90, Sublingual immunotherapy, Pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Lungs, Flagellin, TLR5, NLRC4
Monitoring Changes in Membrane Polarity, Membrane Integrity, and Intracellular Ion Concentrations in Streptococcus pneumoniae Using Fluorescent Dyes
Institutions: University at Buffalo, State University of New York, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, University at Buffalo, State University of New York.
Membrane depolarization and ion fluxes are events that have been studied extensively in biological systems due to their ability to profoundly impact cellular functions, including energetics and signal transductions. While both fluorescent and electrophysiological methods, including electrode usage and patch-clamping, have been well developed for measuring these events in eukaryotic cells, methodology for measuring similar events in microorganisms have proven more challenging to develop given their small size in combination with the more complex outer surface of bacteria shielding the membrane. During our studies of death-initiation in Streptococcus pneumoniae
(pneumococcus), we wanted to elucidate the role of membrane events, including changes in polarity, integrity, and intracellular ion concentrations. Searching the literature, we found that very few studies exist. Other investigators had monitored radioisotope uptake or equilibrium to measure ion fluxes and membrane potential and a limited number of studies, mostly in Gram-negative organisms, had seen some success using carbocyanine or oxonol fluorescent dyes to measure membrane potential, or loading bacteria with cell-permeant acetoxymethyl (AM) ester versions of ion-sensitive fluorescent indicator dyes. We therefore established and optimized protocols for measuring membrane potential, rupture, and ion-transport in the Gram-positive organism S. pneumoniae.
We developed protocols using the bis-oxonol dye DiBAC4
(3) and the cell-impermeant dye propidium iodide to measure membrane depolarization and rupture, respectively, as well as methods to optimally load the pneumococci with the AM esters of the ratiometric dyes Fura-2, PBFI, and BCECF to detect changes in intracellular concentrations of Ca2+
, and H+
, respectively, using a fluorescence-detection plate reader. These protocols are the first of their kind for the pneumococcus and the majority of these dyes have not been used in any other bacterial species. Though our protocols have been optimized for S. pneumoniae
, we believe these approaches should form an excellent starting-point for similar studies in other bacterial species.
Immunology, Issue 84, Streptococcus pneumoniae, pneumococcus, potential-sensitive dyes, DiBAC, Propidium Iodide, acetoxymethyl (AM) ester, membrane rupture, Ion transport, bacterial ion concentrations, ion-sensitive fluorescence
In vitro Biofilm Formation in an 8-well Chamber Slide
Institutions: The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital.
The chronic nature of many diseases is attributed to the formation of bacterial biofilms which are recalcitrant to traditional antibiotic therapy. Biofilms are community-associated bacteria attached to a surface and encased in a matrix. The role of the extracellular matrix is multifaceted, including facilitating nutrient acquisition, and offers significant protection against environmental stresses (e.g. host immune responses). In an effort to acquire a better understanding as to how the bacteria within a biofilm respond to environmental stresses we have used a protocol wherein we visualize bacterial biofilms which have formed in an 8-well chamber slide. The biofilms were stained with the BacLight Live/Dead stain and examined using a confocal microscope to characterize the relative biofilm size, and structure under varying incubation conditions. Z-stack images were collected via confocal microscopy and analyzed by COMSTAT. This protocol can be used to help elucidate the mechanism and kinetics by which biofilms form, as well as identify components that are important to biofilm structure and stability.
Infectious Disease, Issue 47, confocal microscopy, therapeutic approaches, chamber slide