Epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) are the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancy in Western societies. Despite advances in surgical treatments and improved platinum-based chemotherapies, there has been little improvement in EOC survival rates for more than four decades 1,2. Whilst stage I tumors have 5-year survival rates >85%, survival rates for stage III/IV disease are <40%. Thus, the high rates of mortality for EOC could be significantly decreased if tumors were detected at earlier, more treatable, stages 3-5. At present, the molecular genetic and biological basis of early stage disease development is poorly understood. More specifically, little is known about the role of the microenvironment during tumor initiation; but known risk factors for EOCs (e.g. age and parity) suggest that the microenvironment plays a key role in the early genesis of EOCs. We therefore developed three-dimensional heterotypic models of both the normal ovary and of early stage ovarian cancers. For the normal ovary, we co-cultured normal ovarian surface epithelial (IOSE) and normal stromal fibroblast (INOF) cells, immortalized by retrovrial transduction of the catalytic subunit of human telomerase holoenzyme (hTERT) to extend the lifespan of these cells in culture. To model the earliest stages of ovarian epithelial cell transformation, overexpression of the CMYC oncogene in IOSE cells, again co-cultured with INOF cells. These heterotypic models were used to investigate the effects of aging and senescence on the transformation and invasion of epithelial cells. Here we describe the methodological steps in development of these three-dimensional model; these methodologies aren't specific to the development of normal ovary and ovarian cancer tissues, and could be used to study other tissue types where stromal and epithelial cell interactions are a fundamental aspect of the tissue maintenance and disease development.
22 Related JoVE Articles!
A Microplate Assay to Assess Chemical Effects on RBL-2H3 Mast Cell Degranulation: Effects of Triclosan without Use of an Organic Solvent
Institutions: University of Maine, Orono, University of Maine, Orono.
Mast cells play important roles in allergic disease and immune defense against parasites. Once activated (e.g.
by an allergen), they degranulate, a process that results in the exocytosis of allergic mediators. Modulation of mast cell degranulation by drugs and toxicants may have positive or adverse effects on human health. Mast cell function has been dissected in detail with the use of rat basophilic leukemia mast cells (RBL-2H3), a widely accepted model of human mucosal mast cells3-5
. Mast cell granule component and the allergic mediator β-hexosaminidase, which is released linearly in tandem with histamine from mast cells6
, can easily and reliably be measured through reaction with a fluorogenic substrate, yielding measurable fluorescence intensity in a microplate assay that is amenable to high-throughput studies1
. Originally published by Naal et al.1
, we have adapted this degranulation assay for the screening of drugs and toxicants and demonstrate its use here.
Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent that is present in many consumer products and has been found to be a therapeutic aid in human allergic skin disease7-11
, although the mechanism for this effect is unknown. Here we demonstrate an assay for the effect of triclosan on mast cell degranulation. We recently showed that triclosan strongly affects mast cell function2
. In an effort to avoid use of an organic solvent, triclosan is dissolved directly into aqueous buffer with heat and stirring, and resultant concentration is confirmed using UV-Vis spectrophotometry (using ε280
= 4,200 L/M/cm)12
. This protocol has the potential to be used with a variety of chemicals to determine their effects on mast cell degranulation, and more broadly, their allergic potential.
Immunology, Issue 81, mast cell, basophil, degranulation, RBL-2H3, triclosan, irgasan, antibacterial, β-hexosaminidase, allergy, Asthma, toxicants, ionophore, antigen, fluorescence, microplate, UV-Vis
Sex Stratified Neuronal Cultures to Study Ischemic Cell Death Pathways
Institutions: University of Colorado School of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, University of Colorado School of Medicine.
Sex differences in neuronal susceptibility to ischemic injury and neurodegenerative disease have long been observed, but the signaling mechanisms responsible for those differences remain unclear. Primary disassociated embryonic neuronal culture provides a simplified experimental model with which to investigate the neuronal cell signaling involved in cell death as a result of ischemia or disease; however, most neuronal cultures used in research today are mixed sex. Researchers can and do test the effects of sex steroid treatment in mixed sex neuronal cultures in models of neuronal injury and disease, but accumulating evidence suggests that the female brain responds to androgens, estrogens, and progesterone differently than the male brain. Furthermore, neonate male and female rodents respond differently to ischemic injury, with males experiencing greater injury following cerebral ischemia than females. Thus, mixed sex neuronal cultures might obscure and confound the experimental results; important information might be missed. For this reason, the Herson Lab at the University of Colorado School of Medicine routinely prepares sex-stratified primary disassociated embryonic neuronal cultures from both hippocampus and cortex. Embryos are sexed before harvesting of brain tissue and male and female tissue are disassociated separately, plated separately, and maintained separately. Using this method, the Herson Lab has demonstrated a male-specific role for the ion channel TRPM2 in ischemic cell death. In this manuscript, we share and discuss our protocol for sexing embryonic mice and preparing sex-stratified hippocampal primary disassociated neuron cultures. This method can be adapted to prepare sex-stratified cortical cultures and the method for embryo sexing can be used in conjunction with other protocols for any study in which sex is thought to be an important determinant of outcome.
Neuroscience, Issue 82, male, female, sex, neuronal culture, ischemia, cell death, neuroprotection
A Method to Study the Impact of Chemically-induced Ovarian Failure on Exercise Capacity and Cardiac Adaptation in Mice
Institutions: University of Arizona.
The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases in post-menopausal women, yet, the role of exercise, as a preventative measure for CVD risk in post-menopausal women has not been adequately studied. Accordingly, we investigated the impact of voluntary cage-wheel exercise and forced treadmill exercise on cardiac adaptation in menopausal mice. The most commonly used inducible model for mimicking menopause in women is the ovariectomized (OVX) rodent. However, the OVX model has a few dissimilarities from menopause in humans. In this study, we administered 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) to female mice, which accelerates ovarian failure as an alternative menopause model to study the impact of exercise in menopausal mice. VCD selectively accelerates the loss of primary and primordial follicles resulting in an endocrine state that closely mimics the natural progression from pre- to peri- to post-menopause in humans. To determine the impact of exercise on exercise capacity and cardiac adaptation in VCD-treated female mice, two methods were used. First, we exposed a group of VCD-treated and untreated mice to a voluntary cage wheel. Second, we used forced treadmill exercise to determine exercise capacity in a separate group VCD-treated and untreated mice measured as a tolerance to exercise intensity and endurance.
Medicine, Issue 86, VCD, menopause, voluntary wheel running, forced treadmill exercise, exercise capacity, adaptive cardiac adaptation
Initiation of Metastatic Breast Carcinoma by Targeting of the Ductal Epithelium with Adenovirus-Cre: A Novel Transgenic Mouse Model of Breast Cancer
Institutions: Wistar Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, University of Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania.
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease involving complex cellular interactions between the developing tumor and immune system, eventually resulting in exponential tumor growth and metastasis to distal tissues and the collapse of anti-tumor immunity. Many useful animal models exist to study breast cancer, but none completely recapitulate the disease progression that occurs in humans. In order to gain a better understanding of the cellular interactions that result in the formation of latent metastasis and decreased survival, we have generated an inducible transgenic mouse model of YFP-expressing ductal carcinoma that develops after sexual maturity in immune-competent mice and is driven by consistent, endocrine-independent oncogene expression. Activation of YFP, ablation of p53, and expression of an oncogenic form of K-ras was achieved by the delivery of an adenovirus expressing Cre-recombinase into the mammary duct of sexually mature, virgin female mice. Tumors begin to appear 6 weeks after the initiation of oncogenic events. After tumors become apparent, they progress slowly for approximately two weeks before they begin to grow exponentially. After 7-8 weeks post-adenovirus injection, vasculature is observed connecting the tumor mass to distal lymph nodes, with eventual lymphovascular invasion of YFP+ tumor cells to the distal axillary lymph nodes. Infiltrating leukocyte populations are similar to those found in human breast carcinomas, including the presence of αβ and γδ T cells, macrophages and MDSCs. This unique model will facilitate the study of cellular and immunological mechanisms involved in latent metastasis and dormancy in addition to being useful for designing novel immunotherapeutic interventions to treat invasive breast cancer.
Medicine, Issue 85, Transgenic mice, breast cancer, metastasis, intraductal injection, latent mutations, adenovirus-Cre
Utero-tubal Embryo Transfer and Vasectomy in the Mouse Model
Institutions: United States Department of Agriculture, University of Maryland.
The transfer of preimplantation embryos to a surrogate female is a required step for the production of genetically modified mice or to study the effects of epigenetic alterations originated during preimplantation development on subsequent fetal development and adult health. The use of an effective and consistent embryo transfer technique is crucial to enhance the generation of genetically modified animals and to determine the effect of different treatments on implantation rates and survival to term. Embryos at the blastocyst stage are usually transferred by uterine transfer, performing a puncture in the uterine wall to introduce the embryo manipulation pipette. The orifice performed in the uterus does not close after the pipette has been withdrawn, and the embryos can outflow to the abdominal cavity due to the positive pressure of the uterus. The puncture can also produce a hemorrhage that impairs implantation, blocks the transfer pipette and may affect embryo development, especially when embryos without zona
are transferred. Consequently, this technique often results in very variable and overall low embryo survival rates. Avoiding these negative effects, utero-tubal embryo transfer take advantage of the utero-tubal junction as a natural barrier that impedes embryo outflow and avoid the puncture of the uterine wall. Vasectomized males are required for obtaining pseudopregnant recipients. A technique to perform vasectomy is described as a complement to the utero-tubal embryo transfer.
Basic Protocols, Issue 84, blastocyst, chimera, lentivirus, uterine transfer, oviductal transfer, utero-tubal transfer
Profiling of Estrogen-regulated MicroRNAs in Breast Cancer Cells
Institutions: University of Houston.
Estrogen plays vital roles in mammary gland development and breast cancer progression. It mediates its function by binding to and activating the estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα, and ERβ. ERα is frequently upregulated in breast cancer and drives the proliferation of breast cancer cells. The ERs function as transcription factors and regulate gene expression. Whereas ERα's regulation of protein-coding genes is well established, its regulation of noncoding microRNA (miRNA) is less explored. miRNAs play a major role in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes, inhibiting their translation or degrading their mRNA. miRNAs can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors and are also promising biomarkers. Among the miRNA assays available, microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) have been extensively used to detect and quantify miRNA levels. To identify miRNAs regulated by estrogen signaling in breast cancer, their expression in ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines were compared before and after estrogen-activation using both the µParaflo-microfluidic microarrays and Dual Labeled Probes-low density arrays. Results were validated using specific qPCR assays, applying both Cyanine dye-based and Dual Labeled Probes-based chemistry. Furthermore, a time-point assay was used to identify regulations over time. Advantages of the miRNA assay approach used in this study is that it enables a fast screening of mature miRNA regulations in numerous samples, even with limited sample amounts. The layout, including the specific conditions for cell culture and estrogen treatment, biological and technical replicates, and large-scale screening followed by in-depth confirmations using separate techniques, ensures a robust detection of miRNA regulations, and eliminates false positives and other artifacts. However, mutated or unknown miRNAs, or regulations at the primary and precursor transcript level, will not be detected. The method presented here represents a thorough investigation of estrogen-mediated miRNA regulation.
Medicine, Issue 84, breast cancer, microRNA, estrogen, estrogen receptor, microarray, qPCR
Two Methods for Establishing Primary Human Endometrial Stromal Cells from Hysterectomy Specimens
Institutions: University of Virginia, University of Virginia.
Many efforts have been devoted to establish in vitro
cell culture systems. These systems are designed to model a vast number of in vivo
processes. Cell culture systems arising from human endometrial samples are no exception. Applications range from normal cyclic physiological processes to endometrial pathologies such as gynecological cancers, infectious diseases, and reproductive deficiencies. Here, we provide two methods for establishing primary endometrial stromal cells from surgically resected endometrial hysterectomy specimens. The first method is referred to as “the scraping method” and incorporates mechanical scraping using surgical or razor blades whereas the second method is termed “the trypsin method.” This latter method uses the enzymatic activity of trypsin to promote the separation of cells and primary cell outgrowth. We illustrate step-by-step methodology through digital images and microscopy. We also provide examples for validating endometrial stromal cell lines via quantitative real time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) and immunofluorescence (IF).
Medicine, Issue 87, uterus, endometrium, endometrial stroma, (primary) cell culture, surgical blade, trypsin, tissue procurement, spontaneous decidualization
Assessing Species-specific Contributions To Craniofacial Development Using Quail-duck Chimeras
Institutions: University of California at San Francisco.
The generation of chimeric embryos is a widespread and powerful approach to study cell fates, tissue interactions, and species-specific contributions to the histological and morphological development of vertebrate embryos. In particular, the use of chimeric embryos has established the importance of neural crest in directing the species-specific morphology of the craniofacial complex. The method described herein utilizes two avian species, duck and quail, with remarkably different craniofacial morphology. This method greatly facilitates the investigation of molecular and cellular regulation of species-specific pattern in the craniofacial complex. Experiments in quail and duck chimeric embryos have already revealed neural crest-mediated tissue interactions and cell-autonomous behaviors that regulate species-specific pattern in the craniofacial skeleton, musculature, and integument. The great diversity of neural crest derivatives suggests significant potential for future applications of the quail-duck chimeric system to understanding vertebrate development, disease, and evolution.
Developmental Biology, Issue 87, neural crest, quail-duck chimeras, craniofacial development, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, tissue transplants, evolutionary developmental biology
Hydrogel Nanoparticle Harvesting of Plasma or Urine for Detecting Low Abundance Proteins
Institutions: George Mason University, Ceres Nanosciences.
Novel biomarker discovery plays a crucial role in providing more sensitive and specific disease detection. Unfortunately many low-abundance biomarkers that exist in biological fluids cannot be easily detected with mass spectrometry or immunoassays because they are present in very low concentration, are labile, and are often masked by high-abundance proteins such as albumin or immunoglobulin. Bait containing poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (NIPAm) based nanoparticles are able to overcome these physiological barriers. In one step they are able to capture, concentrate and preserve biomarkers from body fluids. Low-molecular weight analytes enter the core of the nanoparticle and are captured by different organic chemical dyes, which act as high affinity protein baits. The nanoparticles are able to concentrate the proteins of interest by several orders of magnitude. This concentration factor is sufficient to increase the protein level such that the proteins are within the detection limit of current mass spectrometers, western blotting, and immunoassays. Nanoparticles can be incubated with a plethora of biological fluids and they are able to greatly enrich the concentration of low-molecular weight proteins and peptides while excluding albumin and other high-molecular weight proteins. Our data show that a 10,000 fold amplification in the concentration of a particular analyte can be achieved, enabling mass spectrometry and immunoassays to detect previously undetectable biomarkers.
Bioengineering, Issue 90, biomarker, hydrogel, low abundance, mass spectrometry, nanoparticle, plasma, protein, urine
Time-lapse Imaging of Primary Preneoplastic Mammary Epithelial Cells Derived from Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Breast Cancer
Institutions: Georgetown University, Georgetown University, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Georgetown University, Dankook University.
Time-lapse imaging can be used to compare behavior of cultured primary preneoplastic mammary epithelial cells derived from different genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer. For example, time between cell divisions (cell lifetimes), apoptotic cell numbers, evolution of morphological changes, and mechanism of colony formation can be quantified and compared in cells carrying specific genetic lesions. Primary mammary epithelial cell cultures are generated from mammary glands without palpable tumor. Glands are carefully resected with clear separation from adjacent muscle, lymph nodes are removed, and single-cell suspensions of enriched mammary epithelial cells are generated by mincing mammary tissue followed by enzymatic dissociation and filtration. Single-cell suspensions are plated and placed directly under a microscope within an incubator chamber for live-cell imaging. Sixteen 650 μm x 700 μm fields in a 4x4 configuration from each well of a 6-well plate are imaged every 15 min for 5 days. Time-lapse images are examined directly to measure cellular behaviors that can include mechanism and frequency of cell colony formation within the first 24 hr of plating the cells (aggregation versus cell proliferation), incidence of apoptosis, and phasing of morphological changes. Single-cell tracking is used to generate cell fate maps for measurement of individual cell lifetimes and investigation of cell division patterns. Quantitative data are statistically analyzed to assess for significant differences in behavior correlated with specific genetic lesions.
Cancer Biology, Issue 72, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Oncology, Mammary Glands, Animal, Epithelial Cells, Mice, Genetically Modified, Primary Cell Culture, Time-Lapse Imaging, Early Detection of Cancer, Models, Genetic, primary cell culture, preneoplastic mammary epithelial cells, genetically engineered mice, time-lapse imaging, BRCA1, animal model
High Efficiency Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Cardiomyocytes and Characterization by Flow Cytometry
Institutions: Medical College of Wisconsin, Stanford University School of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Hong Kong University, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin.
There is an urgent need to develop approaches for repairing the damaged heart, discovering new therapeutic drugs that do not have toxic effects on the heart, and improving strategies to accurately model heart disease. The potential of exploiting human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology to generate cardiac muscle “in a dish” for these applications continues to generate high enthusiasm. In recent years, the ability to efficiently generate cardiomyogenic cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has greatly improved, offering us new opportunities to model very early stages of human cardiac development not otherwise accessible. In contrast to many previous methods, the cardiomyocyte differentiation protocol described here does not require cell aggregation or the addition of Activin A or BMP4 and robustly generates cultures of cells that are highly positive for cardiac troponin I and T (TNNI3, TNNT2), iroquois-class homeodomain protein IRX-4 (IRX4), myosin regulatory light chain 2, ventricular/cardiac muscle isoform (MLC2v) and myosin regulatory light chain 2, atrial isoform (MLC2a) by day 10 across all human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and hiPSC lines tested to date. Cells can be passaged and maintained for more than 90 days in culture. The strategy is technically simple to implement and cost-effective. Characterization of cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent cells often includes the analysis of reference markers, both at the mRNA and protein level. For protein analysis, flow cytometry is a powerful analytical tool for assessing quality of cells in culture and determining subpopulation homogeneity. However, technical variation in sample preparation can significantly affect quality of flow cytometry data. Thus, standardization of staining protocols should facilitate comparisons among various differentiation strategies. Accordingly, optimized staining protocols for the analysis of IRX4, MLC2v, MLC2a, TNNI3, and TNNT2 by flow cytometry are described.
Cellular Biology, Issue 91, human induced pluripotent stem cell, flow cytometry, directed differentiation, cardiomyocyte, IRX4, TNNI3, TNNT2, MCL2v, MLC2a
Alginate Hydrogels for Three-Dimensional Organ Culture of Ovaries and Oviducts
Institutions: University of Illinois at Chicago.
Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths in women and has a 63% mortality rate in the United States1
. The cell type of origin for ovarian cancers is still in question and might be either the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) or the distal epithelium of the fallopian tube fimbriae2,3
. Culturing the normal cells as a primary culture in vitro will enable scientists to model specific changes that might lead to ovarian cancer in the distinct epithelium, thereby definitively determining the cell type of origin. This will allow development of more accurate biomarkers, animal models with tissue-specific gene changes, and better prevention strategies targeted to this disease.
Maintaining normal cells in alginate hydrogels promotes short term in vitro culture of cells in their three-dimensional context and permits introduction of plasmid DNA, siRNA, and small molecules. By culturing organs in pieces that are derived from strategic cuts using a scalpel, several cultures from a single organ can be generated, increasing the number of experiments from a single animal. These cuts model aspects of ovulation leading to proliferation of the OSE, which is associated with ovarian cancer formation. Cell types such as the OSE that do not grow well on plastic surfaces can be cultured using this method and facilitate investigation into normal cellular processes or the earliest events in cancer formation4
Alginate hydrogels can be used to support the growth of many types of tissues5
. Alginate is a linear polysaccharide composed of repeating units of β-D-mannuronic acid and α-L-guluronic acid that can be crosslinked with calcium ions, resulting in a gentle gelling action that does not damage tissues6,7
. Like other three-dimensional cell culture matrices such as Matrigel, alginate provides mechanical support for tissues; however, proteins are not reactive with the alginate matrix, and therefore alginate functions as a synthetic extracellular matrix that does not initiate cell signaling5
. The alginate hydrogel floats in standard cell culture medium and supports the architecture of the tissue growth in vitro
A method is presented for the preparation, separation, and embedding of ovarian and oviductal organ pieces into alginate hydrogels, which can be maintained in culture for up to two weeks. The enzymatic release of cells for analysis of proteins and RNA samples from the organ culture is also described. Finally, the growth of primary cell types is possible without genetic immortalization from mice and permits investigators to use knockout and transgenic mice.
Bioengineering, Issue 52, alginate hydrogel, ovarian organ culture, oviductal organ culture, three-dimensional, primary cell
Radioactive in situ Hybridization for Detecting Diverse Gene Expression Patterns in Tissue
Institutions: Duke University , Hokkaido University.
Knowing the timing, level, cellular localization, and cell type that a gene is expressed in contributes to our understanding of the function of the gene. Each of these features can be accomplished with in situ
hybridization to mRNAs within cells. Here we present a radioactive in situ
hybridization method modified from Clayton et al.
that has been working successfully in our lab for many years, especially for adult vertebrate brains2-5
. The long complementary RNA (cRNA) probes to the target sequence allows for detection of low abundance transcripts6,7
. Incorporation of radioactive nucleotides into the cRNA probes allows for further detection sensitivity of low abundance transcripts and quantitative analyses, either by light sensitive x-ray film or emulsion coated over the tissue. These detection methods provide a long-term record of target gene expression. Compared with non-radioactive probe methods, such as DIG-labeling, the radioactive probe hybridization method does not require multiple amplification steps using HRP-antibodies and/or TSA kit to detect low abundance transcripts. Therefore, this method provides a linear relation between signal intensity and targeted mRNA amounts for quantitative analysis. It allows processing 100-200 slides simultaneously. It works well for different developmental stages of embryos. Most developmental studies of gene expression use whole embryos and non-radioactive approaches8,9
, in part because embryonic tissue is more fragile than adult tissue, with less cohesion between cells, making it difficult to see boundaries between cell populations with tissue sections. In contrast, our radioactive approach, due to the larger range of sensitivity, is able to obtain higher contrast in resolution of gene expression between tissue regions, making it easier to see boundaries between populations. Using this method, researchers could reveal the possible significance of a newly identified gene, and further predict the function of the gene of interest.
Neuroscience, Issue 62, in situ hybridization, radioactive, riboprobes, vertebrate, embryo, silver emulsion, darkfield, genetics
Parasite Induced Genetically Driven Autoimmune Chagas Heart Disease in the Chicken Model
Institutions: University of Brasilia.
The Trypanosoma cruzi acute infections acquired in infancy and childhood seem asymptomatic, but approximately one third of the chronically infected cases show Chagas disease up to three decades or later. Autoimmunity and parasite persistence are competing theories to explain the pathogenesis of Chagas disease 1, 2
. To separate roles played by parasite persistence and autoimmunity in Chagas disease we inoculate the T. cruzi
in the air chamber of fertilized eggs. The mature chicken immune system is a tight biological barrier against T. cruzi
and the infection is eradicated upon development of its immune system by the end of the first week of growth 3
. The chicks are parasite-free at hatching, but they retain integrated parasite mitochondrial kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircle within their genome that are transferred to their progeny. Documentation of the kDNA minicircle integration in the chicken genome was obtained by a targeted prime TAIL-PCR, Southern hybridizations, cloning, and sequencing 3, 4
. The kDNA minicircle integrations rupture open reading frames for transcription and immune system factors, phosphatase (GTPase), adenylate cyclase and phosphorylases (PKC, NF-Kappa B activator, PI-3K) associated with cell physiology, growth, and differentiation 3, 5-7
, and other gene functions. Severe myocarditis due to rejection of target heart fibers by effectors cytotoxic lymphocytes is seen in the kDNA mutated chickens, showing an inflammatory cardiomyopathy similar to that seen in human Chagas disease. Notably, heart failure and skeletal muscle weakness are present in adult chickens with kDNA rupture of the dystrophin gene in chromosome 1 8
. Similar genotipic alterations are associated with tissue destruction carried out by effectors CD45+, CD8γδ+, CD8α lymphocytes. Thus this protozoan infection can induce genetically driven autoimmune disease.
Immunology, Issue 65, Infection, Genetics, Parasitology, Trypanosoma cruzi, Gallus gallus, transfer of mitochondrial kDNA minicircle, targeted-prime TAIL-PCR, genotype modifications, Chagas disease
Analysis of Neural Crest Migration and Differentiation by Cross-species Transplantation
Institutions: Rice University .
Avian embryos provide a unique platform for studying many vertebrate developmental processes, due to the easy access of the embryos within the egg. Chimeric avian embryos, in which quail donor tissue is transplanted into a chick embryo in ovo
, combine the power of indelible genetic labeling of cell populations with the ease of manipulation presented by the avian embryo.
Quail-chick chimeras are a classical tool for tracing migratory neural crest cells (NCCs)1-3
. NCCs are a transient migratory population of cells in the embryo, which originate in the dorsal region of the developing neural tube4
. They undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition and subsequently migrate to other regions of the embryo, where they differentiate into various cell types including cartilage5-13
, neurons and glia21-32
. NCCs are multipotent, and their ultimate fate is influenced by 1) the region of the neural tube in which they originate along the rostro-caudal axis of the embryo11,33-37
, 2) signals from neighboring cells as they migrate38-44
, and 3) the microenvironment of their ultimate destination within the embryo45,46
. Tracing these cells from their point of origin at the neural tube, to their final position and fate within the embryo, provides important insight into the developmental processes that regulate patterning and organogenesis.
Transplantation of complementary regions of donor neural tube (homotopic grafting) or different regions of donor neural tube (heterotopic grafting) can reveal differences in pre-specification of NCCs along the rostro-caudal axis2,47
. This technique can be further adapted to transplant a unilateral compartment of the neural tube, such that one side is derived from donor tissue, and the contralateral side remains unperturbed in the host embryo, yielding an internal control within the same sample2,47
. It can also be adapted for transplantation of brain segments in later embryos, after HH10, when the anterior neural tube has closed47
Here we report techniques for generating quail-chick chimeras via neural tube transplantation, which allow for tracing of migratory NCCs derived from a discrete segment of the neural tube. Species-specific labeling of the donor-derived cells with the quail-specific QCPN antibody48-56
allows the researcher to distinguish donor and host cells at the experimental end point. This technique is straightforward, inexpensive, and has many applications, including fate-mapping, cell lineage tracing, and identifying pre-patterning events along the rostro-caudal axis45
. Because of the ease of access to the avian embryo, the quail-chick graft technique may be combined with other manipulations, including but not limited to lens ablation40
, injection of inhibitory molecules57,58
, or genetic manipulation via electroporation of expression plasmids59-61
, to identify the response of particular migratory streams of NCCs to perturbations in the embryo's developmental program. Furthermore, this grafting technique may also be used to generate other interspecific chimeric embryos such as quail-duck chimeras to study NCC contribution to craniofacial morphogenesis, or mouse-chick chimeras to combine the power of mouse genetics with the ease of manipulation of the avian embryo.62
Neuroscience, Issue 60, Neural crest, chick, quail, chimera, fate map, cell migration, cell differentiation
IgY Technology: Extraction of Chicken Antibodies from Egg Yolk by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Precipitation
Institutions: Robert Koch-Institute, Instituto de Virología, Ciudad de la Habana, Cuba, Free University of Berlin, Charité-University Medicine of Berlin.
Hens can be immunized by means of i.m. vaccination (Musculus pectoralis
, left and right, injection volume 0.5-1.0 ml) or by means of Gene-Gun plasmid-immunization. Dependent on the immunogenicity of the antigen, high antibody-titres (up to 1:100,000 - 1:1,000,000) can be achieved after only one or 3 - 4 boost immunizations. Normally, a hen lays eggs continuously for about 72 weeks, thereafter the laying capacity decreases. This protocol describes the extraction of total IgY from egg yolk by means of a precipitation procedure (PEG. Polson et al
. 1980). The method involves two important steps. The first one is the removal of lipids and the second is the precipitation of total IgY from the supernatant of step one. After dialysis against a buffer (normally PBS) the IgY-extract can be stored at -20°C for more than a year. The purity of the extract is around 80 %, the total IgY per egg varies from 40-80 mg, dependent on the age of the laying hen. The total IgY content increases with the age of the hen from around 40 mg/egg up to 80 mg/egg (concerning PEG precipitation). The laying capacity of a hen per year is around 325 eggs. That means a total potential harvest of 20 g total IgY/year based on a mean IgY content of 60 mg total IgY/egg (see Table 1).
Immunology, Issue 51, Immunization, Chicken, Antibodies, Polyethylene Glycol
Retrieval of Mouse Oocytes
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI).
To date, only a few studies have reported successful manipulations of Peromyscus embryogenesis or reproductive biology. Together with the Peromyscus Genetic Stock Center (https://stkctr.biol.sc.edu), we are characterizing the salient differences needed to develop this system. A primary goal has been to optimize oocyte/early embryo retrieval.
Developmental Biology, Issue 3, oocyte, egg, mouse, dissection
An Orthotopic Model of Serous Ovarian Cancer in Immunocompetent Mice for in vivo Tumor Imaging and Monitoring of Tumor Immune Responses
Institutions: University of Pennsylvania-School of Medicine, Fox Chase Cancer Center.
Ovarian cancer is generally diagnosed at an advanced stage where the case/fatality ratio is high and thus remains the most lethal of all gynecologic malignancies among US women 1,2,3
. Serous tumors are the most widespread forms of ovarian cancer and 4,5
the Tg-MISIIR-TAg transgenic represents the only mouse model that spontaneously develops this type of tumors. Tg-MISIIR-TAg mice express SV40 transforming region under control of the Mullerian Inhibitory Substance type II Receptor (MISIIR) gene promoter 6
. Additional transgenic lines have been identified that express the SV40 TAg transgene, but do not develop ovarian tumors. Non-tumor prone mice exhibit typical lifespan for C57Bl/6 mice and are fertile. These mice can be used as syngeneic allograft recipients for tumor cells isolated from Tg-MISIIR-TAg-DR26 mice.
Although tumor imaging is possible 7
, early detection of deep tumors is challenging in small living animals. To enable preclinical studies in an immunologically intact animal model for serous ovarian cancer, we describe a syngeneic mouse model for this type of ovarian cancer that permits in vivo
imaging, studies of the tumor microenvironment and tumor immune responses.
We first derived a TAg+ mouse cancer cell line (MOV1) from a spontaneous ovarian tumor harvested in a 26 week-old DR26 Tg-MISIIR-TAg female. Then, we stably transduced MOV1 cells with TurboFP635 Lentivirus mammalian vector that encodes Katushka, a far-red mutant of the red fluorescent protein from sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor
with excitation/emission maxima at 588/635 nm 8,9,10
. We orthotopically implanted MOV1Kat
in the ovary 11,12,13,14
of non-tumor prone Tg-MISIIR-TAg female mice. Tumor progression was followed by in vivo
optical imaging and tumor microenvironment was analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
Orthotopically implanted MOV1Kat
cells developed serous ovarian tumors. MOV1Kat
tumors could be visualized by in vivo
imaging up to three weeks after implantation (fig. 1) and were infiltrated with leukocytes, as observed in human ovarian cancers 15
We describe an orthotopic model of ovarian cancer suitable for in vivo
imaging of early tumors due to the high pH-stability and photostability of Katushka in deep tissues. We propose the use of this novel syngeneic model of serous ovarian cancer for in vivo
imaging studies and monitoring of tumor immune responses and immunotherapies.
Immunology, Issue 45, Ovarian cancer, syngeneic, orthotopic, katushka (TurboFP635), in vivo imaging, immunocompetent mouse model of ovarian cancer, deep tumors
Obtaining Eggs from Xenopus laevis Females
Institutions: Emory University.
The eggs of Xenopus laevis intact, lysed, and/or fractionated are useful for a wide variety of experiments. This protocol shows how to induce egg laying, collect and dejelly the eggs, and sort the eggs to remove any damaged eggs.
Basic Protocols, Issue 18, Current Protocols Wiley, Eggs, Xenopus laevis
Gross and Fine Dissection of Inner Ear Sensory Epithelia in Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Institutions: National Human Genome Research Institute, University of Maryland.
Neurosensory epithelia in the inner ear are the crucial structures for hearing and balance functions. Therefore, it is important to understand the cellular and molecular features of the epithelia, which are mainly composed of two types of cells: hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs). Here we choose to study the inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish not only because the epithelial structures are highly conserved in all vertebrates studied, but also because the adult zebrafish is able to regenerate HCs, an ability that mammals lose shortly after birth. We use the inner ear of adult zebrafish as a model system to study the mechanisms of inner ear HC regeneration in adult vertebrates that could be helpful for clinical therapy of hearing/balance deficits in human as a result of HC loss.
Here we demonstrate how to do gross and fine dissections of inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish. The gross dissection removes the tissues surrounding the inner ear and is helpful for preparing tissue sections, which allows us to examine the detailed structure of the sensory epithelia. The fine dissection cleans up the non-sensory-epithelial tissues of each individual epithelium and enables us to examine the heterogeneity of the whole epithelium easily in whole-mount epithelial samples.
Neuroscience, Issue 27, zebrafish, dissection, inner ear, sensory epithelia, hair cell, regeneration
Gene Transfer into Older Chicken Embryos by ex ovo Electroporation
Institutions: School of Medicine University of Rostock, School of Medicine University of Jena.
The chicken embryo provides an excellent model system for studying gene function and regulation during embryonic development. In ovo
electroporation is a powerful method to over-express exogenous genes or down-regulate endogenous genes in vivo
in chicken embryos1
. Different structures such as DNA plasmids encoding genes2-4
, small interfering RNA (siRNA) plasmids5
, small synthetic RNA oligos6
, and morpholino antisense oligonucleotides7
can be easily transfected into chicken embryos by electroporation. However, the application of in ovo
electroporation is limited to embryos at early incubation stages (younger than stage HH20 - according to Hamburg and Hamilton)8
and there are some disadvantages for its application in embryos at later stages (older than stage HH22 - approximately 3.5 days of development). For example, the vitelline membrane at later stages is usually stuck to the shall membrane and opening a window in the shell causes rupture of the vessels, resulting in death of the embryos; older embryos are covered by vitelline and allantoic vessels, where it is difficult to access and manipulate the embryos; older embryos move vigorously and is difficult to control the orientation through a relatively small window in the shell.
In this protocol we demonstrate an ex ovo
electroporation method for gene transfer into chicken embryos at late stages (older than stage HH22). For ex ovo
electroporation, embryos are cultured in Petri dishes9
and the vitelline and allantoic vessels are widely spread. Under these conditions, the older chicken embryos are easily accessed and manipulated. Therefore, this method overcomes the disadvantages of in ovo
electroporation applied to the older chicken embryos. Using this method, plasmids can be easily transfected into different parts of the older chicken embryos10-12
Molecular Biology, Issue 65, Genetics, Developmental Biology, Gene transfer, gene function, electroporation, chicken, development
Dissection of Drosophila Ovaries
Institutions: Princeton University.
Neuroscience, Issue 1, Protocol, Stem Cells, Cerebral Cortex, Brain Development, Electroporation, Intra Uterine Injections, transfection