The developing Drosophila melanogaster embryo undergoes a number of cell shape changes that are highly amenable to live confocal imaging. Cell shape changes in the fly are analogous to those in higher organisms, and they drive tissue morphogenesis. So, in many cases, their study has direct implications for understanding human disease (Table 1)1-5. On the sub-cellular scale, these cell shape changes are the product of activities ranging from gene expression to signal transduction, cell polarity, cytoskeletal remodeling and membrane trafficking. Thus, the Drosophila embryo provides not only the context to evaluate cell shape changes as they relate to tissue morphogenesis, but also offers a completely physiological environment to study the sub-cellular activities that shape cells.
The protocol described here is designed to image a specific cell shape change called cellularization. Cellularization is a process of dramatic plasma membrane growth, and it ultimately converts the syncytial embryo into the cellular blastoderm. That is, at interphase of mitotic cycle 14, the plasma membrane simultaneously invaginates around each of ~6000 cortically anchored nuclei to generate a sheet of primary epithelial cells. Counter to previous suggestions, cellularization is not driven by Myosin-2 contractility6, but is instead fueled largely by exocytosis of membrane from internal stores7. Thus, cellularization is an excellent system for studying membrane trafficking during cell shape changes that require plasma membrane invagination or expansion, such as cytokinesis or transverse-tubule (T-tubule) morphogenesis in muscle.
Note that this protocol is easily applied to the imaging of other cell shape changes in the fly embryo, and only requires slight adaptations such as changing the stage of embryo collection, or using "embryo glue" to mount the embryo in a specific orientation (Table 1)8-19. In all cases, the workflow is basically the same (Figure 1). Standard methods for cloning and Drosophila transgenesis are used to prepare stable fly stocks that express a protein of interest, fused to Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) or its variants, and these flies provide a renewable source of embryos. Alternatively, fluorescent proteins/probes are directly introduced into fly embryos via straightforward micro-injection techniques9-10. Then, depending on the developmental event and cell shape change to be imaged, embryos are collected and staged by morphology on a dissecting microscope, and finally positioned and mounted for time-lapse imaging on a confocal microscope.
22 Related JoVE Articles!
Assessment of Right Ventricular Structure and Function in Mouse Model of Pulmonary Artery Constriction by Transthoracic Echocardiography
Institutions: Harvard Medical School, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital.
Emerging clinical data support the notion that RV dysfunction is critical to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and heart failure1-3
. Moreover, the RV is significantly affected in pulmonary diseases such as pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). In addition, the RV is remarkably sensitive to cardiac pathologies, including left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, valvular disease or RV infarction4
. To understand the role of RV in the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases, a reliable and noninvasive method to access the RV structurally and functionally is essential.
A noninvasive trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) based methodology was established and validated for monitoring dynamic changes in RV structure and function in adult mice. To impose RV stress, we employed a surgical model of pulmonary artery constriction (PAC) and measured the RV response over a 7-day period using a high-frequency ultrasound microimaging system. Sham operated mice were used as controls. Images were acquired in lightly anesthetized mice at baseline (before surgery), day 0 (immediately post-surgery), day 3, and day 7 (post-surgery). Data was analyzed offline using software.
Several acoustic windows (B, M, and Color Doppler modes), which can be consistently obtained in mice, allowed for reliable and reproducible measurement of RV structure (including RV wall thickness, end-diastolic and end-systolic dimensions), and function (fractional area change, fractional shortening, PA peak velocity, and peak pressure gradient) in normal mice and following PAC.
Using this method, the pressure-gradient resulting from PAC was accurately measured in real-time using Color Doppler mode and was comparable to direct pressure measurements performed with a Millar high-fidelity microtip catheter. Taken together, these data demonstrate that RV measurements obtained from various complimentary views using echocardiography are reliable, reproducible and can provide insights regarding RV structure and function. This method will enable a better understanding of the role of RV cardiac dysfunction.
Medicine, Issue 84, Trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE), right ventricle (RV), pulmonary artery constriction (PAC), peak velocity, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP)
Live Imaging of Mitosis in the Developing Mouse Embryonic Cortex
Institutions: Duke University Medical Center, Duke University Medical Center.
Although of short duration, mitosis is a complex and dynamic multi-step process fundamental for development of organs including the brain. In the developing cerebral cortex, abnormal mitosis of neural progenitors can cause defects in brain size and function. Hence, there is a critical need for tools to understand the mechanisms of neural progenitor mitosis. Cortical development in rodents is an outstanding model for studying this process. Neural progenitor mitosis is commonly examined in fixed brain sections. This protocol will describe in detail an approach for live imaging of mitosis in ex vivo
embryonic brain slices. We will describe the critical steps for this procedure, which include: brain extraction, brain embedding, vibratome sectioning of brain slices, staining and culturing of slices, and time-lapse imaging. We will then demonstrate and describe in detail how to perform post-acquisition analysis of mitosis. We include representative results from this assay using the vital dye Syto11, transgenic mice (histone H2B-EGFP and centrin-EGFP), and in utero
electroporation (mCherry-α-tubulin). We will discuss how this procedure can be best optimized and how it can be modified for study of genetic regulation of mitosis. Live imaging of mitosis in brain slices is a flexible approach to assess the impact of age, anatomy, and genetic perturbation in a controlled environment, and to generate a large amount of data with high temporal and spatial resolution. Hence this protocol will complement existing tools for analysis of neural progenitor mitosis.
Neuroscience, Issue 88, mitosis, radial glial cells, developing cortex, neural progenitors, brain slice, live imaging
A Microfluidic Technique to Probe Cell Deformability
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles, University of Notre Dame, University of Southern California.
Here we detail the design, fabrication, and use of a microfluidic device to evaluate the deformability of a large number of individual cells in an efficient manner. Typically, data for ~102
cells can be acquired within a 1 hr experiment. An automated image analysis program enables efficient post-experiment analysis of image data, enabling processing to be complete within a few hours. Our device geometry is unique in that cells must deform through a series of micron-scale constrictions, thereby enabling the initial deformation and time-dependent relaxation of individual cells to be assayed. The applicability of this method to human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells is demonstrated. Driving cells to deform through micron-scale constrictions using pressure-driven flow, we observe that human promyelocytic (HL-60) cells momentarily occlude the first constriction for a median time of 9.3 msec before passaging more quickly through the subsequent constrictions with a median transit time of 4.0 msec per constriction. By contrast, all-trans retinoic acid-treated (neutrophil-type) HL-60 cells occlude the first constriction for only 4.3 msec before passaging through the subsequent constrictions with a median transit time of 3.3 msec. This method can provide insight into the viscoelastic nature of cells, and ultimately reveal the molecular origins of this behavior.
Cellular Biology, Issue 91, cell mechanics, microfluidics, pressure-driven flow, image processing, high-throughput diagnostics, microfabrication
In Vitro Analysis of PDZ-dependent CFTR Macromolecular Signaling Complexes
Institutions: Wayne State University School of Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine.
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a chloride channel located primarily at the apical membranes of epithelial cells, plays a crucial role in transepithelial fluid homeostasis1-3
. CFTR has been implicated in two major diseases: cystic fibrosis (CF)4
and secretory diarrhea5
. In CF, the synthesis or functional activity of the CFTR Cl- channel is reduced. This disorder affects approximately 1 in 2,500 Caucasians in the United States6
. Excessive CFTR activity has also been implicated in cases of toxin-induced secretory diarrhea (e.g.
, by cholera toxin and heat stable E. coli
enterotoxin) that stimulates cAMP or cGMP production in the gut7
Accumulating evidence suggest the existence of physical and functional interactions between CFTR and a growing number of other proteins, including transporters, ion channels, receptors, kinases, phosphatases, signaling molecules, and cytoskeletal elements, and these interactions between CFTR and its binding proteins have been shown to be critically involved in regulating CFTR-mediated transepithelial ion transport in vitro
and also in vivo8-19
. In this protocol, we focus only on the methods that aid in the study of the interactions between CFTR carboxyl terminal tail, which possesses a protein-binding motif [referred to as PSD95/Dlg1/ZO-1 (PDZ) motif], and a group of scaffold proteins, which contain a specific binding module referred to as PDZ domains. So far, several different PDZ scaffold proteins have been reported to bind to the carboxyl terminal tail of CFTR with various affinities, such as NHERF1, NHERF2, PDZK1, PDZK2, CAL (CFTR-associated ligand), Shank2, and GRASP20-27
. The PDZ motif within CFTR that is recognized by PDZ scaffold proteins is the last four amino acids at the C terminus (i.e.
, 1477-DTRL-1480 in human CFTR)20
. Interestingly, CFTR can bind more than one PDZ domain of both NHERFs and PDZK1, albeit with varying affinities22
. This multivalency with respect to CFTR binding has been shown to be of functional significance, suggesting that PDZ scaffold proteins may facilitate formation of CFTR macromolecular signaling complexes for specific/selective and efficient signaling in cells16-18
Multiple biochemical assays have been developed to study CFTR-involving protein interactions, such as co-immunoprecipitation, pull-down assay, pair-wise binding assay, colorimetric pair-wise binding assay, and macromolecular complex assembly assay16-19,28,29
. Here we focus on the detailed procedures of assembling a PDZ motif-dependent CFTR-containing macromolecular complex in vitro
, which is used extensively by our laboratory to study protein-protein or domain-domain interactions involving CFTR16-19,28,29
Biochemistry, Issue 66, Molecular Biology, Chemistry, CFTR, macromolecular complex, protein interaction, PDZ scaffold protein, epithelial cell, cystic fibrosis
Assessing Signaling Properties of Ectodermal Epithelia During Craniofacial Development
Institutions: University of California San Francisco.
The accessibility of avian embryos has helped experimental embryologists understand the fates of cells during development and the role of tissue interactions that regulate patterning and morphogenesis of vertebrates (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4
). Here, we illustrate a method that exploits this accessibility to test the signaling and patterning properties of ectodermal tissues during facial development. In these experiments, we create quail-chick 5
or mouse-chick 6
chimeras by transplanting the surface cephalic ectoderm that covers the upper jaw from quail or mouse onto either the same region or an ectopic region of chick embryos. The use of quail as donor tissue for transplantation into chicks was developed to take advantage of a nucleolar marker present in quail but not chick cells, thus allowing investigators to distinguish host and donor tissues 7
. Similarly, a repetitive element is present in the mouse genome and is expressed ubiquitously, which allows us to distinguish host and donor tissues in mouse-chick chimeras 8
. The use of mouse ectoderm as donor tissue will greatly extend our understanding of these tissue interactions, because this will allow us to test the signaling properties of ectoderm derived from various mutant embryos.
Developmental Biology, Issue 49, Quail-chick chimera, Ectoderm transplant, FEZ, Mouse-chick chimera
Transverse Aortic Constriction in Mice
Institutions: Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), Baylor College of Medicine (BCM).
Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in the mouse is a commonly used experimental model for pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.1
TAC initially leads to compensated hypertrophy of the heart, which often is associated with a temporary enhancement of cardiac contractility. Over time, however, the response to the chronic hemodynamic overload becomes maladaptive, resulting in cardiac dilatation and heart failure.2
The murine TAC model was first validated by Rockman et al
, and has since been extensively used as a valuable tool to mimic human cardiovascular diseases and elucidate fundamental signaling processes involved in the cardiac hypertrophic response and heart failure development. When compared to other experimental models of heart failure, such as complete occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, TAC provides a more reproducible model of cardiac hypertrophy and a more gradual time course in the development of heart failure. Here, we describe a step-by-step procedure to perform surgical TAC in mice. To determine the level of pressure overload produced by the aortic ligation, a high frequency Doppler probe is used to measure the ratio between blood flow velocities in the right and left carotid arteries.3, 4
With surgical survival rates of 80-90%, transverse aortic banding is an effective technique of inducing left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure in mice.
Medicine, Issue 38, Aorta, heart failure, hypertrophy, mouse, pressure-overload
Analyzing Craniofacial Morphogenesis in Zebrafish Using 4D Confocal Microscopy
Institutions: The University of Texas at Austin.
Time-lapse imaging is a technique that allows for the direct observation of the process of morphogenesis, or the generation of shape. Due to their optical clarity and amenability to genetic manipulation, the zebrafish embryo has become a popular model organism with which to perform time-lapse analysis of morphogenesis in living embryos. Confocal imaging of a live zebrafish embryo requires that a tissue of interest is persistently labeled with a fluorescent marker, such as a transgene or injected dye. The process demands that the embryo is anesthetized and held in place in such a way that healthy development proceeds normally. Parameters for imaging must be set to account for three-dimensional growth and to balance the demands of resolving individual cells while getting quick snapshots of development. Our results demonstrate the ability to perform long-term in vivo
imaging of fluorescence-labeled zebrafish embryos and to detect varied tissue behaviors in the cranial neural crest that cause craniofacial abnormalities. Developmental delays caused by anesthesia and mounting are minimal, and embryos are unharmed by the process. Time-lapse imaged embryos can be returned to liquid medium and subsequently imaged or fixed at later points in development. With an increasing abundance of transgenic zebrafish lines and well-characterized fate mapping and transplantation techniques, imaging any desired tissue is possible. As such, time-lapse in vivo
imaging combines powerfully with zebrafish genetic methods, including analyses of mutant and microinjected embryos.
Developmental Biology, Issue 83, zebrafish, neural crest, time-lapse, transgenic, morphogenesis, craniofacial, head, development, confocal, Microscopy, In vivo, movie
Isolation, Culture, and Functional Characterization of Adult Mouse Cardiomyoctyes
Institutions: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Sapienza University.
The use of primary cardiomyocytes (CMs) in culture has provided a powerful complement to murine models of heart disease in advancing our understanding of heart disease. In particular, the ability to study ion homeostasis, ion channel function, cellular excitability and excitation-contraction coupling and their alterations in diseased conditions and by disease-causing mutations have led to significant insights into cardiac diseases. Furthermore, the lack of an adequate immortalized cell line to mimic adult CMs, and the limitations of neonatal CMs (which lack many of the structural and functional biomechanics characteristic of adult CMs) in culture have hampered our understanding of the complex interplay between signaling pathways, ion channels and contractile properties in the adult heart strengthening the importance of studying adult isolated cardiomyocytes. Here, we present methods for the isolation, culture, manipulation of gene expression by adenoviral-expressed proteins, and subsequent functional analysis of cardiomyocytes from the adult mouse. The use of these techniques will help to develop mechanistic insight into signaling pathways that regulate cellular excitability, Ca2+
dynamics and contractility and provide a much more physiologically relevant characterization of cardiovascular disease.
Cellular Biology, Issue 79, Medicine, Cardiology, Cellular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Mice, Ion Channels, Primary Cell Culture, Cardiac Electrophysiology, adult mouse cardiomyocytes, cell isolation, IonOptix, Cell Culture, adenoviral transfection, patch clamp, fluorescent nanosensor
Facial Transplants in Xenopus laevis Embryos
Institutions: Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Virginia Commonwealth University.
Craniofacial birth defects occur in 1 out of every 700 live births, but etiology is rarely known due to limited understanding of craniofacial development. To identify where signaling pathways and tissues act during patterning of the developing face, a 'face transplant' technique has been developed in embryos of the frog Xenopus laevis
. A region of presumptive facial tissue (the "Extreme Anterior Domain" (EAD)) is removed from a donor embryo at tailbud stage, and transplanted to a host embryo of the same stage, from which the equivalent region has been removed. This can be used to generate a chimeric face where the host or donor tissue has a loss or gain of function in a gene, and/or includes a lineage label. After healing, the outcome of development is monitored, and indicates roles of the signaling pathway within the donor or surrounding host tissues. Xenopus
is a valuable model for face development, as the facial region is large and readily accessible for micromanipulation. Many embryos can be assayed, over a short time period since development occurs rapidly. Findings in the frog are relevant to human development, since craniofacial processes appear conserved between Xenopus
Developmental Biology, Issue 85, craniofacial development, neural crest, Mouth, Nostril, transplantation, Xenopus
Models and Methods to Evaluate Transport of Drug Delivery Systems Across Cellular Barriers
Institutions: University of Maryland, University of Maryland.
Sub-micrometer carriers (nanocarriers; NCs) enhance efficacy of drugs by improving solubility, stability, circulation time, targeting, and release. Additionally, traversing cellular barriers in the body is crucial for both oral delivery of therapeutic NCs into the circulation and transport from the blood into tissues, where intervention is needed. NC transport across cellular barriers is achieved by: (i) the paracellular route, via transient disruption of the junctions that interlock adjacent cells, or (ii) the transcellular route, where materials are internalized by endocytosis, transported across the cell body, and secreted at the opposite cell surface (transyctosis). Delivery across cellular barriers can be facilitated by coupling therapeutics or their carriers with targeting agents that bind specifically to cell-surface markers involved in transport. Here, we provide methods to measure the extent and mechanism of NC transport across a model cell barrier, which consists of a monolayer of gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells grown on a porous membrane located in a transwell insert. Formation of a permeability barrier is confirmed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), transepithelial transport of a control substance, and immunostaining of tight junctions. As an example, ~200 nm polymer NCs are used, which carry a therapeutic cargo and are coated with an antibody that targets a cell-surface determinant. The antibody or therapeutic cargo is labeled with 125
I for radioisotope tracing and labeled NCs are added to the upper chamber over the cell monolayer for varying periods of time. NCs associated to the cells and/or transported to the underlying chamber can be detected. Measurement of free 125
I allows subtraction of the degraded fraction. The paracellular route is assessed by determining potential changes caused by NC transport to the barrier parameters described above. Transcellular transport is determined by addressing the effect of modulating endocytosis and transcytosis pathways.
Bioengineering, Issue 80, Antigens, Enzymes, Biological Therapy, bioengineering (general), Pharmaceutical Preparations, Macromolecular Substances, Therapeutics, Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena, Biological Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, drug delivery systems, targeted nanocarriers, transcellular transport, epithelial cells, tight junctions, transepithelial electrical resistance, endocytosis, transcytosis, radioisotope tracing, immunostaining
The Cell-based L-Glutathione Protection Assays to Study Endocytosis and Recycling of Plasma Membrane Proteins
Institutions: Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
Membrane trafficking involves transport of proteins from the plasma membrane to the cell interior (i.e.
endocytosis) followed by trafficking to lysosomes for degradation or to the plasma membrane for recycling. The cell based L-glutathione protection assays can be used to study endocytosis and recycling of protein receptors, channels, transporters, and adhesion molecules localized at the cell surface. The endocytic assay requires labeling of cell surface proteins with a cell membrane impermeable biotin containing a disulfide bond and the N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester at 4 ºC - a temperature at which membrane trafficking does not occur. Endocytosis of biotinylated plasma membrane proteins is induced by incubation at 37 ºC. Next, the temperature is decreased again to 4 ºC to stop endocytic trafficking and the disulfide bond in biotin covalently attached to proteins that have remained at the plasma membrane is reduced with L-glutathione. At this point, only proteins that were endocytosed remain protected from L-glutathione and thus remain biotinylated. After cell lysis, biotinylated proteins are isolated with streptavidin agarose, eluted from agarose, and the biotinylated protein of interest is detected by western blotting. During the recycling assay, after biotinylation cells are incubated at 37 °C to load endocytic vesicles with biotinylated proteins and the disulfide bond in biotin covalently attached to proteins remaining at the plasma membrane is reduced with L-glutathione at 4 ºC as in the endocytic assay. Next, cells are incubated again at 37 °C to allow biotinylated proteins from endocytic vesicles to recycle to the plasma membrane. Cells are then incubated at 4 ºC, and the disulfide bond in biotin attached to proteins that recycled to the plasma membranes is reduced with L-glutathione. The biotinylated proteins protected from L-glutathione are those that did not recycle to the plasma membrane.
Basic Protocol, Issue 82, Endocytosis, recycling, plasma membrane, cell surface, EZLink, Sulfo-NHS-SS-Biotin, L-Glutathione, GSH, thiol group, disulfide bond, epithelial cells, cell polarization
Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro
model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2
on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3
cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro
BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
In vitro Coculture Assay to Assess Pathogen Induced Neutrophil Trans-epithelial Migration
Institutions: Harvard Medical School, MGH for Children, Massachusetts General Hospital.
Mucosal surfaces serve as protective barriers against pathogenic organisms. Innate immune responses are activated upon sensing pathogen leading to the infiltration of tissues with migrating inflammatory cells, primarily neutrophils. This process has the potential to be destructive to tissues if excessive or held in an unresolved state. Cocultured in vitro
models can be utilized to study the unique molecular mechanisms involved in pathogen induced neutrophil trans-epithelial migration. This type of model provides versatility in experimental design with opportunity for controlled manipulation of the pathogen, epithelial barrier, or neutrophil. Pathogenic infection of the apical surface of polarized epithelial monolayers grown on permeable transwell filters instigates physiologically relevant basolateral to apical trans-epithelial migration of neutrophils applied to the basolateral surface. The in vitro
model described herein demonstrates the multiple steps necessary for demonstrating neutrophil migration across a polarized lung epithelial monolayer that has been infected with pathogenic P. aeruginosa
(PAO1). Seeding and culturing of permeable transwells with human derived lung epithelial cells is described, along with isolation of neutrophils from whole human blood and culturing of PAO1 and nonpathogenic K12 E. coli
(MC1000). The emigrational process and quantitative analysis of successfully migrated neutrophils that have been mobilized in response to pathogenic infection is shown with representative data, including positive and negative controls. This in vitro
model system can be manipulated and applied to other mucosal surfaces. Inflammatory responses that involve excessive neutrophil infiltration can be destructive to host tissues and can occur in the absence of pathogenic infections. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that promote neutrophil trans-epithelial migration through experimental manipulation of the in vitro
coculture assay system described herein has significant potential to identify novel therapeutic targets for a range of mucosal infectious as well as inflammatory diseases.
Infection, Issue 83, Cellular Biology, Epithelium, Neutrophils, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Respiratory Tract Diseases, Neutrophils, epithelial barriers, pathogens, transmigration
Establishing a Liquid-covered Culture of Polarized Human Airway Epithelial Calu-3 Cells to Study Host Cell Response to Respiratory Pathogens In vitro
Institutions: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
The apical and basolateral surfaces of airway epithelial cells demonstrate directional responses to pathogen exposure in vivo
. Thus, ideal in vitro
models for examining cellular responses to respiratory pathogens polarize, forming apical and basolateral surfaces. One such model is differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE). However, this system requires lung tissue samples, expertise isolating and culturing epithelial cells from tissue, and time to generate an air-liquid interface culture.
Calu-3 cells, derived from a human bronchial adenocarcinoma, are an alternative model for examining the response of proximal airway epithelial cells to respiratory insult1
, pharmacological compounds2-6
, and bacterial7-9
and viral pathogens, including influenza virus, rhinovirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome - associated coronavirus10-14
. Recently, we demonstrated that Calu-3 cells are susceptible to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in a manner consistent with NHBE15,16
. Here, we detail the establishment of a polarized, liquid-covered culture (LCC) of Calu-3 cells, focusing on the technical details of growing and culturing Calu-3 cells, maintaining cells that have been cultured into LCC, and we present the method for performing respiratory virus infection of polarized Calu-3 cells.
To consistently obtain polarized Calu-3 LCC, Calu-3 cells must be carefully subcultured before culturing in Transwell inserts. Calu-3 monolayer cultures should remain below 90% confluence, should be subcultured fewer than 10 times from frozen stock, and should regularly be supplied with fresh medium. Once cultured in Transwells, Calu-3 LCC must be handled with care. Irregular media changes and mechanical or physical disruption of the cell layers or plates negatively impact polarization for several hours or days. Polarization is monitored by evaluating trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and is verified by evaluating the passive equilibration of sodium fluorescein between the apical and basolateral compartments17,18
. Once TEER plateaus at or above 1,000 Ω×cm2
, Calu-3 LCC are ready to use to examine cellular responses to respiratory pathogens.
Infection, Issue 72, Immunology, Infectious Diseases, Medicine, Microbiology, Virology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Pathology, Respiratory Syncytial Viruses, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human, Cell Polarity, life sciences, Calu-3, polarized cell culture, epithelial cells, respiratory virus, liquid covered culture, virus, cell culture
Ascending Aortic Constriction in Rats for Creation of Pressure Overload Cardiac Hypertrophy Model
Institutions: Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences & Technology.
Ascending aortic constriction is the most common and successful surgical model for creating pressure overload induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Here, we describe a detailed surgical procedure for creating pressure overload and cardiac hypertrophy in rats by constriction of the ascending aorta using a small metallic clip. After anesthesia, the trachea is intubated by inserting a cannula through a half way incision made between two cartilage rings of trachea. Then a skin incision is made at the level of the second intercostal space on the left chest wall and muscle layers are cleared to locate the ascending portion of aorta. The ascending aorta is constricted to 50–60% of its original diameter by application of a small sized titanium clip. Following aortic constriction, the second and third ribs are approximated with prolene sutures. The tracheal cannula is removed once spontaneous breathing was re-established. The animal is allowed to recover on the heating pad by gradually lowering anesthesia. The intensity of pressure overload created by constriction of the ascending aorta is determined by recording the pressure gradient using trans-thoracic two dimensional Doppler-echocardiography. Overall this protocol is useful to study the remodeling events and contractile properties of the heart during the gradual onset and progression from compensated cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure stage.
Medicine, Issue 88, ascending aorta, cardiac hypertrophy, pressure overload, aortic constriction, thoracotomy, surgical model.
Visualizing Neuroblast Cytokinesis During C. elegans Embryogenesis
Institutions: Concordia University.
This protocol describes the use of fluorescence microscopy to image dividing cells within developing Caenorhabditis elegans
embryos. In particular, this protocol focuses on how to image dividing neuroblasts, which are found underneath the epidermal cells and may be important for epidermal morphogenesis. Tissue formation is crucial for metazoan development and relies on external cues from neighboring tissues. C. elegans
is an excellent model organism to study tissue morphogenesis in vivo
due to its transparency and simple organization, making its tissues easy to study via microscopy. Ventral enclosure is the process where the ventral surface of the embryo is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells. This event is thought to be facilitated by the underlying neuroblasts, which provide chemical guidance cues to mediate migration of the overlying epithelial cells. However, the neuroblasts are highly proliferative and also may act as a mechanical substrate for the ventral epidermal cells. Studies using this experimental protocol could uncover the importance of intercellular communication during tissue formation, and could be used to reveal the roles of genes involved in cell division within developing tissues.
Neuroscience, Issue 85, C. elegans, morphogenesis, cytokinesis, neuroblasts, anillin, microscopy, cell division
Use of Shigella flexneri to Study Autophagy-Cytoskeleton Interactions
Institutions: Imperial College London, Institut Pasteur, Unité Macrophages et Développement de l'Immunité.
is an intracellular pathogen that can escape from phagosomes to reach the cytosol, and polymerize the host actin cytoskeleton to promote its motility and dissemination. New work has shown that proteins involved in actin-based motility are also linked to autophagy, an intracellular degradation process crucial for cell autonomous immunity. Strikingly, host cells may prevent actin-based motility of S. flexneri
by compartmentalizing bacteria inside ‘septin cages’ and targeting them to autophagy. These observations indicate that a more complete understanding of septins, a family of filamentous GTP-binding proteins, will provide new insights into the process of autophagy. This report describes protocols to monitor autophagy-cytoskeleton interactions caused by S. flexneri in vitro
using tissue culture cells and in vivo
using zebrafish larvae. These protocols enable investigation of intracellular mechanisms that control bacterial dissemination at the molecular, cellular, and whole organism level.
Infection, Issue 91, ATG8/LC3, autophagy, cytoskeleton, HeLa cells, p62, septin, Shigella, zebrafish
Actin Co-Sedimentation Assay; for the Analysis of Protein Binding to F-Actin
Institutions: University of California, San Francisco - UCSF.
The actin cytoskeleton within the cell is a network of actin filaments that allows the movement of cells and cellular processes, and that generates tension and helps maintains cellular shape. Although the actin cytoskeleton is a rigid structure, it is a dynamic structure that is constantly remodeling. A number of proteins can bind to the actin cytoskeleton. The binding of a particular protein to F-actin is often desired to support cell biological observations or to further understand dynamic processes due to remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. The actin co-sedimentation assay is an in vitro assay routinely used to analyze the binding of specific proteins or protein domains with F-actin. The basic principles of the assay involve an incubation of the protein of interest (full length or domain of) with F-actin, ultracentrifugation step to pellet F-actin and analysis of the protein co-sedimenting with F-actin. Actin co-sedimentation assays can be designed accordingly to measure actin binding affinities and in competition assays.
Biochemistry, Issue 13, F-actin, protein, in vitro binding, ultracentrifugation
Zebrafish Brain Ventricle Injection
Institutions: Whitehead Institute for Biochemical Research, MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Proper brain ventricle formation during embryonic brain development is required for normal brain function. Brain ventricles are the highly conserved cavities within the brain that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid. In zebrafish, after neural tube formation, the neuroepithelium undergoes a series of constrictions and folds while it fills with fluid resulting in brain ventricle formation. In order to understand the process of ventricle formation, and the neuroepithelial shape changes that occur at the same time, we needed a way to visualize the ventricle space in comparison to the brain tissue. However, the nature of transparent zebrafish embryos makes it difficult to differentiate the tissue from the ventricle space. Therefore, we developed a brain ventricle injection technique where the ventricle space is filled with a fluorescent dye and imaged by brightfield and fluorescent microscopy. The brightfield and the fluorescent images are then processed and superimposed in Photoshop. This technique allows for visualization of the ventricle space with the fluorescent dye, in comparison to the shape of the neuroepithelium in the brightfield image. Brain ventricle injection in zebrafish can be employed from 18 hours post fertilization through early larval stages. We have used this technique extensively in our studies of brain ventricle formation and morphogenesis as well as in characterizing brain morphogenesis mutants (1-3).
Neuroscience, Issue 26, brain, ventricle, zebrafish, morphology, microinjection, development, imaging
Live-cell Imaging and Quantitative Analysis of Embryonic Epithelial Cells in Xenopus laevis
Institutions: University of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh.
Embryonic epithelial cells serve as an ideal model to study morphogenesis where multi-cellular tissues undergo changes in their geometry, such as changes in cell surface area and cell height, and where cells undergo mitosis and migrate. Furthermore, epithelial cells can also regulate morphogenetic movements in adjacent tissues1
. A traditional method to study epithelial cells and tissues involve chemical fixation and histological methods to determine cell morphology or localization of particular proteins of interest. These approaches continue to be useful and provide "snapshots" of cell shapes and tissue architecture, however, much remains to be understood about how cells acquire specific shapes, how various proteins move or localize to specific positions, and what paths cells follow toward their final differentiated fate. High resolution live imaging complements traditional methods and also allows more direct investigation into the dynamic cellular processes involved in the formation, maintenance, and morphogenesis of multicellular epithelial sheets. Here we demonstrate experimental methods from the isolation of animal cap tissues from Xenopus laevis
embryos to confocal imaging of epithelial cells and simple measurement approaches that together can augment molecular and cellular studies of epithelial morphogenesis.
Developmental Biology, Issue 39, epithelial cells, frogs, Xenopus laevis, epithelia, multicellular, high-resolution confocal microscopy, animal cap explant, embryos
Live Imaging of the Zebrafish Embryonic Brain by Confocal Microscopy
Institutions: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
In this video, we demonstrate the method our lab has developed to analyze the cell shape changes and rearrangements required to bend and fold the developing zebrafish brain (Gutzman et al, 2008). Such analysis affords a new understanding of the underlying cell biology required for development of the 3D structure of the vertebrate brain, and significantly increases our ability to study neural tube morphogenesis. The embryonic zebrafish brain is shaped beginning at 18 hours post fertilization (hpf) as the ventricles within the neuroepithelium inflate. By 24 hpf, the initial steps of neural tube morphogenesis are complete. Using the method described here, embryos at the one cell stage are injected with mRNA encoding membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein (memGFP). After injection and incubation, the embryo, now between 18 and 24 hpf, is mounted, inverted, in agarose and imaged by confocal microscopy. Notably, the zebrafish embryo is transparent making it an ideal system for fluorescent imaging. While our analyses have focused on the midbrain-hindbrain boundary and the hindbrain, this method could be extended for analysis of any region in the zebrafish to a depth of
Neuroscience, Developmental Biology, Issue 26, brain development, zebrafish, morphogenesis, microinjection, single cell injection, live imaging, confocal microscopy, embryo mounting
Polarized Translocation of Fluorescent Proteins in Xenopus Ectoderm in Response to Wnt Signaling
Institutions: Mount Sinai School of Medicine .
Cell polarity is a fundamental property of eukaryotic cells that is dynamically regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors during embryonic development 1, 2
. One of the signaling pathways involved in this regulation is the Wnt pathway, which is used many times during embryogenesis and critical for human disease3, 4, 5
. Multiple molecular components of this pathway coordinately regulate signaling in a spatially-restricted manner, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Xenopus
embryonic epithelial cells is an excellent system to study subcellular localization of various signaling proteins. Fluorescent fusion proteins are expressed in Xenopus
embryos by RNA microinjection, ectodermal explants are prepared and protein localization is evaluated by epifluorescence. In this experimental protocol we describe how subcellular localization of Diversin, a cytoplasmic protein that has been implicated in signaling and cell polarity determination6, 7
is visualized in Xenopus
ectodermal cells to study Wnt signal transduction8
. Coexpression of a Wnt ligand or a Frizzled receptor alters the distribution of Diversin fused with red fluorescent protein, RFP, and recruits it to the cell membrane in a polarized fashion 8, 9
. This ex vivo
protocol should be a useful addition to in vitro
studies of cultured mammalian cells, in which spatial control of signaling differs from that of the intact tissue and is much more difficult to analyze.
Developmental Biology, Issue 51, Xenopus embryo, ectoderm, Diversin, Frizzled, membrane recruitment, polarity, Wnt