Exposure to alcohol during development can result in a constellation of morphological and behavioral abnormalities that are collectively known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). At the most severe end of the spectrum is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), characterized by growth retardation, craniofacial dysmorphology, and neurobehavioral deficits. Studies with animal models, including rodents, have elucidated many molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of FASDs. Ethanol administration to pregnant rodents has been used to model human exposure during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Third trimester ethanol consumption in humans has been modeled using neonatal rodents. However, few rodent studies have characterized the effect of ethanol exposure during the equivalent to all three trimesters of human pregnancy, a pattern of exposure that is common in pregnant women. Here, we show how to build vapor chambers from readily obtainable materials that can each accommodate up to six standard mouse cages. We describe a vapor chamber paradigm that can be used to model exposure to ethanol, with minimal handling, during all three trimesters. Our studies demonstrate that pregnant dams developed significant metabolic tolerance to ethanol. However, neonatal mice did not develop metabolic tolerance and the number of fetuses, fetus weight, placenta weight, number of pups/litter, number of dead pups/litter, and pup weight were not significantly affected by ethanol exposure. An important advantage of this paradigm is its applicability to studies with genetically-modified mice. Additionally, this paradigm minimizes handling of animals, a major confound in fetal alcohol research.
20 Related JoVE Articles!
The Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy Model of Perinatal Ischemia
Institutions: Stanford University School of Medicine.
Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring at birth. Twenty five percent of neonates with HIE develop severe and permanent neuropsychological sequelae, including mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and epilepsy. The outcomes of HIE are devastating and permanent, making it critical to identify and develop therapeutic strategies to reduce brain injury in newborns with HIE. To that end, the neonatal rat model for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury has been developed to model this human condition. The HIE model was first validated by Vannucci et al 1
and has since been extensively used to identify mechanisms of brain injury resulting from perinatal hypoxia-ischemia 2
and to test potential therapeutic interventions 3,4
. The HIE model is a two step process and involves the ligation of the left common carotid artery followed by exposure to a hypoxic environment. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the ligated carotid artery does not decrease because of the collateral blood flow via the circle of Willis; however with lower oxygen tension, the CBF in the ipsilateral hemisphere decreases significantly and results in unilateral ischemic injury. The use of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) to stain and identify ischemic brain tissue was originally developed for adult models of rodent cerebral ischemia 5
, and is used to evaluate the extent of cerebral infarctin at early time points up to 72 hours after the ischemic event 6
. In this video, we demonstrate the hypoxic-ischemic injury model in postnatal rat brain and the evaluation of the infarct size using TTC staining.
Neuroscience, Issue 21, Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), 2 3 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), brain infarct
Barnes Maze Testing Strategies with Small and Large Rodent Models
Institutions: University of Missouri, Food and Drug Administration.
Spatial learning and memory of laboratory rodents is often assessed via navigational ability in mazes, most popular of which are the water and dry-land (Barnes) mazes. Improved performance over sessions or trials is thought to reflect learning and memory of the escape cage/platform location. Considered less stressful than water mazes, the Barnes maze is a relatively simple design of a circular platform top with several holes equally spaced around the perimeter edge. All but one of the holes are false-bottomed or blind-ending, while one leads to an escape cage. Mildly aversive stimuli (e.g.
bright overhead lights) provide motivation to locate the escape cage. Latency to locate the escape cage can be measured during the session; however, additional endpoints typically require video recording. From those video recordings, use of automated tracking software can generate a variety of endpoints that are similar to those produced in water mazes (e.g.
distance traveled, velocity/speed, time spent in the correct quadrant, time spent moving/resting, and confirmation of latency). Type of search strategy (i.e.
random, serial, or direct) can be categorized as well. Barnes maze construction and testing methodologies can differ for small rodents, such as mice, and large rodents, such as rats. For example, while extra-maze cues are effective for rats, smaller wild rodents may require intra-maze cues with a visual barrier around the maze. Appropriate stimuli must be identified which motivate the rodent to locate the escape cage. Both Barnes and water mazes can be time consuming as 4-7 test trials are typically required to detect improved learning and memory performance (e.g.
shorter latencies or path lengths to locate the escape platform or cage) and/or differences between experimental groups. Even so, the Barnes maze is a widely employed behavioral assessment measuring spatial navigational abilities and their potential disruption by genetic, neurobehavioral manipulations, or drug/ toxicant exposure.
Behavior, Issue 84, spatial navigation, rats, Peromyscus, mice, intra- and extra-maze cues, learning, memory, latency, search strategy, escape motivation
Flat Mount Preparation for Observation and Analysis of Zebrafish Embryo Specimens Stained by Whole Mount In situ Hybridization
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
The zebrafish embryo is now commonly used for basic and biomedical research to investigate the genetic control of developmental processes and to model congenital abnormalities. During the first day of life, the zebrafish embryo progresses through many developmental stages including fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation, segmentation, and the organogenesis of structures such as the kidney, heart, and central nervous system. The anatomy of a young zebrafish embryo presents several challenges for the visualization and analysis of the tissues involved in many of these events because the embryo develops in association with a round yolk mass. Thus, for accurate analysis and imaging of experimental phenotypes in fixed embryonic specimens between the tailbud and 20 somite stage (10 and 19 hours post fertilization (hpf), respectively), such as those stained using whole mount in situ
hybridization (WISH), it is often desirable to remove the embryo from the yolk ball and to position it flat on a glass slide. However, performing a flat mount procedure can be tedious. Therefore, successful and efficient flat mount preparation is greatly facilitated through the visual demonstration of the dissection technique, and also helped by using reagents that assist in optimal tissue handling. Here, we provide our WISH protocol for one or two-color detection of gene expression in the zebrafish embryo, and demonstrate how the flat mounting procedure can be performed on this example of a stained fixed specimen. This flat mounting protocol is broadly applicable to the study of many embryonic structures that emerge during early zebrafish development, and can be implemented in conjunction with other staining methods performed on fixed embryo samples.
Developmental Biology, Issue 89, animals, vertebrates, fishes, zebrafish, growth and development, morphogenesis, embryonic and fetal development, organogenesis, natural science disciplines, embryo, whole mount in situ hybridization, flat mount, deyolking, imaging
Analysis of Nephron Composition and Function in the Adult Zebrafish Kidney
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
The zebrafish model has emerged as a relevant system to study kidney development, regeneration and disease. Both the embryonic and adult zebrafish kidneys are composed of functional units known as nephrons, which are highly conserved with other vertebrates, including mammals. Research in zebrafish has recently demonstrated that two distinctive phenomena transpire after adult nephrons incur damage: first, there is robust regeneration within existing nephrons that replaces the destroyed tubule epithelial cells; second, entirely new nephrons are produced from renal progenitors in a process known as neonephrogenesis. In contrast, humans and other mammals seem to have only a limited ability for nephron epithelial regeneration. To date, the mechanisms responsible for these kidney regeneration phenomena remain poorly understood. Since adult zebrafish kidneys undergo both nephron epithelial regeneration and neonephrogenesis, they provide an outstanding experimental paradigm to study these events. Further, there is a wide range of genetic and pharmacological tools available in the zebrafish model that can be used to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate renal regeneration. One essential aspect of such research is the evaluation of nephron structure and function. This protocol describes a set of labeling techniques that can be used to gauge renal composition and test nephron functionality in the adult zebrafish kidney. Thus, these methods are widely applicable to the future phenotypic characterization of adult zebrafish kidney injury paradigms, which include but are not limited to, nephrotoxicant exposure regimes or genetic methods of targeted cell death such as the nitroreductase mediated cell ablation technique. Further, these methods could be used to study genetic perturbations in adult kidney formation and could also be applied to assess renal status during chronic disease modeling.
Cellular Biology, Issue 90,
zebrafish; kidney; nephron; nephrology; renal; regeneration; proximal tubule; distal tubule; segment; mesonephros; physiology; acute kidney injury (AKI)
Live Cell Imaging of Primary Rat Neonatal Cardiomyocytes Following Adenoviral and Lentiviral Transduction Using Confocal Spinning Disk Microscopy
Institutions: Max-Planck-Institute for Molecular Biomedicine and Institute of Cell Biology, Yale Cardiovascular Research Center and Section of Cardiovascular Medicine.
Primary rat neonatal cardiomyocytes are useful in basic in vitro
cardiovascular research because they can be easily isolated in large numbers in a single procedure. Due to advances in microscope technology it is relatively easy to capture live cell images for the purpose of investigating cellular events in real time with minimal concern regarding phototoxicity to the cells. This protocol describes how to take live cell timelapse images of primary rat neonatal cardiomyocytes using a confocal spinning disk microscope following lentiviral and adenoviral transduction to modulate properties of the cell. The application of two different types of viruses makes it easier to achieve an appropriate transduction rate and expression levels for two different genes. Well focused live cell images can be obtained using the microscope’s autofocus system, which maintains stable focus for long time periods. Applying this method, the functions of exogenously engineered proteins expressed in cultured primary cells can be analyzed. Additionally, this system can be used to examine the functions of genes through the use of siRNAs as well as of chemical modulators.
Cellular Biology, Issue 88, live cell imaging, cardiomyocyte, primary cell culture, adenovirus, lentivirus, confocal spinning disk microscopy
A Lateralized Odor Learning Model in Neonatal Rats for Dissecting Neural Circuitry Underpinning Memory Formation
Institutions: Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, University of Victoria.
Rat pups during a critical postnatal period (≤ 10 days) readily form a preference for an odor that is associated with stimuli mimicking maternal care. Such a preference memory can last from hours, to days, even life-long, depending on training parameters. Early odor preference learning provides us with a model in which the critical changes for a natural form of learning occur in the olfactory circuitry. An additional feature that makes it a powerful tool for the analysis of memory processes is that early odor preference learning can be lateralized via
single naris occlusion within the critical period. This is due to the lack of mature anterior commissural connections of the olfactory hemispheres at this early age. This work outlines behavioral protocols for lateralized odor learning using nose plugs. Acute, reversible naris occlusion minimizes tissue and neuronal damages associated with long-term occlusion and more aggressive methods such as cauterization. The lateralized odor learning model permits within-animal comparison, therefore greatly reducing variance compared to between-animal designs. This method has been used successfully to probe the circuit changes in the olfactory system produced by training. Future directions include exploring molecular underpinnings of odor memory using this lateralized learning model; and correlating physiological change with memory strength and durations.
Neuroscience, Issue 90, lateralized odor learning, rats, memory, nose plug, olfactory bulb, piriform cortex, phosphorylated CREB
Non-Invasive Model of Neuropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection in the Neonatal Rat
Institutions: University College London, University of Gothenburg.
Investigation of the interactions between animal host and bacterial pathogen is only meaningful if the infection model employed replicates the principal features of the natural infection. This protocol describes procedures for the establishment and evaluation of systemic infection due to neuropathogenic Escherichia coli
K1 in the neonatal rat. Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract leads to dissemination of the pathogen along the gut-lymph-blood-brain course of infection and the model displays strong age dependency. A strain of E. coli
O18:K1 with enhanced virulence for the neonatal rat produces exceptionally high rates of colonization, translocation to the blood compartment and invasion of the meninges following transit through the choroid plexus. As in the human host, penetration of the central nervous system is accompanied by local inflammation and an invariably lethal outcome. The model is of proven utility for studies of the mechanism of pathogenesis, for evaluation of therapeutic interventions and for assessment of bacterial virulence.
Infection, Issue 92, Bacterial infection, neonatal bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, sepsis, animal model, K1 polysaccharide, systemic infection, gastrointestinal tract, age dependency
A Manual Small Molecule Screen Approaching High-throughput Using Zebrafish Embryos
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
Zebrafish have become a widely used model organism to investigate the mechanisms that underlie developmental biology and to study human disease pathology due to their considerable degree of genetic conservation with humans. Chemical genetics entails testing the effect that small molecules have on a biological process and is becoming a popular translational research method to identify therapeutic compounds. Zebrafish are specifically appealing to use for chemical genetics because of their ability to produce large clutches of transparent embryos, which are externally fertilized. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos can be easily drug treated by the simple addition of a compound to the embryo media. Using whole-mount in situ
hybridization (WISH), mRNA expression can be clearly visualized within zebrafish embryos. Together, using chemical genetics and WISH, the zebrafish becomes a potent whole organism context in which to determine the cellular and physiological effects of small molecules. Innovative advances have been made in technologies that utilize machine-based screening procedures, however for many labs such options are not accessible or remain cost-prohibitive. The protocol described here explains how to execute a manual high-throughput chemical genetic screen that requires basic resources and can be accomplished by a single individual or small team in an efficient period of time. Thus, this protocol provides a feasible strategy that can be implemented by research groups to perform chemical genetics in zebrafish, which can be useful for gaining fundamental insights into developmental processes, disease mechanisms, and to identify novel compounds and signaling pathways that have medically relevant applications.
Developmental Biology, Issue 93, zebrafish, chemical genetics, chemical screen, in vivo small molecule screen, drug discovery, whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH), high-throughput screening (HTS), high-content screening (HCS)
Isolation of Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells from Neonatal Mice
Institutions: Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.
Pulmonary hypertension is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Historically, there has been significant study of the signaling pathways involved in vascular smooth muscle contraction in PASMC from fetal sheep. While sheep make an excellent model of term pulmonary hypertension, they are very expensive and lack the advantage of genetic manipulation found in mice. Conversely, the inability to isolate PASMC from mice was a significant limitation of that system. Here we described the isolation of primary cultures of mouse PASMC from P7, P14, and P21 mice using a variation of the previously described technique of Marshall et al.26
that was previously used to isolate rat PASMC. These murine PASMC represent a novel tool for the study of signaling pathways in the neonatal period. Briefly, a slurry of 0.5% (w/v) agarose + 0.5% iron particles in M199 media is infused into the pulmonary vascular bed via the right ventricle (RV). The iron particles are 0.2 μM in diameter and cannot pass through the pulmonary capillary bed. Thus, the iron lodges in the small pulmonary arteries (PA). The lungs are inflated with agarose, removed and dissociated. The iron-containing vessels are pulled down with a magnet. After collagenase (80 U/ml) treatment and further dissociation, the vessels are put into a tissue culture dish in M199 media containing 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), and antibiotics (M199 complete media) to allow cell migration onto the culture dish. This initial plate of cells is a 50-50 mixture of fibroblasts and PASMC. Thus, the pull down procedure is repeated multiple times to achieve a more pure PASMC population and remove any residual iron. Smooth muscle cell identity is confirmed by immunostaining for smooth muscle myosin and desmin.
Basic Protocol, Issue 80, Muscle, Smooth, Vascular, Cardiovascular Abnormalities, Hypertension, Pulmonary, vascular smooth muscle, pulmonary hypertension, development, phosphodiesterases, cGMP, immunostaining
A Microplate Assay to Assess Chemical Effects on RBL-2H3 Mast Cell Degranulation: Effects of Triclosan without Use of an Organic Solvent
Institutions: University of Maine, Orono, University of Maine, Orono.
Mast cells play important roles in allergic disease and immune defense against parasites. Once activated (e.g.
by an allergen), they degranulate, a process that results in the exocytosis of allergic mediators. Modulation of mast cell degranulation by drugs and toxicants may have positive or adverse effects on human health. Mast cell function has been dissected in detail with the use of rat basophilic leukemia mast cells (RBL-2H3), a widely accepted model of human mucosal mast cells3-5
. Mast cell granule component and the allergic mediator β-hexosaminidase, which is released linearly in tandem with histamine from mast cells6
, can easily and reliably be measured through reaction with a fluorogenic substrate, yielding measurable fluorescence intensity in a microplate assay that is amenable to high-throughput studies1
. Originally published by Naal et al.1
, we have adapted this degranulation assay for the screening of drugs and toxicants and demonstrate its use here.
Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent that is present in many consumer products and has been found to be a therapeutic aid in human allergic skin disease7-11
, although the mechanism for this effect is unknown. Here we demonstrate an assay for the effect of triclosan on mast cell degranulation. We recently showed that triclosan strongly affects mast cell function2
. In an effort to avoid use of an organic solvent, triclosan is dissolved directly into aqueous buffer with heat and stirring, and resultant concentration is confirmed using UV-Vis spectrophotometry (using ε280
= 4,200 L/M/cm)12
. This protocol has the potential to be used with a variety of chemicals to determine their effects on mast cell degranulation, and more broadly, their allergic potential.
Immunology, Issue 81, mast cell, basophil, degranulation, RBL-2H3, triclosan, irgasan, antibacterial, β-hexosaminidase, allergy, Asthma, toxicants, ionophore, antigen, fluorescence, microplate, UV-Vis
5/6th Nephrectomy in Combination with High Salt Diet and Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition to Induce Chronic Kidney Disease in the Lewis Rat
Institutions: University Medical Center Utrecht.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global problem. Slowing CKD progression is a major health priority. Since CKD is characterized by complex derangements of homeostasis, integrative animal models are necessary to study development and progression of CKD. To study development of CKD and novel therapeutic interventions in CKD, we use the 5/6th nephrectomy ablation model, a well known experimental model of progressive renal disease, resembling several aspects of human CKD. The gross reduction in renal mass causes progressive glomerular and tubulo-interstitial injury, loss of remnant nephrons and development of systemic and glomerular hypertension. It is also associated with progressive intrarenal capillary loss, inflammation and glomerulosclerosis. Risk factors for CKD invariably impact on endothelial function. To mimic this, we combine removal of 5/6th of renal mass with nitric oxide (NO) depletion and a high salt diet. After arrival and acclimatization, animals receive a NO synthase inhibitor (NG-nitro-L-Arginine) (L-NNA) supplemented to drinking water (20 mg/L) for a period of 4 weeks, followed by right sided uninephrectomy. One week later, a subtotal nephrectomy (SNX) is performed on the left side. After SNX, animals are allowed to recover for two days followed by LNNA in drinking water (20 mg/L) for a further period of 4 weeks. A high salt diet (6%), supplemented in ground chow (see time line Figure 1
), is continued throughout the experiment. Progression of renal failure is followed over time by measuring plasma urea, systolic blood pressure and proteinuria. By six weeks after SNX, renal failure has developed. Renal function is measured using 'gold standard' inulin and para-amino hippuric acid (PAH) clearance technology. This model of CKD is characterized by a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), hypertension (systolic blood pressure>150 mmHg), proteinuria (> 50 mg/24 hr) and mild uremia (>10 mM). Histological features include tubulo-interstitial damage reflected by inflammation, tubular atrophy and fibrosis and focal glomerulosclerosis leading to massive reduction of healthy glomeruli within the remnant population (<10%). Follow-up until 12 weeks after SNX shows further progression of CKD.
Medicine, Issue 77, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Surgery, Nephrology Kidney Diseases, Glomerular Filtration Rate, Hemodynamics, Surgical Procedures, Operative, Chronic kidney disease, remnant kidney, chronic renal diseases, kidney, Nitric Oxide depletion, NO depletion, high salt diet, proteinuria, uremia, glomerulosclerosis, transgenic rat, animal model
Mouse Models of Periventricular Leukomalacia
Institutions: University of California, Davis.
We describe a protocol for establishing mouse models of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). PVL is the predominant form of brain injury in premature infants and the most common antecedent of cerebral palsy. PVL is characterized by periventricular white matter damage with prominent oligodendroglial injury. Hypoxia/ischemia with or without systemic infection/inflammation are the primary causes of PVL. We use P6 mice to create models of neonatal brain injury by the induction of hypoxia/ischemia with or without systemic infection/inflammation with unilateral carotid ligation followed by exposure to hypoxia with or without injection of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Immunohistochemistry of myelin basic protein (MBP) or O1 and electron microscopic examination show prominent myelin loss in cerebral white matter with additional damage to the hippocampus and thalamus. Establishment of mouse models of PVL will greatly facilitate the study of disease pathogenesis using available transgenic mouse strains, conduction of drug trials in a relatively high throughput manner to identify candidate therapeutic agents, and testing of stem cell transplantation using immunodeficiency mouse strains.
JoVE Neuroscience, Issue 39, brain, mouse, white matter injury, oligodendrocyte, periventricular leukomalacia
Isolation and Culture of Cells from the Nephrogenic Zone of the Embryonic Mouse Kidney
Institutions: Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Lund University Hospital.
Embryonic development of the kidney has been extensively studied both as a model for epithelial-mesenchymal interaction in organogenesis and to gain understanding of the origins of congenital kidney disease. More recently, the possibility of steering naïve embryonic stem cells toward nephrogenic fates has been explored in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. Genetic studies in the mouse have identified several pathways required for kidney development, and a global catalog of gene transcription in the organ has recently been generated https://www.gudmap.org/, providing numerous candidate regulators of essential developmental functions. Organogenesis of the rodent kidney can be studied in organ culture, and many reports have used this approach to analyze outcomes of either applying candidate proteins or knocking down the expression of candidate genes using siRNA or morpholinos. However, the applicability of organ culture to the study of signaling that regulates stem/progenitor cell differentiation versus renewal in the developing kidney is limited as cultured organs contain a compact extracellular matrix limiting diffusion of macromolecules and virus particles. To study the cell signaling events that influence the stem/progenitor cell niche in the kidney we have developed a primary cell system that establishes the nephrogenic zone or progenitor cell niche of the developing kidney ex vivo
in isolation from the epithelial inducer of differentiation. Using limited enzymatic digestion, nephrogenic zone cells can be selectively liberated from developing kidneys at E17.5. Following filtration, these cells can be cultured as an irregular monolayer using optimized conditions. Marker gene analysis demonstrates that these cultures contain a distribution of cell types characteristic of the nephrogenic zone in vivo
, and that they maintain appropriate marker gene expression during the culture period. These cells are highly accessible to small molecule and recombinant protein treatment, and importantly also to viral transduction, which greatly facilitates the study of candidate stem/progenitor cell regulator effects. Basic cell biological parameters such as proliferation and cell death as well as changes in expression of molecular markers characteristic of nephron stem/progenitor cells in vivo
can be successfully used as experimental outcomes. Ongoing work in our laboratory using this novel primary cell technique aims to uncover basic mechanisms governing the regulation of self-renewal versus differentiation in nephron stem/progenitor cells.
Cellular Biology, Issue 50, Kidney development, nephrogenesis, nephrogenic zone, nephron progenitor cells, cortical stroma
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantification of Pulmonary Perfusion using Calibrated Arterial Spin Labeling
Institutions: University of California San Diego - UCSD, University of California San Diego - UCSD, University of California San Diego - UCSD.
This demonstrates a MR imaging method to measure the spatial distribution of pulmonary blood flow in healthy subjects
during normoxia (inspired O2
, fraction (FI
) = 0.21) hypoxia (FI
= 0.125), and hyperoxia
= 1.00). In addition, the physiological responses of the subject are monitored in the MR scan environment. MR images
were obtained on a 1.5 T GE MRI scanner during a breath hold from a sagittal slice in the right lung at functional residual capacity. An arterial
spin labeling sequence (ASL-FAIRER) was used to measure the spatial distribution of pulmonary blood flow 1,2
and a multi-echo fast
gradient echo (mGRE) sequence 3
was used to quantify the regional proton (i.e. H2
O) density, allowing the quantification
of density-normalized perfusion for each voxel (milliliters blood per minute per gram lung tissue).
With a pneumatic switching valve and facemask equipped with a 2-way non-rebreathing valve, different oxygen concentrations
were introduced to the subject in the MR scanner through the inspired gas tubing. A metabolic cart collected expiratory gas via expiratory tubing. Mixed expiratory O2
concentrations, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, respiratory exchange ratio,
respiratory frequency and tidal volume were measured. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were monitored using pulse-oximetry.
Data obtained from a normal subject showed that, as expected, heart rate was higher in hypoxia (60 bpm) than during normoxia (51) or hyperoxia (50) and the arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2
) was reduced during hypoxia to 86%. Mean ventilation was 8.31 L/min BTPS during hypoxia, 7.04 L/min during normoxia, and 6.64 L/min during hyperoxia. Tidal volume was 0.76 L during hypoxia, 0.69 L during normoxia, and 0.67 L during hyperoxia.
Representative quantified ASL data showed that the mean density normalized perfusion was 8.86 ml/min/g during hypoxia, 8.26 ml/min/g during normoxia and 8.46 ml/min/g during hyperoxia, respectively. In this subject, the relative dispersion4
, an index of global heterogeneity, was increased in hypoxia (1.07 during hypoxia, 0.85 during normoxia, and 0.87 during hyperoxia) while the fractal dimension (Ds), another index of heterogeneity reflecting vascular branching structure, was unchanged (1.24 during hypoxia, 1.26 during normoxia, and 1.26 during hyperoxia).
Overview. This protocol will demonstrate the acquisition of data to measure the distribution of pulmonary perfusion noninvasively under conditions of normoxia, hypoxia, and hyperoxia using a magnetic resonance imaging technique known as arterial spin labeling (ASL).
Rationale: Measurement of pulmonary blood flow and lung proton density using MR technique offers high spatial resolution images which can be quantified and the ability to perform repeated measurements under several different physiological conditions. In human studies, PET, SPECT, and CT are commonly used as the alternative techniques. However, these techniques involve exposure to ionizing radiation, and thus are not suitable for repeated measurements in human subjects.
Medicine, Issue 51, arterial spin labeling, lung proton density, functional lung imaging, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, oxygen consumption, ventilation, magnetic resonance imaging
Laser Ablation of the Zebrafish Pronephros to Study Renal Epithelial Regeneration
Institutions: University of Notre Dame .
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by high mortality rates from deterioration of renal function over a period of hours or days that culminates in renal failure1
. AKI can be caused by a number of factors including ischemia, drug-based toxicity, or obstructive injury1
. This results in an inability to maintain fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. While AKI has been observed for decades, effective clinical therapies have yet to be developed. Intriguingly, some patients with AKI recover renal functions over time, a mysterious phenomenon that has been only rudimentally characterized1,2
. Research using mammalian models of AKI has shown that ischemic or nephrotoxin-injured kidneys experience epithelial cell death in nephron tubules1,2
, the functional units of the kidney that are made up of a series of specialized regions (segments) of epithelial cell types3
. Within nephrons, epithelial cell death is highest in proximal tubule cells. There is evidence that suggests cell destruction is followed by dedifferentiation, proliferation, and migration of surrounding epithelial cells, which can regenerate the nephron entirely1,2
. However, there are many unanswered questions about the mechanisms of renal epithelial regeneration, ranging from the signals that modulate these events to reasons for the wide variation of abilities among humans to regenerate injured kidneys.
The larval zebrafish provides an excellent model to study kidney epithelial regeneration as its pronephric kidney is comprised of nephrons that are conserved with higher vertebrates including mammals4,5
. The nephrons of zebrafish larvae can be visualized with fluorescence techniques because of the relative transparency of the young zebrafish6
. This provides a unique opportunity to image cell and molecular changes in real-time, in contrast to mammalian models where nephrons are inaccessible because the kidneys are structurally complex systems internalized within the animal. Recent studies have employed the aminoglycoside gentamicin as a toxic causative agent for study of AKI and subsequent renal failure: gentamicin and other antibiotics have been shown to cause AKI in humans, and researchers have formulated methods to use this agent to trigger kidney damage in zebrafish7,8
. However, the effects of aminoglycoside toxicity in zebrafish larvae are catastrophic and lethal, which presents a difficulty when studying epithelial regeneration and function over time. Our method presents the use of targeted cell ablation as a novel tool for the study of epithelial injury in zebrafish. Laser ablation gives researchers the ability to induce cell death in a limited population of cells. Varying areas of cells can be targeted based on morphological location, function, or even expression of a particular cellular phenotype. Thus, laser ablation will increase the specificity of what researchers can study, and can be a powerful new approach to shed light on the mechanisms of renal epithelial regeneration. This protocol can be broadly applied to target cell populations in other organs in the zebrafish embryo to study injury and regeneration in any number of contexts of interest.
Developmental Biology, Issue 54, kidney, zebrafish, regeneration, epithelium, acute kidney injury, ablation
Induction and Testing of Hypoxia in Cell Culture
Institutions: Baylor College of Medicine.
Hypoxia is defined as the reduction or lack of oxygen in organs, tissues, or cells. This decrease of oxygen tension can be due to a reduced supply in oxygen (causes include insufficient blood vessel network, defective blood vessel, and anemia) or to an increased consumption of oxygen relative to the supply (caused by a sudden higher cell proliferation rate). Hypoxia can be physiologic or pathologic such as in solid cancers 1-3
, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis etc… Each tissues and cells have a different ability to adapt to this new condition. During hypoxia, hypoxia inducible factor alpha (HIF) is stabilized and regulates various genes such as those involved in angiogenesis or transport of oxygen 4
. The stabilization of this protein is a hallmark of hypoxia, therefore detecting HIF is routinely used to screen for hypoxia 5-7
In this article, we propose two simple methods to induce hypoxia in mammalian cell cultures and simple tests to evaluate the hypoxic status of these cells.
Cell Biology, Issue 54, mammalian cell, hypoxia, anoxia, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), reoxygenation, normoxia
In vivo Bioluminescence Imaging of Tumor Hypoxia Dynamics of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis in a Mouse Model
Institutions: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center , University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center , Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine.
It is well recognized that tumor hypoxia plays an important role in promoting malignant progression and affecting therapeutic response negatively. There is little knowledge about in situ, in vivo,
tumor hypoxia during intracranial development of malignant brain tumors because of lack of efficient means to monitor it in these deep-seated orthotopic tumors. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI), based on the detection of light emitted by living cells expressing a luciferase gene, has been rapidly adopted for cancer research, in particular, to evaluate tumor growth or tumor size changes in response to treatment in preclinical animal studies. Moreover, by expressing a reporter gene under the control of a promoter sequence, the specific gene expression can be monitored non-invasively by BLI. Under hypoxic stress, signaling responses are mediated mainly via the hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) to drive transcription of various genes. Therefore, we have used a HIF-1α reporter construct, 5HRE-ODD-luc, stably transfected into human breast cancer MDA-MB231 cells (MDA-MB231/5HRE-ODD-luc). In vitro
HIF-1α bioluminescence assay is performed by incubating the transfected cells in a hypoxic chamber (0.1% O2
) for 24 hr before BLI, while the cells in normoxia (21% O2
) serve as a control. Significantly higher photon flux observed for the cells under hypoxia suggests an increased HIF-1α binding to its promoter (HRE elements), as compared to those in normoxia. Cells are injected directly into the mouse brain to establish a breast cancer brain metastasis model. In vivo
bioluminescence imaging of tumor hypoxia dynamics is initiated 2 wks after implantation and repeated once a week. BLI reveals increasing light signals from the brain as the tumor progresses, indicating increased intracranial tumor hypoxia. Histological and immunohistochemical studies are used to confirm the in vivo
imaging results. Here, we will introduce approaches of in vitro
HIF-1α bioluminescence assay, surgical establishment of a breast cancer brain metastasis in a nude mouse and application of in vivo
bioluminescence imaging to monitor intracranial tumor hypoxia.
Medicine, Issue 56, bioluminescence imaging (BLI), tumor hypoxia dynamics, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), breast cancer brain metastasis
Creating Defined Gaseous Environments to Study the Effects of Hypoxia on C. elegans
Institutions: University of Washington, University of Washington.
Oxygen is essential for all metazoans to survive, with one known exception1
. Decreased O2
availability (hypoxia) can arise during states of disease, normal development or changes in environmental conditions2-5
. Understanding the cellular signaling pathways that are involved in the response to hypoxia could provide new insight into treatment strategies for diverse human pathologies, from stroke to cancer. This goal has been impeded, at least in part, by technical difficulties associated with controlled hypoxic exposure in genetically amenable model organisms.
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
is ideally suited as a model organism for the study of hypoxic response, as it is easy to culture and genetically manipulate. Moreover, it is possible to study cellular responses to specific hypoxic O2
concentrations without confounding effects since C. elegans
(and other gasses) by diffusion, as opposed to a facilitated respiratory system6
. Factors known to be involved in the response to hypoxia are conserved in C. elegans
. The actual response to hypoxia depends on the specific concentration of O2
that is available. In C. elegans
, exposure to moderate hypoxia elicits a transcriptional response mediated largely by hif-1
, the highly-conserved hypoxia-inducible transcription factor6-9
. C .elegans
embryos require hif-1
to survive in 5,000-20,000 ppm O27,10
. Hypoxia is a general term for "less than normal O2
". Normoxia (normal O2
) can also be difficult to define. We generally consider room air, which is 210,000 ppm O2
to be normoxia. However, it has been shown that C. elegans
has a behavioral preference for O2
concentrations from 5-12% (50,000-120,000 ppm O2
. In larvae and adults, hif-1
acts to prevent hypoxia-induced diapause in 5,000 ppm O212
. However, hif-1
does not play a role in the response to lower concentrations of O2
(anoxia, operational definition <10 ppm O2
. In anoxia, C. elegans
enters into a reversible state of suspended animation in which all microscopically observable activity ceases10
. The fact that different physiological responses occur in different conditions highlights the importance of having experimental control over the hypoxic concentration of O2
Here, we present a method for the construction and implementation of environmental chambers that produce reliable and reproducible hypoxic conditions with defined concentrations of O2
. The continual flow method ensures rapid equilibration of the chamber and increases the stability of the system. Additionally, the transparency and accessibility of the chambers allow for direct visualization of animals being exposed to hypoxia. We further demonstrate an effective method of harvesting C. elegans
samples rapidly after exposure to hypoxia, which is necessary to observe many of the rapidly-reversed changes that occur in hypoxia10,14
. This method provides a basic foundation that can be easily modified for individual laboratory needs, including different model systems and a variety of gasses.
Biochemistry, Issue 65, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Genetics, Developmental Biology, C. elegans, hypoxia, hypoxia inducible factor-1 (hif-1), anoxia, oxygen
Isolation and Culture of Neonatal Mouse Cardiomyocytes
Institutions: King’s College London, University of California San Diego .
Cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes have long been used to study myofibrillogenesis and myofibrillar functions. Cultured cardiomyocytes allow for easy investigation and manipulation of biochemical pathways, and their effect on the biomechanical properties of spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes.
The following 2-day protocol describes the isolation and culture of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes. We show how to easily dissect hearts from neonates, dissociate the cardiac tissue and enrich cardiomyocytes from the cardiac cell-population. We discuss the usage of different enzyme mixes for cell-dissociation, and their effects on cell-viability. The isolated cardiomyocytes can be subsequently used for a variety of morphological, electrophysiological, biochemical, cell-biological or biomechanical assays. We optimized the protocol for robustness and reproducibility, by using only commercially available solutions and enzyme mixes that show little lot-to-lot variability. We also address common problems associated with the isolation and culture of cardiomyocytes, and offer a variety of options for the optimization of isolation and culture conditions.
Cellular Biology, Issue 79, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Molecular Biology, Cell Culture Techniques, Primary Cell Culture, Cell Culture Techniques, Primary Cell Culture, Cell Culture Techniques, Primary Cell Culture, Cell Culture Techniques, Disease Models, Animal, Models, Cardiovascular, Cell Biology, neonatal mouse, cardiomyocytes, isolation, culture, primary cells, NMC, heart cells, animal model
A Possible Zebrafish Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease: Knockdown of wnt5a Causes Cysts in Zebrafish Kidneys
Institutions: Eastern Virginia Medical School, Medical University of South Carolina, University of Michigan.
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common causes of end-stage kidney disease, a devastating disease for which there is no cure. The molecular mechanisms leading to cyst formation in PKD remain somewhat unclear, but many genes are thought to be involved. Wnt5a is a non-canonical glycoprotein that regulates a wide range of developmental processes. Wnt5a works through the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway that regulates oriented cell division during renal tubular cell elongation. Defects of the PCP pathway have been found to cause kidney cyst formation. Our paper describes a method for developing a zebrafish cystic kidney disease model by knockdown of the wnt5a
gene with wnt5a
antisense morpholino (MO) oligonucleotides. Tg(wt1b:GFP)
transgenic zebrafish were used to visualize kidney structure and kidney cysts following wnt5a
knockdown. Two distinct antisense MOs (AUG - and splice-site) were used and both resulted in curly tail down phenotype and cyst formation after wnt5a
knockdown. Injection of mouse Wnt5a
mRNA, resistant to the MOs due to a difference in primary base pair structure, rescued the abnormal phenotype, demonstrating that the phenotype was not due to “off-target” effects of the morpholino. This work supports the validity of using a zebrafish model to study wnt5a
function in the kidney.
Medicine, Issue 94, Wnt5a, polycystic kidney disease, morpholino, microinjection, zebrafish, pronephros