Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neuroinflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system with a strong neurodegenerative component. While the exact etiology of the disease is yet unclear, autoreactive T lymphocytes are thought to play a central role in its pathophysiology. MS therapy is only partially effective so far and research efforts continue to expand our knowledge on the pathophysiology of the disease and to develop novel treatment strategies. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most common animal model for MS sharing many clinical and pathophysiological features. There is a broad diversity of EAE models which reflect different clinical, immunological and histological aspects of human MS. Actively-induced EAE in mice is the easiest inducible model with robust and replicable results. It is especially suited for investigating the effects of drugs or of particular genes by using transgenic mice challenged by autoimmune neuroinflammation. Therefore, mice are immunized with CNS homogenates or peptides of myelin proteins. Due to the low immunogenic potential of these peptides, strong adjuvants are used. EAE susceptibility and phenotype depends on the chosen antigen and rodent strain. C57BL/6 mice are the commonly used strain for transgenic mouse construction and respond among others to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). The immunogenic epitope MOG35-55 is suspended in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) prior to immunization and pertussis toxin is applied on the day of immunization and two days later. Mice develop a "classic" self-limited monophasic EAE with ascending flaccid paralysis within 9-14 days after immunization. Mice are evaluated daily using a clinical scoring system for 25-50 days. Special considerations for care taking of animals with EAE as well as potential applications and limitations of this model are discussed.
23 Related JoVE Articles!
Use of Animal Model of Sepsis to Evaluate Novel Herbal Therapies
Institutions: North Shore – LIJ Health System.
Sepsis refers to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome resulting from a microbial infection. It has been routinely simulated in animals by several techniques, including infusion of exogenous bacterial toxin (endotoxemia) or bacteria (bacteremia), as well as surgical perforation of the cecum by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)1-3
. CLP allows bacteria spillage and fecal contamination of the peritoneal cavity, mimicking the human clinical disease of perforated appendicitis or diverticulitis. The severity of sepsis, as reflected by the eventual mortality rates, can be controlled surgically by varying the size of the needle used for cecal puncture2
. In animals, CLP induces similar, biphasic hemodynamic cardiovascular, metabolic, and immunological responses as observed during the clinical course of human sepsis3
. Thus, the CLP model is considered as one of the most clinically relevant models for experimental sepsis1-3
Various animal models have been used to elucidate the intricate mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of experimental sepsis. The lethal consequence of sepsis is attributable partly to an excessive accumulation of early cytokines (such as TNF, IL-1 and IFN-γ)4-6
and late proinflammatory mediators (e.g., HMGB1)7
. Compared with early proinflammatory cytokines, late-acting mediators have a wider therapeutic window for clinical applications. For instance, delayed administration of HMGB1-neutralizing antibodies beginning 24 hours after
CLP, still rescued mice from lethality8,9
, establishing HMGB1 as a late mediator of lethal sepsis. The discovery of HMGB1 as a late-acting mediator has initiated a new field of investigation for the development of sepsis therapies using Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine. In this paper, we describe a procedure of CLP-induced sepsis, and its usage in screening herbal medicine for HMGB1-targeting therapies.
Medicine, Issue 62, Herbal therapies, innate immune cells, cytokines, HMGB1, experimental animal model of sepsis, cecal ligation and puncture
Overcoming Unresponsiveness in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) Resistant Mouse Strains by Adoptive Transfer and Antigenic Challenge
Institutions: St. John-Providence Health System, Wayne State University School of Medicine.
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and has been used as an animal model for study of the human demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis (MS). EAE is characterized by pathologic infiltration of mononuclear cells into the CNS and by clinical manifestation of paralytic disease. Similar to MS, EAE is also under genetic control in that certain mouse strains are susceptible to disease induction while others are resistant. Typically, C57BL/6 (H-2b
) mice immunized with myelin basic protein (MBP) fail to develop paralytic signs. This unresponsiveness is certainly not due to defects in antigen processing or antigen presentation of MBP, as an experimental protocol described here had been used to induce severe EAE in C57BL/6 mice as well as other reputed resistant mouse strains. In addition, encephalitogenic T cell clones from C57BL/6 and Balb/c mice reactive to MBP had been successfully isolated and propagated.
The experimental protocol involves using a cellular adoptive transfer system in which MBP-primed (200 μg/mouse) C57BL/6 donor lymph node cells are isolated and cultured for five days with the antigen to expand the pool of MBP-specific T cells. At the end of the culture period, 50 million viable cells are transferred into naive syngeneic recipients through the tail vein. Recipient mice so treated normally do not develop EAE, thus reaffirming their resistant status, and they can remain normal indefinitely. Ten days post cell transfer, recipient mice are challenged with complete Freund adjuvant (CFA)-emulsified MBP in four sites in the flanks. Severe EAE starts to develop in these mice ten to fourteen days after challenge. Results showed that the induction of disease was antigenic specific as challenge with irrelevant antigens did not induce clinical signs of disease. Significantly, a titration of the antigen dose used to challenge the recipient mice showed that it could be as low as 5 μg/mouse. In addition, a kinetic study of the timing of antigenic challenge showed that challenge to induce disease was effective as early as 5 days post antigenic challenge and as long as over 445 days post antigenic challenge. These data strongly point toward the involvement of a "long-lived" T cell population in maintaining unresponsiveness. The involvement of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in this system is not defined.
Immunology, Issue 62, Autoimmune diseases, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, immunization, myelin basic protein, adoptive transfer, paralysis
Real-time Imaging of Heterotypic Platelet-neutrophil Interactions on the Activated Endothelium During Vascular Inflammation and Thrombus Formation in Live Mice
Institutions: University of Illinois at Chicago , University of Illinois at Chicago .
Interaction of activated platelets and leukocytes (mainly neutrophils) on the activated endothelium mediates thrombosis and vascular inflammation.1,2
During thrombus formation at the site of arteriolar injury, platelets adherent to the activated endothelium and subendothelial matrix proteins support neutrophil rolling and adhesion.3
Conversely, under venular inflammatory conditions, neutrophils adherent to the activated endothelium can support adhesion and accumulation of circulating platelets. Heterotypic platelet-neutrophil aggregation requires sequential processes by the specific receptor-counter receptor interactions between cells.4
It is known that activated endothelial cells release adhesion molecules such as von Willebrand factor, thereby initiating platelet adhesion and accumulation under high shear conditions.5
Also, activated endothelial cells support neutrophil rolling and adhesion by expressing selectins and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), respectively, under low shear conditions.4
Platelet P-selectin interacts with neutrophils through P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), thereby inducing activation of neutrophil β2 integrins and firm adhesion between two cell types. Despite the advances in in vitro
experiments in which heterotypic platelet-neutrophil interactions are determined in whole blood or isolated cells,6,7
those studies cannot manipulate oxidant stress conditions during vascular disease. In this report, using fluorescently-labeled, specific antibodies against a mouse platelet and neutrophil marker, we describe a detailed intravital microscopic protocol to monitor heterotypic interactions of platelets and neutrophils on the activated endothelium during TNF-α-induced inflammation or following laser-induced injury in cremaster muscle microvessels of live mice.
Immunology, Issue 74, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Inflammation, Hematology, Neutrophils, Microscopy, Video, Thrombosis, Platelet Activation, Platelet Aggregation, Intravital microscopy, platelet, neutrophil, rolling, adhesion, vascular inflammation, thrombus formation, mice, animal model
A Novel In vitro Model for Studying the Interactions Between Human Whole Blood and Endothelium
Institutions: Uppsala University.
The majority of all known diseases are accompanied by disorders of the cardiovascular system. Studies into the complexity of the interacting pathways activated during cardiovascular pathologies are, however, limited by the lack of robust and physiologically relevant methods. In order to model pathological vascular events we have developed an in vitro
assay for studying the interaction between endothelium and whole blood. The assay consists of primary human endothelial cells, which are placed in contact with human whole blood. The method utilizes native blood with no or very little anticoagulant, enabling study of delicate interactions between molecular and cellular components present in a blood vessel.
We investigated functionality of the assay by comparing activation of coagulation by different blood volumes incubated with or without human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Whereas a larger blood volume contributed to an increase in the formation of thrombin antithrombin (TAT) complexes, presence of HUVEC resulted in reduced activation of coagulation. Furthermore, we applied image analysis of leukocyte attachment to HUVEC stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) and found the presence of CD16+
cells to be significantly higher on TNFα stimulated cells as compared to unstimulated cells after blood contact. In conclusion, the assay may be applied to study vascular pathologies, where interactions between the endothelium and the blood compartment are perturbed.
Immunology, Issue 93, In vitro human model system, whole blood, endothelial cells, vascular activation, inflammation, blood coagulation
A Microplate Assay to Assess Chemical Effects on RBL-2H3 Mast Cell Degranulation: Effects of Triclosan without Use of an Organic Solvent
Institutions: University of Maine, Orono, University of Maine, Orono.
Mast cells play important roles in allergic disease and immune defense against parasites. Once activated (e.g.
by an allergen), they degranulate, a process that results in the exocytosis of allergic mediators. Modulation of mast cell degranulation by drugs and toxicants may have positive or adverse effects on human health. Mast cell function has been dissected in detail with the use of rat basophilic leukemia mast cells (RBL-2H3), a widely accepted model of human mucosal mast cells3-5
. Mast cell granule component and the allergic mediator β-hexosaminidase, which is released linearly in tandem with histamine from mast cells6
, can easily and reliably be measured through reaction with a fluorogenic substrate, yielding measurable fluorescence intensity in a microplate assay that is amenable to high-throughput studies1
. Originally published by Naal et al.1
, we have adapted this degranulation assay for the screening of drugs and toxicants and demonstrate its use here.
Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent that is present in many consumer products and has been found to be a therapeutic aid in human allergic skin disease7-11
, although the mechanism for this effect is unknown. Here we demonstrate an assay for the effect of triclosan on mast cell degranulation. We recently showed that triclosan strongly affects mast cell function2
. In an effort to avoid use of an organic solvent, triclosan is dissolved directly into aqueous buffer with heat and stirring, and resultant concentration is confirmed using UV-Vis spectrophotometry (using ε280
= 4,200 L/M/cm)12
. This protocol has the potential to be used with a variety of chemicals to determine their effects on mast cell degranulation, and more broadly, their allergic potential.
Immunology, Issue 81, mast cell, basophil, degranulation, RBL-2H3, triclosan, irgasan, antibacterial, β-hexosaminidase, allergy, Asthma, toxicants, ionophore, antigen, fluorescence, microplate, UV-Vis
High-throughput Flow Cytometry Cell-based Assay to Detect Antibodies to N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor or Dopamine-2 Receptor in Human Serum
Institutions: The University of Sydney, Westmead Millennium Institute for Medical Research.
Over the recent years, antibodies against surface and conformational proteins involved in neurotransmission have been detected in autoimmune CNS diseases in children and adults. These antibodies have been used to guide diagnosis and treatment. Cell-based assays have improved the detection of antibodies in patient serum. They are based on the surface expression of brain antigens on eukaryotic cells, which are then incubated with diluted patient sera followed by fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibodies. After washing, secondary antibody binding is then analyzed by flow cytometry. Our group has developed a high-throughput flow cytometry live cell-based assay to reliably detect antibodies against specific neurotransmitter receptors. This flow cytometry method is straight forward, quantitative, efficient, and the use of a high-throughput sampler system allows for large patient cohorts to be easily assayed in a short space of time. Additionally, this cell-based assay can be easily adapted to detect antibodies to many different antigenic targets, both from the central nervous system and periphery. Discovering additional novel antibody biomarkers will enable prompt and accurate diagnosis and improve treatment of immune-mediated disorders.
Medicine, Issue 81, Flow cytometry, cell-based assay, autoantibody, high-throughput sampler, autoimmune CNS disease
Utilizing Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Study the Human Neuromuscular System
Institutions: Ohio University.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been in use for more than 20 years 1
, and has grown exponentially in popularity over the past decade. While the use of TMS has expanded to the study of many systems and processes during this time, the original application and perhaps one of the most common uses of TMS involves studying the physiology, plasticity and function of the human neuromuscular system. Single pulse TMS applied to the motor cortex excites pyramidal neurons transsynaptically 2
(Figure 1) and results in a measurable electromyographic response that can be used to study and evaluate the integrity and excitability of the corticospinal tract in humans 3
. Additionally, recent advances in magnetic stimulation now allows for partitioning of cortical versus spinal excitability 4,5
. For example, paired-pulse TMS can be used to assess intracortical facilitatory and inhibitory properties by combining a conditioning stimulus and a test stimulus at different interstimulus intervals 3,4,6-8
. In this video article we will demonstrate the methodological and technical aspects of these techniques. Specifically, we will demonstrate single-pulse and paired-pulse TMS techniques as applied to the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle as well as the erector spinae (ES) musculature. Our laboratory studies the FCR muscle as it is of interest to our research on the effects of wrist-hand cast immobilization on reduced muscle performance6,9
, and we study the ES muscles due to these muscles clinical relevance as it relates to low back pain8
. With this stated, we should note that TMS has been used to study many muscles of the hand, arm and legs, and should iterate that our demonstrations in the FCR and ES muscle groups are only selected examples of TMS being used to study the human neuromuscular system.
Medicine, Issue 59, neuroscience, muscle, electromyography, physiology, TMS, strength, motor control. sarcopenia, dynapenia, lumbar
Pre-clinical Evaluation of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Treatment of Acute Leukemia
Institutions: University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, University Hospital of Essen.
Receptor tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the development and progression of many cancers, including both leukemia and solid tumors, and are attractive druggable therapeutic targets. Here we describe an efficient four-step strategy for pre-clinical evaluation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of acute leukemia. Initially, western blot analysis is used to confirm target inhibition in cultured leukemia cells. Functional activity is then evaluated using clonogenic assays in methylcellulose or soft agar cultures. Experimental compounds that demonstrate activity in cell culture assays are evaluated in vivo
using NOD-SCID-gamma (NSG) mice transplanted orthotopically with human leukemia cell lines. Initial in vivo
pharmacodynamic studies evaluate target inhibition in leukemic blasts isolated from the bone marrow. This approach is used to determine the dose and schedule of administration required for effective target inhibition. Subsequent studies evaluate the efficacy of the TKIs in vivo
using luciferase expressing leukemia cells, thereby allowing for non-invasive bioluminescent monitoring of leukemia burden and assessment of therapeutic response using an in vivo
bioluminescence imaging system. This strategy has been effective for evaluation of TKIs in vitro
and in vivo
and can be applied for identification of molecularly-targeted agents with therapeutic potential or for direct comparison and prioritization of multiple compounds.
Medicine, Issue 79, Leukemia, Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Therapeutics, novel small molecule inhibitor, receptor tyrosine kinase, leukemia
The Multiple Sclerosis Performance Test (MSPT): An iPad-Based Disability Assessment Tool
Institutions: Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland Clinic Foundation.
Precise measurement of neurological and neuropsychological impairment and disability in multiple sclerosis is challenging. We report a new test, the Multiple Sclerosis Performance Test (MSPT), which represents a new approach to quantifying MS related disability. The MSPT takes advantage of advances in computer technology, information technology, biomechanics, and clinical measurement science. The resulting MSPT represents a computer-based platform for precise, valid measurement of MS severity. Based on, but extending the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC), the MSPT provides precise, quantitative data on walking speed, balance, manual dexterity, visual function, and cognitive processing speed. The MSPT was tested by 51 MS patients and 49 healthy controls (HC). MSPT scores were highly reproducible, correlated strongly with technician-administered test scores, discriminated MS from HC and severe from mild MS, and correlated with patient reported outcomes. Measures of reliability, sensitivity, and clinical meaning for MSPT scores were favorable compared with technician-based testing. The MSPT is a potentially transformative approach for collecting MS disability outcome data for patient care and research. Because the testing is computer-based, test performance can be analyzed in traditional or novel ways and data can be directly entered into research or clinical databases. The MSPT could be widely disseminated to clinicians in practice settings who are not connected to clinical trial performance sites or who are practicing in rural settings, drastically improving access to clinical trials for clinicians and patients. The MSPT could be adapted to out of clinic settings, like the patient’s home, thereby providing more meaningful real world data. The MSPT represents a new paradigm for neuroperformance testing. This method could have the same transformative effect on clinical care and research in MS as standardized computer-adapted testing has had in the education field, with clear potential to accelerate progress in clinical care and research.
Medicine, Issue 88, Multiple Sclerosis, Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite, computer-based testing, 25-foot walk test, 9-hole peg test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Low Contrast Visual Acuity, Clinical Outcome Measure
Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Analysis of Neurodegenerative Diseases
Institutions: University of Ulm.
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques provide information on the microstructural processes of the cerebral white matter (WM) in vivo
. The present applications are designed to investigate differences of WM involvement patterns in different brain diseases, especially neurodegenerative disorders, by use of different DTI analyses in comparison with matched controls.
DTI data analysis is performed in a variate fashion, i.e.
voxelwise comparison of regional diffusion direction-based metrics such as fractional anisotropy (FA), together with fiber tracking (FT) accompanied by tractwise fractional anisotropy statistics (TFAS) at the group level in order to identify differences in FA along WM structures, aiming at the definition of regional patterns of WM alterations at the group level. Transformation into a stereotaxic standard space is a prerequisite for group studies and requires thorough data processing to preserve directional inter-dependencies. The present applications show optimized technical approaches for this preservation of quantitative and directional information during spatial normalization in data analyses at the group level. On this basis, FT techniques can be applied to group averaged data in order to quantify metrics information as defined by FT. Additionally, application of DTI methods, i.e.
differences in FA-maps after stereotaxic alignment, in a longitudinal analysis at an individual subject basis reveal information about the progression of neurological disorders. Further quality improvement of DTI based results can be obtained during preprocessing by application of a controlled elimination of gradient directions with high noise levels.
In summary, DTI is used to define a distinct WM pathoanatomy of different brain diseases by the combination of whole brain-based and tract-based DTI analysis.
Medicine, Issue 77, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Neurodegenerative Diseases, nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR, MR, MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, fiber tracking, group level comparison, neurodegenerative diseases, brain, imaging, clinical techniques
Induction and Clinical Scoring of Chronic-Relapsing Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI).
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that commonly affects young adults. It is characterized by demyelination and glial scaring in areas disseminated in the brain and spinal cord. These lesions alter nerve conduction and induce the disabling neurological deficits that vary with the location of the demyelinated plaques in the CNS (e.g. paraparesis, paralysis, blindness, incontinence).
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a model for MS. EAE was first induced accidentally in humans during vaccination against rabies, using viruses grown on rabbit spinal cords. Residues of spinal injected with the inactivated virus induced the CNS disease. Following these observations, a first model of EAE was described in non-human primates immunized with a CNS homogenate by Rivers and Schwenther in 1935. EAE has since been generated in a variety of species and can follow different courses depending on the species/strain and immunizing antigen used. For example, immunizing Lewis rats with myelin basic protein in emulsion with adjuvant induces an acute model of EAE, while the same antigen induces a chronic disease in guinea pigs.
The EAE model described here is induced by immunizing DA rats against DA rat spinal cord in emulsion in complete Freund's adjuvant. Rats develop an ascending flaccid paralysis within 7-14 days post-immunization. Clinical signs follow a relapsing-remitting course over several weeks. Pathology shows large immune infiltrates in the CNS and demyelination plaques. Special considerations for taking care for animals with EAE are described at the end of the video.
Immunology, Issue 5, Autoimmune Disease, Animal Model, EAE, Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis, Multiple Sclerosis, Immunology, Clinical Scoring, Disease Model, Inflammation, Central Nervous System
Whole-cell MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry is an Accurate and Rapid Method to Analyze Different Modes of Macrophage Activation
Institutions: Aix Marseille Université, Hôpital de la Timone.
MALDI-TOF is an extensively used mass spectrometry technique in chemistry and biochemistry. It has been also applied in medicine to identify molecules and biomarkers. Recently, it has been used in microbiology for the routine identification of bacteria grown from clinical samples, without preparation or fractionation steps. We and others have applied this whole-cell MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry technique successfully to eukaryotic cells. Current applications range from cell type identification to quality control assessment of cell culture and diagnostic applications. Here, we describe its use to explore the various polarization phenotypes of macrophages in response to cytokines or heat-killed bacteria. It allowed the identification of macrophage-specific fingerprints that are representative of the diversity of proteomic responses of macrophages. This application illustrates the accuracy and simplicity of the method. The protocol we described here may be useful for studying the immune host response in pathological conditions or may be extended to wider diagnostic applications.
Immunology, Issue 82, MALDI-TOF, mass spectrometry, fingerprint, Macrophages, activation, IFN-g, TNF, LPS, IL-4, bacterial pathogens
Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro
model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2
on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3
cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro
BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
Systemic Injection of Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells in Mice with Chronic EAE
Institutions: University of Cambridge, UK, University of Cambridge, UK.
Neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are a promising stem cell source for transplantation approaches aiming at brain repair or restoration in regenerative neurology. This directive has arisen from the extensive evidence that brain repair is achieved after focal or systemic NPC transplantation in several preclinical models of neurological diseases.
These experimental data have identified the cell delivery route as one of the main hurdles of restorative stem cell therapies for brain diseases that requires urgent assessment. Intraparenchymal stem cell grafting represents a logical approach to those pathologies characterized by isolated and accessible brain lesions such as spinal cord injuries and Parkinson's disease. Unfortunately, this principle is poorly applicable to conditions characterized by a multifocal, inflammatory and disseminated (both in time and space) nature, including multiple sclerosis (MS). As such, brain targeting by systemic NPC delivery has become a low invasive and therapeutically efficacious protocol to deliver cells to the brain and spinal cord of rodents and nonhuman primates affected by experimental chronic inflammatory damage of the central nervous system (CNS).
This alternative method of cell delivery relies on the NPC pathotropism, specifically their innate capacity to (i) sense the environment via
functional cell adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokine and chemokine receptors; (ii) cross the leaking anatomical barriers after intravenous (i.v
.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.
) injection; (iii) accumulate at the level of multiple perivascular site(s) of inflammatory brain and spinal cord damage; and (i.v.
) exert remarkable tissue trophic and immune regulatory effects onto different host target cells in vivo
Here we describe the methods that we have developed for the i.v
. and i.c.v.
delivery of syngeneic NPCs in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), as model of chronic CNS inflammatory demyelination, and envisage the systemic stem cell delivery as a valuable technique for the selective targeting of the inflamed brain in regenerative neurology.
Immunology, Issue 86, Somatic neural stem/precursor cells, neurodegenerative disorders, regenerative medicine, multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, systemic delivery, intravenous, intracerebroventricular
Strategies for Study of Neuroprotection from Cold-preconditioning
Institutions: The University of Chicago Medical Center.
Neurological injury is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality from general anesthesia and related surgical procedures that could be alleviated by development of effective, easy to administer and safe preconditioning treatments. We seek to define the neural immune signaling responsible for cold-preconditioning as means to identify novel targets for therapeutics development to protect brain before injury onset. Low-level pro-inflammatory mediator signaling changes over time are essential for cold-preconditioning neuroprotection. This signaling is consistent with the basic tenets of physiological conditioning hormesis, which require that irritative stimuli reach a threshold magnitude with sufficient time for adaptation to the stimuli for protection to become evident.
Accordingly, delineation of the immune signaling involved in cold-preconditioning neuroprotection requires that biological systems and experimental manipulations plus technical capacities are highly reproducible and sensitive. Our approach is to use hippocampal slice cultures as an in vitro
model that closely reflects their in vivo
counterparts with multi-synaptic neural networks influenced by mature and quiescent macroglia / microglia. This glial state is particularly important for microglia since they are the principal source of cytokines, which are operative in the femtomolar range. Also, slice cultures can be maintained in vitro
for several weeks, which is sufficient time to evoke activating stimuli and assess adaptive responses. Finally, environmental conditions can be accurately controlled using slice cultures so that cytokine signaling of cold-preconditioning can be measured, mimicked, and modulated to dissect the critical node aspects. Cytokine signaling system analyses require the use of sensitive and reproducible multiplexed techniques. We use quantitative PCR for TNF-α to screen for microglial activation followed by quantitative real-time qPCR array screening to assess tissue-wide cytokine changes. The latter is a most sensitive and reproducible means to measure multiple cytokine system signaling changes simultaneously. Significant changes are confirmed with targeted qPCR and then protein detection. We probe for tissue-based cytokine protein changes using multiplexed microsphere flow cytometric assays using Luminex technology. Cell-specific cytokine production is determined with double-label immunohistochemistry. Taken together, this brain tissue preparation and style of use, coupled to the suggested investigative strategies, may be an optimal approach for identifying potential targets for the development of novel therapeutics that could mimic the advantages of cold-preconditioning.
Neuroscience, Issue 43, innate immunity, hormesis, microglia, hippocampus, slice culture, immunohistochemistry, neural-immune, gene expression, real-time PCR
High Throughput Sequential ELISA for Validation of Biomarkers of Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease
Institutions: University of Michigan .
Unbiased discovery proteomics strategies have the potential to identify large numbers of novel biomarkers that can improve diagnostic and prognostic testing in a clinical setting and may help guide therapeutic interventions. When large numbers of candidate proteins are identified, it may be difficult to validate candidate biomarkers in a timely and efficient fashion from patient plasma samples that are event-driven, of finite volume and irreplaceable, such as at the onset of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a potentially life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
Here we describe the process of performing commercially available ELISAs for six validated GVHD proteins: IL-2Rα5
, and REG3α3
(also known as PAP1) in a sequential fashion to minimize freeze-thaw cycles, thawed plasma time and plasma usage. For this procedure we perform the ELISAs in sequential order as determined by sample dilution factor as established in our laboratory using manufacturer ELISA kits and protocols with minor adjustments to facilitate optimal sequential ELISA performance. The resulting plasma biomarker concentrations can then be compiled and analyzed for significant findings within a patient cohort. While these biomarkers are currently for research purposes only, their incorporation into clinical care is currently being investigated in clinical trials.
This technique can be applied to perform ELISAs for multiple proteins/cytokines of interest on the same sample(s) provided the samples do not need to be mixed with other reagents. If ELISA kits do not come with pre-coated plates, 96-well half-well plates or 384-well plates can be used to further minimize use of samples/reagents.
Medicine, Issue 68, ELISA, Sequential ELISA, Cytokine, Blood plasma, biomarkers, proteomics, graft-versus-host disease, Small sample, Quantification
Systematic Analysis of In Vitro Cell Rolling Using a Multi-well Plate Microfluidic System
Institutions: Brigham and Women's Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard University, Harvard University, Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
A major challenge for cell-based therapy is the inability to systemically target a large quantity of viable cells with high efficiency to tissues of interest following intravenous or intraarterial infusion. Consequently, increasing cell homing is currently studied as a strategy to improve cell therapy. Cell rolling on the vascular endothelium is an important step in the process of cell homing and can be probed in-vitro
using a parallel plate flow chamber (PPFC). However, this is an extremely tedious, low throughput assay, with poorly controlled flow conditions. Instead, we used a multi-well plate microfluidic system that enables study of cellular rolling properties in a higher throughput under precisely controlled, physiologically relevant shear flow1,2
. In this paper, we show how the rolling properties of HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) cells on P- and E-selectin-coated surfaces as well as on cell monolayer-coated surfaces can be readily examined. To better simulate inflammatory conditions, the microfluidic channel surface was coated with endothelial cells (ECs), which were then activated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), significantly increasing interactions with HL-60 cells under dynamic conditions. The enhanced throughput and integrated multi-parameter software analysis platform, that permits rapid analysis of parameters such as rolling velocities and rolling path, are important advantages for assessing cell rolling properties in-vitro
. Allowing rapid and accurate analysis of engineering approaches designed to impact cell rolling and homing, this platform may help advance exogenous cell-based therapy.
Bioengineering, Issue 80, Microfluidics, Endothelial Cells, Leukocyte Rolling, HL-60 cells, TNF-α, P-selectin, E-selectin
Modeling Neural Immune Signaling of Episodic and Chronic Migraine Using Spreading Depression In Vitro
Institutions: The University of Chicago Medical Center, The University of Chicago Medical Center.
Migraine and its transformation to chronic migraine are healthcare burdens in need of improved treatment options. We seek to define how neural immune signaling modulates the susceptibility to migraine, modeled in vitro
using spreading depression (SD), as a means to develop novel therapeutic targets for episodic and chronic migraine. SD is the likely cause of migraine aura and migraine pain. It is a paroxysmal loss of neuronal function triggered by initially increased neuronal activity, which slowly propagates within susceptible brain regions. Normal brain function is exquisitely sensitive to, and relies on, coincident low-level immune signaling. Thus, neural immune signaling likely affects electrical activity of SD, and therefore migraine. Pain perception studies of SD in whole animals are fraught with difficulties, but whole animals are well suited to examine systems biology aspects of migraine since SD activates trigeminal nociceptive pathways. However, whole animal studies alone cannot be used to decipher the cellular and neural circuit mechanisms of SD. Instead, in vitro
preparations where environmental conditions can be controlled are necessary. Here, it is important to recognize limitations of acute slices and distinct advantages of hippocampal slice cultures. Acute brain slices cannot reveal subtle changes in immune signaling since preparing the slices alone triggers: pro-inflammatory changes that last days, epileptiform behavior due to high levels of oxygen tension needed to vitalize the slices, and irreversible cell injury at anoxic slice centers.
In contrast, we examine immune signaling in mature hippocampal slice cultures since the cultures closely parallel their in vivo
counterpart with mature trisynaptic function; show quiescent astrocytes, microglia, and cytokine levels; and SD is easily induced in an unanesthetized preparation. Furthermore, the slices are long-lived and SD can be induced on consecutive days without injury, making this preparation the sole means to-date capable of modeling the neuroimmune consequences of chronic SD, and thus perhaps chronic migraine. We use electrophysiological techniques and non-invasive imaging to measure
neuronal cell and circuit functions coincident with SD. Neural immune gene expression variables are measured with qPCR screening, qPCR arrays, and, importantly, use of cDNA preamplification for detection of ultra-low level targets such as interferon-gamma using whole, regional, or specific cell enhanced (via laser dissection microscopy) sampling. Cytokine cascade signaling is further assessed with multiplexed phosphoprotein related targets with gene expression and phosphoprotein changes confirmed via cell-specific immunostaining. Pharmacological and siRNA strategies are used to mimic
SD immune signaling.
Neuroscience, Issue 52, innate immunity, hormesis, microglia, T-cells, hippocampus, slice culture, gene expression, laser dissection microscopy, real-time qPCR, interferon-gamma
An In vitro Model to Study Immune Responses of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells to Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection
Institutions: Radboud university medical center.
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) infections present a broad spectrum of disease severity, ranging from mild infections to life-threatening bronchiolitis. An important part of the pathogenesis of severe disease is an enhanced immune response leading to immunopathology. Here, we describe a protocol used to investigate the immune response of human immune cells to an HRSV infection. First, we describe methods used for culturing, purification and quantification of HRSV. Subsequently, we describe a human in vitro
model in which peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are stimulated with live HRSV. This model system can be used to study multiple parameters that may contribute to disease severity, including the innate and adaptive immune response. These responses can be measured at the transcriptional and translational level. Moreover, viral infection of cells can easily be measured using flow cytometry. Taken together, stimulation of PBMC with live HRSV provides a fast and reproducible model system to examine mechanisms involved in HRSV-induced disease.
Immunology, Issue 82, Blood Cells, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human, Respiratory Tract Infections, Paramyxoviridae Infections, Models, Immunological, Immunity, HRSV culture, purification, quantification, PBMC isolation, stimulation, inflammatory pathways
Conversion of a Capture ELISA to a Luminex xMAP Assay using a Multiplex Antibody Screening Method
Institutions: Luminex Corporation, Luminex Corporation.
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has long been the primary tool for detection of analytes of interest in biological samples for both life science research and clinical diagnostics. However, ELISA has limitations. It is typically performed in a 96-well microplate, and the wells are coated with capture antibody, requiring a relatively large amount of sample to capture an antigen of interest . The large surface area of the wells and the hydrophobic binding of capture antibody can also lead to non-specific binding and increased background. Additionally, most ELISAs rely upon enzyme-mediated amplification of signal in order to achieve reasonable sensitivity. Such amplification is not always linear and can thus skew results.
In the past 15 years, a new technology has emerged that offers the benefits of the ELISA, but also enables higher throughput, increased flexibility, reduced sample volume, and lower cost, with a similar workflow 1, 2
. Luminex xMAP Technology is a microsphere (bead) array platform enabling both monoplex and multiplex assays that can be applied to both protein and nucleic acid applications 3-5
. The beads have the capture antibody covalently immobilized on a smaller surface area, requiring less capture antibody and smaller sample volumes, compared to ELISA, and non-specific binding is significantly reduced. Smaller sample volumes are important when working with limiting samples such as cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, etc. 6
. Multiplexing the assay further reduces sample volume requirements, enabling multiple results from a single sample.
Recent improvements by Luminex include: the new MAGPIX system, a smaller, less expensive, easier-to-use analyzer; Low-Concentration Magnetic MagPlex Microspheres which eliminate the need for expensive filter plates and come in a working concentration better suited for assay development and low-throughput applications; and the xMAP Antibody Coupling (AbC) Kit, which includes a protocol, reagents, and consumables necessary for coupling beads to the capture antibody of interest. (See Materials section for a detailed list of kit contents.)
In this experiment, we convert a pre-optimized ELISA assay for TNF-alpha cytokine to the xMAP platform and compare the performance of the two methods 7-11
. TNF-alpha is a biomarker used in the measurement of inflammatory responses in patients with autoimmune disorders.
We begin by coupling four candidate capture antibodies to four different microsphere sets or regions. When mixed together, these four sets allow for the simultaneous testing of all four candidates with four separate detection antibodies to determine the best antibody pair, saving reagents, sample and time. Two xMAP assays are then constructed with the two most optimal antibody pairs and their performance is compared to that of the original ELISA assay in regards to signal strength, dynamic range, and sensitivity.
Molecular Biology, Issue 65, Luminex, xMAP, Multiplex, MAGPIX, MagPlex Low Concentration Microspheres, xMAP Antibody Coupling Kit, ELISA, Immunoassay, Antibody Screening, Optimization, Conversion
A Mouse Model for Pathogen-induced Chronic Inflammation at Local and Systemic Sites
Institutions: Boston University School of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine.
Chronic inflammation is a major driver of pathological tissue damage and a unifying characteristic of many chronic diseases in humans including neoplastic, autoimmune, and chronic inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence implicates pathogen-induced chronic inflammation in the development and progression of chronic diseases with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Due to the complex and multifactorial etiology of chronic disease, designing experiments for proof of causality and the establishment of mechanistic links is nearly impossible in humans. An advantage of using animal models is that both genetic and environmental factors that may influence the course of a particular disease can be controlled. Thus, designing relevant animal models of infection represents a key step in identifying host and pathogen specific mechanisms that contribute to chronic inflammation.
Here we describe a mouse model of pathogen-induced chronic inflammation at local and systemic sites following infection with the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis
, a bacterium closely associated with human periodontal disease. Oral infection of specific-pathogen free mice induces a local inflammatory response resulting in destruction of tooth supporting alveolar bone, a hallmark of periodontal disease. In an established mouse model of atherosclerosis, infection with P. gingivalis
accelerates inflammatory plaque deposition within the aortic sinus and innominate artery, accompanied by activation of the vascular endothelium, an increased immune cell infiltrate, and elevated expression of inflammatory mediators within lesions. We detail methodologies for the assessment of inflammation at local and systemic sites. The use of transgenic mice and defined bacterial mutants makes this model particularly suitable for identifying both host and microbial factors involved in the initiation, progression, and outcome of disease. Additionally, the model can be used to screen for novel therapeutic strategies, including vaccination and pharmacological intervention.
Immunology, Issue 90,
Pathogen-Induced Chronic Inflammation; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Oral Bone Loss; Periodontal Disease; Atherosclerosis; Chronic Inflammation; Host-Pathogen Interaction; microCT; MRI
Drawing Blood from Rats through the Saphenous Vein and by Cardiac Puncture
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI).
Drawing blood from rodents is necessary for a large number of both in vitro and in vivo studies. Sites of blood draws are numerous in rodents: retro-orbital sinus, jugular vein, maxillary vein, saphenous vein, heart. Each technique has its advantages and disadvantages, and some are not approved any more in some countries (e.g., retro-orbital draws in Holland). A discussion of different techniques for drawing blood are available 1-3
Here, we present two techniques for drawing blood from rats, each with its specific applications.
Blood draw from the saphenous vein, provided it is done properly, induces minimal distress in animals and does not require anesthesia. This technique allows repeated draws of small amounts of blood, such as needed for pharmacokinetic studies 4,5
, determining plasma chemistry, or blood counts 6
Cardiac puncture allows the collection of large amounts of blood from a single animal (up to 10 ml of blood can be drawn from a 150 g rat). This technique is therefore very useful as a terminal procedure when drawing blood from the saphenous would not provide a large enough sample. We use cardiac puncture when we need sufficient amounts of serum from a specific strain of rats to grow T lymphocyte lines in vitro 4-9
Immunology, Issue 7, Blood Sampling Method, Rodent, Blood Draw, Heart, Pharmacokinetics, Serum, Plasma, Blood Collection, Bleeding, Hematology
Isolation of Mononuclear Cells from the Central Nervous System of Rats with EAE
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI).
Whether studying an autoimmune disease directed to the central nervous system (CNS), such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, 1), or the immune response to an infection of the CNS, such as poliomyelitis, Lyme neuroborreliosis, or neurosyphilis, it is often necessary to isolate the CNS-infiltrating immune cells.
In this video-protocol we demonstrate how to isolate mononuclear cells (MNCs) from the CNS of a rat with EAE. The first step of this procedure requires a cardiac perfusion of the rodent with a saline solution to ensure that no blood remains in the blood vessels irrigating the CNS. Any blood contamination will artificially increase the number of apparent CNS-infiltrating MNCs and may alter the apparent composition of the immune infiltrate. We then demonstrate how to remove the brain and spinal cord of the rat for subsequent dilaceration to prepare a single-cell suspension. This suspension is separated on a two-layer Percoll gradient to isolate the MNCs. After washing, these cells are then ready to undergo any required procedure.
Mononuclear cells isolated using this procedure are viable and can be used for electrophysiology, flow cytometry (FACS), or biochemistry. If the technique is performed under sterile conditions (using sterile instruments in a tissue culture hood) the cells can also be grown in tissue culture medium. A given cell population can be further purified using either magnetic separation procedures or a FACS.
Neuroscience, Issue 10, Immunology, brain, spinal cord, lymphocyte, infiltrate, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, CNS, inflammation, mouse