Atherosclerosis is a disease of the large arteries and a major underlying cause of myocardial infarction and stroke. Several different mouse models have been developed to facilitate the study of the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of this disease. In this manuscript we describe specific techniques for the quantification and characterization of atherosclerotic lesions in the murine aortic sinus and ascending aorta. The advantage of this procedure is that it provides an accurate measurement of the cross-sectional area and total volume of the lesion, which can be used to compare atherosclerotic progression across different treatment groups. This is possible through the use of the valve leaflets as an anatomical landmark, together with careful adjustment of the sectioning angle. We also describe basic staining methods that can be used to begin to characterize atherosclerotic progression. These can be further modified to investigate antigens of specific interest to the researcher. The described techniques are generally applicable to a wide variety of existing and newly created dietary and genetically-induced models of atherogenesis.
17 Related JoVE Articles!
Implantation of a Carotid Cuff for Triggering Shear-stress Induced Atherosclerosis in Mice
Institutions: Westfälische Wilhelms-University Münster, Imperial College London , Imperial College London , Eindhoven University of Technology.
It is widely accepted that alterations in vascular shear stress trigger the expression of inflammatory genes in endothelial cells and thereby induce atherosclerosis (reviewed in 1
). The role of shear stress has been extensively studied in vitro
investigating the influence of flow dynamics on cultured endothelial cells 1,3,4
and in vivo
in larger animals and humans 1,5,6,7,8
. However, highly reproducible small animal models allowing systematic investigation of the influence of shear stress on plaque development are rare. Recently, Nam et al. 9
introduced a mouse model in which the ligation of branches of the carotid artery creates a region of low and oscillatory flow. Although this model causes endothelial dysfunction and rapid formation of atherosclerotic lesions in hyperlipidemic mice, it cannot be excluded that the observed inflammatory response is, at least in part, a consequence of endothelial and/or vessel damage due to ligation.
In order to avoid such limitations, a shear stress modifying cuff has been developed based upon calculated fluid dynamics, whose cone shaped inner lumen was selected to create defined regions of low, high and oscillatory shear stress within the common carotid artery 10
. By applying this model in Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice fed a high cholesterol western type diet, vascular lesions develop upstream and downstream from the cuff. Their phenotype is correlated with the regional flow dynamics 11
as confirmed by in vivo
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 12
: Low and laminar shear stress upstream of the cuff causes the formation of extensive plaques of a more vulnerable phenotype, whereas oscillatory shear stress downstream of the cuff induces stable atherosclerotic lesions 11
. In those regions of high shear stress and high laminar flow within the cuff, typically no atherosclerotic plaques are observed.
In conclusion, the shear stress-modifying cuff procedure is a reliable surgical approach to produce phenotypically different atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-deficient mice.
Medicine, Issue 59, atherosclerosis, mouse, cardiovascular disease, shear stress
A Mouse Model for Pathogen-induced Chronic Inflammation at Local and Systemic Sites
Institutions: Boston University School of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine.
Chronic inflammation is a major driver of pathological tissue damage and a unifying characteristic of many chronic diseases in humans including neoplastic, autoimmune, and chronic inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence implicates pathogen-induced chronic inflammation in the development and progression of chronic diseases with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Due to the complex and multifactorial etiology of chronic disease, designing experiments for proof of causality and the establishment of mechanistic links is nearly impossible in humans. An advantage of using animal models is that both genetic and environmental factors that may influence the course of a particular disease can be controlled. Thus, designing relevant animal models of infection represents a key step in identifying host and pathogen specific mechanisms that contribute to chronic inflammation.
Here we describe a mouse model of pathogen-induced chronic inflammation at local and systemic sites following infection with the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis
, a bacterium closely associated with human periodontal disease. Oral infection of specific-pathogen free mice induces a local inflammatory response resulting in destruction of tooth supporting alveolar bone, a hallmark of periodontal disease. In an established mouse model of atherosclerosis, infection with P. gingivalis
accelerates inflammatory plaque deposition within the aortic sinus and innominate artery, accompanied by activation of the vascular endothelium, an increased immune cell infiltrate, and elevated expression of inflammatory mediators within lesions. We detail methodologies for the assessment of inflammation at local and systemic sites. The use of transgenic mice and defined bacterial mutants makes this model particularly suitable for identifying both host and microbial factors involved in the initiation, progression, and outcome of disease. Additionally, the model can be used to screen for novel therapeutic strategies, including vaccination and pharmacological intervention.
Immunology, Issue 90,
Pathogen-Induced Chronic Inflammation; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Oral Bone Loss; Periodontal Disease; Atherosclerosis; Chronic Inflammation; Host-Pathogen Interaction; microCT; MRI
Inducing Myointimal Hyperplasia Versus Atherosclerosis in Mice: An Introduction of Two Valid Models
Institutions: University Hospital Hamburg, Cardiovascular Research Center (CVRC) and DZHK University Hamburg, University Heart Center Hamburg, Columbia University, Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Stanford University School of Medicine, Falk Cardiovascular Research Center.
Various in vivo
laboratory rodent models for the induction of artery stenosis have been established to mimic diseases that include arterial plaque formation and stenosis, as observed for example in ischemic heart disease. Two highly reproducible mouse models – both resulting in artery stenosis but each underlying a different pathway of development – are introduced here. The models represent the two most common causes of artery stenosis; namely one mouse model for each myointimal hyperplasia, and atherosclerosis are shown. To induce myointimal hyperplasia, a balloon catheter injury of the abdominal aorta is performed. For the development of atherosclerotic plaque, the ApoE -/- mouse model in combination with western fatty diet is used. Different model-adapted options for the measurement and evaluation of the results are named and described in this manuscript. The introduction and comparison of these two models provides information for scientists to choose the appropriate artery stenosis model in accordance to the scientific question asked.
Medicine, Issue 87, vascular diseases, atherosclerosis, coronary stenosis, neointima, myointimal hyperplasia, mice, denudation model, ApoE -/-, balloon injury, western diet, analysis
A Human Ex Vivo Atherosclerotic Plaque Model to Study Lesion Biology
Institutions: University of Heidelberg, University of Heidelberg, SLK Hospital am Plattenwald.
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vasculature. There are various methods to study the inflammatory compound in atherosclerotic lesions. Mouse models are an important tool to investigate inflammatory processes in atherogenesis, but these models suffer from the phenotypic and functional differences between the murine and human immune system. In vitro
cell experiments are used to specifically evaluate cell type-dependent changes caused by a substance of interest, but culture-dependent variations and the inability to analyze the influence of specific molecules in the context of the inflammatory compound in atherosclerotic lesions limit the impact of the results. In addition, measuring levels of a molecule of interest in human blood helps to further investigate its clinical relevance, but this represents systemic and not local inflammation. Therefore, we here describe a plaque culture model to study human atherosclerotic lesion biology ex vivo
. In short, fresh plaques are obtained from patients undergoing endarterectomy or coronary artery bypass grafting and stored in RPMI medium on ice until usage. The specimens are cut into small pieces followed by random distribution into a 48-well plate, containing RPMI medium in addition to a substance of interest such as cytokines or chemokines alone or in combination for defined periods of time. After incubation, the plaque pieces can be shock frozen for mRNA isolation, embedded in Paraffin or OCT for immunohistochemistry staining or smashed and lysed for western blotting. Furthermore, cells may be isolated from the plaque for flow cytometry analysis. In addition, supernatants can be collected for protein measurement by ELISA. In conclusion, the presented ex vivo
model opens the possibility to further study inflammatory lesional biology, which may result in identification of novel disease mechanisms and therapeutic targets.
Medicine, Issue 87, ex vivo model, human, tissue culture, atherosclerosis, immune response, inflammation, chronic inflammatory disease
A Murine Model of Stent Implantation in the Carotid Artery for the Study of Restenosis
Institutions: RWTH Aachen University, RWTH Aachen University, Helmholtz-Institute of RWTH Aachen University, RWTH Aachen University, RWTH Aachen University.
Despite the considerable progress made in the stent development in the last decades, cardiovascular diseases remain the main cause of death in western countries. Beside the benefits offered by the development of different drug-eluting stents, the coronary revascularization bears also the life-threatening risks of in-stent thrombosis and restenosis. Research on new therapeutic strategies is impaired by the lack of appropriate methods to study stent implantation and restenosis processes. Here, we describe a rapid and accessible procedure of stent implantation in mouse carotid artery, which offers the possibility to study in a convenient way the molecular mechanisms of vessel remodeling and the effects of different drug coatings.
Medicine, Issue 75, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Cardiology, Surgery, Microsurgery, Animal Experimentation, Models, Animal, Cardiovascular Diseases, Stent implantation, atherosclerosis, restenosis, in-stent thrombosis, stent, mouse carotid artery, arteries, blood vessels, mouse, animal model, surgical techniques
Cholesterol Efflux Assay
Institutions: Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute.
Cholesterol content of cells must be maintained within the very tight limits, too much or too little cholesterol in a cell results in disruption of cellular membranes, apoptosis and necrosis 1
. Cells can source cholesterol from intracellular synthesis and from plasma lipoproteins, both sources are sufficient to fully satisfy cells' requirements for cholesterol. The processes of cholesterol synthesis and uptake are tightly regulated and deficiencies of cholesterol are rare 2
. Excessive cholesterol is more common problem 3
. With the exception of hepatocytes and to some degree adrenocortical cells, cells are unable to degrade cholesterol. Cells have two options to reduce their cholesterol content: to convert cholesterol into cholesteryl esters, an option with limited capacity as overloading cells with cholesteryl esters is also toxic, and cholesterol efflux, an option with potentially unlimited capacity. Cholesterol efflux is a specific process that is regulated by a number of intracellular transporters, such as ATP binding cassette transporter proteins A1 (ABCA1) and G1 (ABCG1) and scavenger receptor type B1. The natural acceptor of cholesterol in plasma is high density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I.
The cholesterol efflux assay is designed to quantitate the rate of cholesterol efflux from cultured cells. It measures the capacity of cells to maintain cholesterol efflux and/or the capacity of plasma acceptors to accept cholesterol released from cells. The assay consists of the following steps. Step 1: labelling cellular cholesterol by adding labelled cholesterol to serum-containing medium and incubating with cells for 24-48 h. This step may be combined with loading of cells with cholesterol. Step 2: incubation of cells in serum-free medium to equilibrate labelled cholesterol among all intracellular cholesterol pools. This stage may be combined with activation of cellular cholesterol transporters. Step 3: incubation of cells with extracellular acceptor and quantitation of movement of labelled cholesterol from cells to the acceptor. If cholesterol precursors were used to label newly synthesized cholesterol, a fourth step, purification of cholesterol, may be required.
The assay delivers the following information: (i) how a particular treatment (a mutation, a knock-down, an overexpression or a treatment) affects the capacity of cell to efflux cholesterol and (ii) how the capacity of plasma acceptors to accept cholesterol is affected by a disease or a treatment. This method is often used in context of cardiovascular research, metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders, infectious and reproductive diseases.
Medicine, Issue 61, Lipids, lipoproteins, atherosclerosis, trafficking, cholesterol
The Use of Gas Chromatography to Analyze Compositional Changes of Fatty Acids in Rat Liver Tissue during Pregnancy
Institutions: University of Southampton.
Gas chromatography (GC) is a highly sensitive method used to identify and quantify the fatty acid content of lipids from tissues, cells, and plasma/serum, yielding results with high accuracy and high reproducibility. In metabolic and nutrition studies GC allows assessment of changes in fatty acid concentrations following interventions or during changes in physiological state such as pregnancy. Solid phase extraction (SPE) using aminopropyl silica cartridges allows separation of the major lipid classes including triacylglycerols, different phospholipids, and cholesteryl esters (CE). GC combined with SPE was used to analyze the changes in fatty acid composition of the CE fraction in the livers of virgin and pregnant rats that had been fed various high and low fat diets. There are significant diet/pregnancy interaction effects upon the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid content of liver CE, indicating that pregnant females have a different response to dietary manipulation than is seen among virgin females.
Chemistry, Issue 85, gas chromatography, fatty acid, pregnancy, cholesteryl ester, solid phase extraction, polyunsaturated fatty acids
Isolation of Adipose Tissue Immune Cells
Institutions: Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.
The discovery of increased macrophage infiltration in the adipose tissue (AT) of obese rodents and humans has led to an intensification of interest in immune cell contribution to local and systemic insulin resistance. Isolation and quantification of different immune cell populations in lean and obese AT is now a commonly utilized technique in immunometabolism laboratories; yet extreme care must be taken both in stromal vascular cell isolation and in the flow cytometry analysis so that the data obtained is reliable and interpretable. In this video we demonstrate how to mince, digest, and isolate the immune cell-enriched stromal vascular fraction. Subsequently, we show how to antibody label macrophages and T lymphocytes and how to properly gate on them in flow cytometry experiments. Representative flow cytometry plots from low fat-fed lean and high fat-fed obese mice are provided. A critical element of this analysis is the use of antibodies that do not fluoresce in channels where AT macrophages are naturally autofluorescent, as well as the use of proper compensation controls.
Immunology, Issue 75, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biophysics, Physiology, Anatomy, Biomedical Engineering, Surgery, Metabolic Diseases, Diabetes Mellitus, diabetes, Endocrine System Diseases, adipose tissue, AT, stromal vascular fraction, macrophage, lymphocyte, T cells, adipocyte, inflammation, obesity, cell, isolation, FACS, flow cytometry, mice, animal model
Functional Interrogation of Adult Hypothalamic Neurogenesis with Focal Radiological Inhibition
Institutions: California Institute of Technology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, University Of Washington Medical Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
The functional characterization of adult-born neurons remains a significant challenge. Approaches to inhibit adult neurogenesis via invasive viral delivery or transgenic animals have potential confounds that make interpretation of results from these studies difficult. New radiological tools are emerging, however, that allow one to noninvasively investigate the function of select groups of adult-born neurons through accurate and precise anatomical targeting in small animals. Focal ionizing radiation inhibits the birth and differentiation of new neurons, and allows targeting of specific neural progenitor regions. In order to illuminate the potential functional role that adult hypothalamic neurogenesis plays in the regulation of physiological processes, we developed a noninvasive focal irradiation technique to selectively inhibit the birth of adult-born neurons in the hypothalamic median eminence. We describe a method for C
omputer tomography-guided f
radiation (CFIR) delivery to enable precise and accurate anatomical targeting in small animals. CFIR uses three-dimensional volumetric image guidance for localization and targeting of the radiation dose, minimizes radiation exposure to nontargeted brain regions, and allows for conformal dose distribution with sharp beam boundaries. This protocol allows one to ask questions regarding the function of adult-born neurons, but also opens areas to questions in areas of radiobiology, tumor biology, and immunology. These radiological tools will facilitate the translation of discoveries at the bench to the bedside.
Neuroscience, Issue 81, Neural Stem Cells (NSCs), Body Weight, Radiotherapy, Image-Guided, Metabolism, Energy Metabolism, Neurogenesis, Cell Proliferation, Neurosciences, Irradiation, Radiological treatment, Computer-tomography (CT) imaging, Hypothalamus, Hypothalamic Proliferative Zone (HPZ), Median Eminence (ME), Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP)
A Model of Disturbed Flow-Induced Atherosclerosis in Mouse Carotid Artery by Partial Ligation and a Simple Method of RNA Isolation from Carotid Endothelium
Institutions: Emory University, Georgia Tech and Emory University, Ewha Womans University.
Despite the well-known close association, direct evidence linking disturbed flow to atherogenesis has been lacking. We have recently used a modified version of carotid partial ligation methods [1,2] to show that it acutely induces low and oscillatory flow conditions, two key characteristics of disturbed flow, in the mouse common carotid artery. Using this model, we have provided direct evidence that disturbed flow indeed leads to rapid and robust atherosclerosis development in Apolipoprotein E knockout mouse . We also developed a method of endothelial RNA preparation with high purity from the mouse carotid intima . Using this mouse model and method, we found that partial ligation causes endothelial dysfunction in a week, followed by robust and rapid atheroma formation in two weeks in a hyperlipidemic mouse model along with features of complex lesion formation such as intraplaque neovascularization by four weeks. This rapid in vivo
model and the endothelial RNA preparation method could be used to determine molecular mechanisms underlying flow-dependent regulation of vascular biology and diseases. Also, it could be used to test various therapeutic interventions targeting endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in considerably reduced study duration.
JoVE Medicine, Issue 40, atherosclerosis, disturbed flow, shear stress, carotid, partial ligation, endothelial RNA
Quantification of Atherosclerotic Plaque Activity and Vascular Inflammation using [18-F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG-PET/CT)
Institutions: University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine.
Conventional non-invasive imaging modalities of atherosclerosis such as coronary artery calcium (CAC)1
and carotid intimal medial thickness (C-IMT)2
provide information about the burden of disease. However, despite multiple validation studies of CAC3-5
, and C-IMT2,6
, these modalities do not accurately assess plaque characteristics7,8
, and the composition and inflammatory state of the plaque determine its stability and, therefore, the risk of clinical events9-13
F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) imaging using positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has been extensively studied in oncologic metabolism14,15
. Studies using animal models and immunohistochemistry in humans show that FDG-PET/CT is exquisitely sensitive for detecting macrophage activity16
, an important source of cellular inflammation in vessel walls. More recently, we17,18
and others have shown that FDG-PET/CT enables highly precise, novel measurements of inflammatory activity of activity of atherosclerotic plaques in large and medium-sized arteries9,16,19,20
. FDG-PET/CT studies have many advantages over other imaging modalities: 1) high contrast resolution; 2) quantification of plaque volume and metabolic activity allowing for multi-modal atherosclerotic plaque quantification; 3) dynamic, real-time, in vivo
imaging; 4) minimal operator dependence. Finally, vascular inflammation detected by FDG-PET/CT has been shown to predict cardiovascular (CV) events independent of traditional risk factors21,22
and is also highly associated with overall burden of atherosclerosis23
. Plaque activity by FDG-PET/CT is modulated by known beneficial CV interventions such as short term (12 week) statin therapy24
as well as longer term therapeutic lifestyle changes (16 months)25
The current methodology for quantification of FDG uptake in atherosclerotic plaque involves measurement of the standardized uptake value (SUV) of an artery of interest and of the venous blood pool in order to calculate a target to background ratio (TBR), which is calculated by dividing the arterial SUV by the venous blood pool SUV. This method has shown to represent a stable, reproducible phenotype over time, has a high sensitivity for detection of vascular inflammation, and also has high inter-and intra-reader reliability26
. Here we present our methodology for patient preparation, image acquisition, and quantification of atherosclerotic plaque activity and vascular inflammation using SUV, TBR, and a global parameter called the metabolic volumetric product (MVP). These approaches may be applied to assess vascular inflammation in various study samples of interest in a consistent fashion as we have shown in several prior publications.9,20,27,28
Medicine, Issue 63, FDG-PET/CT, atherosclerosis, vascular inflammation, quantitative radiology, imaging
Fundus Photography as a Convenient Tool to Study Microvascular Responses to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Epidemiological Studies
Institutions: Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Hasselt University, Hasselt University, Leuven University.
The microcirculation consists of blood vessels with diameters less than 150 µm. It makes up a large part of the circulatory system and plays an important role in maintaining cardiovascular health. The retina is a tissue that lines the interior of the eye and it is the only tissue that allows for a non-invasive analysis of the microvasculature. Nowadays, high-quality fundus images can be acquired using digital cameras. Retinal images can be collected in 5 min or less, even without dilatation of the pupils. This unobtrusive and fast procedure for visualizing the microcirculation is attractive to apply in epidemiological studies and to monitor cardiovascular health from early age up to old age.
Systemic diseases that affect the circulation can result in progressive morphological changes in the retinal vasculature. For example, changes in the vessel calibers of retinal arteries and veins have been associated with hypertension, atherosclerosis, and increased risk of stroke and myocardial infarction. The vessel widths are derived using image analysis software and the width of the six largest arteries and veins are summarized in the Central Retinal Arteriolar Equivalent (CRAE) and the Central Retinal Venular Equivalent (CRVE). The latter features have been shown useful to study the impact of modifiable lifestyle and environmental cardiovascular disease risk factors.
The procedures to acquire fundus images and the analysis steps to obtain CRAE and CRVE are described. Coefficients of variation of repeated measures of CRAE and CRVE are less than 2% and within-rater reliability is very high. Using a panel study, the rapid response of the retinal vessel calibers to short-term changes in particulate air pollution, a known risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, is reported. In conclusion, retinal imaging is proposed as a convenient and instrumental tool for epidemiological studies to study microvascular responses to cardiovascular disease risk factors.
Medicine, Issue 92, retina, microvasculature, image analysis, Central Retinal Arteriolar Equivalent, Central Retinal Venular Equivalent, air pollution, particulate matter, black carbon
Ultrasound Assessment of Endothelial-Dependent Flow-Mediated Vasodilation of the Brachial Artery in Clinical Research
Institutions: University of California, San Francisco, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco.
The vascular endothelium is a monolayer of cells that cover the interior of blood vessels and provide both structural and functional roles. The endothelium acts as a barrier, preventing leukocyte adhesion and aggregation, as well as controlling permeability to plasma components. Functionally, the endothelium affects vessel tone.
Endothelial dysfunction is an imbalance between the chemical species which regulate vessel tone, thombroresistance, cellular proliferation and mitosis. It is the first step in atherosclerosis and is associated with coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia.
The first demonstration of endothelial dysfunction involved direct infusion of acetylcholine and quantitative coronary angiography. Acetylcholine binds to muscarinic receptors on the endothelial cell surface, leading to an increase of intracellular calcium and increased nitric oxide (NO) production. In subjects with an intact endothelium, vasodilation was observed while subjects with endothelial damage experienced paradoxical vasoconstriction.
There exists a non-invasive, in vivo
method for measuring endothelial function in peripheral arteries using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound. The endothelial function of peripheral arteries is closely related to coronary artery function. This technique measures the percent diameter change in the brachial artery during a period of reactive hyperemia following limb ischemia.
This technique, known as endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) has value in clinical research settings. However, a number of physiological and technical issues can affect the accuracy of the results and appropriate guidelines for the technique have been published. Despite the guidelines, FMD remains heavily operator dependent and presents a steep learning curve. This article presents a standardized method for measuring FMD in the brachial artery on the upper arm and offers suggestions to reduce intra-operator variability.
Medicine, Issue 92, endothelial function, endothelial dysfunction, brachial artery, peripheral artery disease, ultrasound, vascular, endothelium, cardiovascular disease.
A Novel Stretching Platform for Applications in Cell and Tissue Mechanobiology
Institutions: University of Ottawa, University of Ottawa, University of Calgary, University of Ottawa, University of Ottawa.
Tools that allow the application of mechanical forces to cells and tissues or that can quantify the mechanical properties of biological tissues have contributed dramatically to the understanding of basic mechanobiology. These techniques have been extensively used to demonstrate how the onset and progression of various diseases are heavily influenced by mechanical cues. This article presents a multi-functional biaxial stretching (BAXS) platform that can either mechanically stimulate single cells or quantify the mechanical stiffness of tissues. The BAXS platform consists of four voice coil motors that can be controlled independently. Single cells can be cultured on a flexible substrate that can be attached to the motors allowing one to expose the cells to complex, dynamic, and spatially varying strain fields. Conversely, by incorporating a force load cell, one can also quantify the mechanical properties of primary tissues as they are exposed to deformation cycles. In both cases, a proper set of clamps must be designed and mounted to the BAXS platform motors in order to firmly hold the flexible substrate or the tissue of interest. The BAXS platform can be mounted on an inverted microscope to perform simultaneous transmitted light and/or fluorescence imaging to examine the structural or biochemical response of the sample during stretching experiments. This article provides experimental details of the design and usage of the BAXS platform and presents results for single cell and whole tissue studies. The BAXS platform was used to measure the deformation of nuclei in single mouse myoblast cells in response to substrate strain and to measure the stiffness of isolated mouse aortas. The BAXS platform is a versatile tool that can be combined with various optical microscopies in order to provide novel mechanobiological insights at the sub-cellular, cellular and whole tissue levels.
Bioengineering, Issue 88, cell stretching, tissue mechanics, nuclear mechanics, uniaxial, biaxial, anisotropic, mechanobiology
In vivo Near Infrared Fluorescence (NIRF) Intravascular Molecular Imaging of Inflammatory Plaque, a Multimodal Approach to Imaging of Atherosclerosis
Institutions: Harvard Medical School, Helmholtz Zentrum München und Technische Universität München, Northeastern University.
The vascular response to injury is a well-orchestrated inflammatory response triggered by the accumulation of macrophages within the vessel wall leading to an accumulation of lipid-laden intra-luminal plaque, smooth muscle cell proliferation and progressive narrowing of the vessel lumen. The formation of such vulnerable plaques prone to rupture underlies the majority of cases of acute myocardial infarction. The complex molecular and cellular inflammatory cascade is orchestrated by the recruitment of T lymphocytes and macrophages and their paracrine effects on endothelial and smooth muscle cells.1
Molecular imaging in atherosclerosis has evolved into an important clinical and research tool that allows in vivo
visualization of inflammation and other biological processes. Several recent examples demonstrate the ability to detect high-risk plaques in patients, and assess the effects of pharmacotherapeutics in atherosclerosis.4
While a number of molecular imaging approaches (in particular MRI and PET) can image biological aspects of large vessels such as the carotid arteries, scant options exist for imaging of coronary arteries.2
The advent of high-resolution optical imaging strategies, in particular near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF), coupled with activatable fluorescent probes, have enhanced sensitivity and led to the development of new intravascular strategies to improve biological imaging of human coronary atherosclerosis.
Near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) molecular imaging utilizes excitation light with a defined band width (650-900 nm) as a source of photons that, when delivered to an optical contrast agent or fluorescent probe, emits fluorescence in the NIR window that can be detected using an appropriate emission filter and a high sensitivity charge-coupled camera. As opposed to visible light, NIR light penetrates deeply into tissue, is markedly less attenuated by endogenous photon absorbers such as hemoglobin, lipid and water, and enables high target-to-background ratios due to reduced autofluorescence in the NIR window. Imaging within the NIR 'window' can substantially improve the potential for in vivo imaging.2,5
Inflammatory cysteine proteases have been well studied using activatable NIRF probes10
, and play important roles in atherogenesis. Via degradation of the extracellular matrix, cysteine proteases contribute importantly to the progression and complications of atherosclerosis8
. In particular, the cysteine protease, cathepsin B, is highly expressed and colocalizes with macrophages in experimental murine, rabbit, and human atheromata.3,6,7
In addition, cathepsin B activity in plaques can be sensed in vivo
utilizing a previously described 1-D intravascular near-infrared fluorescence technology6
, in conjunction with an injectable nanosensor agent that consists of a poly-lysine polymer backbone derivatized with multiple NIR fluorochromes (VM110/Prosense750, ex/em 750/780nm, VisEn Medical, Woburn, MA) that results in strong intramolecular quenching at baseline.10
Following targeted enzymatic cleavage by cysteine proteases such as cathepsin B (known to colocalize with plaque macrophages), the fluorochromes separate, resulting in substantial amplification of the NIRF signal. Intravascular detection of NIR fluorescence signal by the utilized novel 2D intravascular NIRF catheter now enables high-resolution, geometrically accurate in vivo
detection of cathepsin B activity in inflamed plaque.
molecular imaging of atherosclerosis using catheter-based 2D NIRF imaging, as opposed to a prior 1-D spectroscopic approach,6
is a novel and promising tool that utilizes augmented protease activity in macrophage-rich plaque to detect vascular inflammation.11,12
The following research protocol describes the use of an intravascular 2-dimensional NIRF catheter to image and characterize plaque structure utilizing key aspects of plaque biology. It is a translatable platform that when integrated with existing clinical imaging technologies including angiography and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), offers a unique and novel integrated multimodal molecular imaging technique that distinguishes inflammatory atheromata, and allows detection of intravascular NIRF signals in human-sized coronary arteries.
Medicine, Issue 54, Atherosclerosis, inflammation, imaging, near infrared fluorescence, plaque, intravascular, catheter
Flow Cytometry Analysis of Immune Cells Within Murine Aortas
Institutions: Eastern Virginia Medical School, LaJolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology.
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process of medium and large size vessels that is characterized by the formation of plaques consisting of foam cells, immune cells, vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, platelets, extracellular matrix, and a lipid-rich core with extensive necrosis and fibrosis of surrounding tissues.1
The innate and adaptive arms of the immune response are involved in the initiation, development and persistence of atherosclerosis.2, 3
There is a significant body of evidence that different subsets of the immune cells, such as macrophages, dendritic cells, T and B lymphocytes, are present within the aortas of healthy and atherosclerosis-prone mice4
. Additionally, immune cells are found in the surrounding aortic adventitia which suggests an important role of this tissue in atherogenesis.2
For some time, the quantitative detection of different types of immune cells, their activation status, and the cellular composition within the aortic wall was limited by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical methods for the study of atherosclerosis. Few attempts were made to perform flow cytometry using human aortas, and a number of problems, such as a high autofluorescence, have been reported5,6
. Human atherosclerotic plaques were digested with collagenase 1, and free cells were collected and stained for CD14+/CD11c+ to highlight macrophage-derived foam cells. In this study, a "mock" channel was used to avoid false-positive staining.6
Necrotic materials accumulating during the digestion process give rise in a large amount of debris that generates a high autofluorescence in aortic samples. To resolve this problem, a panel of negative and positive controls has been proposed, but only double staining could be applied in these samples. We have developed a new flow cytometry-based method7
to analyze the immune cell composition and characterize the activation, proliferation, differentiation of immune cells in healthy and atherosclerosis-prone aorta. This method allows the investigation of the immune cell composition of the aortic wall and opens possibilities to use a broad spectrum of immunological methods for investigations of immune aspects of this disease.
Immunology, Issue 53, atherosclerosis, immune response, leukocytes, adventitia, flow cytometry
DNBS/TNBS Colitis Models: Providing Insights Into Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Effects of Dietary Fat
Institutions: BC Children's Hospital.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD), including Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis, have long been associated with a genetic basis, and more recently host immune responses to microbial and environmental agents. Dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis allows one to study the pathogenesis of IBD associated environmental triggers such as stress and diet, the effects of potential therapies, and the mechanisms underlying intestinal inflammation and mucosal injury. In this paper, we investigated the effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the colonic mucosal inflammatory response to DNBS-induced colitis in rats. All rats were fed identical diets with the exception of different types of fatty acids [safflower oil (SO), canola oil (CO), or fish oil (FO)] for three weeks prior to exposure to intrarectal DNBS. Control rats given intrarectal ethanol continued gaining weight over the 5 day study, whereas, DNBS-treated rats fed lipid diets all lost weight with FO and CO fed rats demonstrating significant weight loss by 48 hr and rats fed SO by 72 hr. Weight gain resumed after 72 hr post DNBS, and by 5 days post DNBS, the FO group had a higher body weight than SO or CO groups. Colonic sections collected 5 days post DNBS-treatment showed focal ulceration, crypt destruction, goblet cell depletion, and mucosal infiltration of both acute and chronic inflammatory cells that differed in severity among diet groups. The SO fed group showed the most severe damage followed by the CO, and FO fed groups that showed the mildest degree of tissue injury. Similarly, colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, a marker of neutrophil activity was significantly higher in SO followed by CO fed rats, with FO fed rats having significantly lower MPO activity. These results demonstrate the use of DNBS-induced colitis, as outlined in this protocol, to determine the impact of diet in the pathogenesis of IBD.
Medicine, Issue 84, Chemical colitis, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, intra rectal administration, intestinal inflammation, transmural inflammation, myeloperoxidase activity