Eutrophication is a water quality issue in lakes worldwide, and there is a critical need to identify and control nutrient sources. Internal phosphorus (P) loading from lake sediments can account for a substantial portion of the total P load in eutrophic, and some mesotrophic, lakes. Laboratory determination of P release rates from sediment cores is one approach for determining the role of internal P loading and guiding management decisions. Two principal alternatives to experimental determination of sediment P release exist for estimating internal load: in situ measurements of changes in hypolimnetic P over time and P mass balance. The experimental approach using laboratory-based sediment incubations to quantify internal P load is a direct method, making it a valuable tool for lake management and restoration.
Laboratory incubations of sediment cores can help determine the relative importance of internal vs. external P loads, as well as be used to answer a variety of lake management and research questions. We illustrate the use of sediment core incubations to assess the effectiveness of an aluminum sulfate (alum) treatment for reducing sediment P release. Other research questions that can be investigated using this approach include the effects of sediment resuspension and bioturbation on P release.
The approach also has limitations. Assumptions must be made with respect to: extrapolating results from sediment cores to the entire lake; deciding over what time periods to measure nutrient release; and addressing possible core tube artifacts. A comprehensive dissolved oxygen monitoring strategy to assess temporal and spatial redox status in the lake provides greater confidence in annual P loads estimated from sediment core incubations.
23 Related JoVE Articles!
Analysis of Global RNA Synthesis at the Single Cell Level following Hypoxia
Institutions: University of Dundee, UK.
Hypoxia or lowering of the oxygen availability is involved in many physiological and pathological processes. At the molecular level, cells initiate a particular transcriptional program in order to mount an appropriate and coordinated cellular response. The cell possesses several oxygen sensor enzymes that require molecular oxygen as cofactor for their activity. These range from prolyl-hydroxylases to histone demethylases. The majority of studies analyzing cellular responses to hypoxia are based on cellular populations and average studies, and as such single cell analysis of hypoxic cells are seldom performed. Here we describe a method of analysis of global RNA synthesis at the single cell level in hypoxia by using Click-iT RNA imaging kits in an oxygen controlled workstation, followed by microscopy analysis and quantification. Using cancer cells exposed to hypoxia for different lengths of time, RNA is labeled and measured in each cell. This analysis allows the visualization of temporal and cell-to-cell changes in global RNA synthesis following hypoxic stress.
Cellular Biology, Issue 87, Cancer, RNA synthesis, Hypoxia, Microscopy, Click-iT, Open Microscopy Environment, OMERO
Long-term Lethal Toxicity Test with the Crustacean Artemia franciscana
Institutions: Institute for Environmental Protection and Research, Regional Agency for Environmental Protection in Emilia-Romagna.
Our research activities target the use of biological methods for the evaluation of environmental quality, with particular reference to saltwater/brackish water and sediment. The choice of biological indicators must be based on reliable scientific knowledge and, possibly, on the availability of standardized procedures. In this article, we present a standardized protocol that used the marine crustacean Artemia
to evaluate the toxicity of chemicals and/or of marine environmental matrices. Scientists propose that the brine shrimp (Artemia
) is a suitable candidate for the development of a standard bioassay for worldwide utilization. A number of papers have been published on the toxic effects of various chemicals and toxicants on brine shrimp (Artemia
). The major advantage of this crustacean for toxicity studies is the overall availability of the dry cysts; these can be immediately used in testing and difficult cultivation is not demanded1,2
. Cyst-based toxicity assays are cheap, continuously available, simple and reliable and are thus an important answer to routine needs of toxicity screening, for industrial monitoring requirements or for regulatory purposes3
. The proposed method involves the mortality as an endpoint. The numbers of survivors were counted and percentage of deaths were calculated. Larvae were considered dead if they did not exhibit any internal or external movement during several seconds of observation4
. This procedure was standardized testing a reference substance (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate); some results are reported in this work. This article accompanies a video that describes the performance of procedural toxicity testing, showing all the steps related to the protocol.
Chemistry, Issue 62, Artemia franciscana, bioassays, chemical substances, crustaceans, marine environment
Environmentally Induced Heritable Changes in Flax
Institutions: Case Western Reserve University.
Some flax varieties respond to nutrient stress by modifying their genome and these modifications can be inherited through many generations. Also associated with these genomic changes are heritable phenotypic variations 1,2
. The flax variety Stormont Cirrus (Pl) when grown under three different nutrient conditions can either remain inducible (under the control conditions), or become stably modified to either the large or small genotroph by growth under high or low nutrient conditions respectively. The lines resulting from the initial growth under each of these conditions appear to grow better when grown under the same conditions in subsequent generations, notably the Pl line grows best under the control treatment indicating that the plants growing under both the high and low nutrients are under stress. One of the genomic changes that are associated with the induction of heritable changes is the appearance of an insertion element (LIS-1) 3, 4
while the plants are growing under the nutrient stress. With respect to this insertion event, the flax variety Stormont Cirrus (Pl) when grown under three different nutrient conditions can either remain unchanged (under the control conditions), have the insertion appear in all the plants (under low nutrients) and have this transmitted to the next generation, or have the insertion (or parts of it) appear but not be transmitted through generations (under high nutrients) 4
. The frequency of the appearance of this insertion indicates that it is under positive selection, which is also consistent with the growth response in subsequent generations. Leaves or meristems harvested at various stages of growth are used for DNA and RNA isolation. The RNA is used to identify variation in expression associated with the various growth environments and/or t he presence/absence of LIS-1. The isolated DNA is used to identify those plants in which the insertion has occurred.
Plant Biology, Issue 47, Flax, genome variation, environmental stress, small RNAs, altered gene expression
Tracking Hypoxic Signaling within Encapsulated Cell Aggregates
Institutions: University of South Carolina, University of South Carolina.
In Diabetes mellitus type 1, autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic β-cells results in loss of insulin production and potentially lethal hyperglycemia. As an alternative treatment option to exogenous insulin injection, transplantation of functional pancreatic tissue has been explored1,2
. This approach offers the promise of a more natural, long-term restoration of normoglycemia. Protection of the donor tissue from the host's immune system is required to prevent rejection and encapsulation is a method used to help achieve this aim.
Biologically-derived materials, such as alginate3
, have been the traditional choice for capsule construction but may induce inflammation or fibrotic overgrowth5
which can impede nutrient and oxygen transport. Alternatively, synthetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels are non-degrading, easily functionalized, available at high purity, have controllable pore size, and are extremely biocompatible,6,7,8
. As an additional benefit, PEG hydrogels may be formed rapidly in a simple photo-crosslinking reaction that does not require application of non-physiological temperatures6,7
. Such a procedure is described here. In the crosslinking reaction, UV degradation of the photoinitiator, 1-[4-(2-Hydroxyethoxy)-phenyl]-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-propane-1-one (Irgacure 2959), produces free radicals which attack the vinyl carbon-carbon double bonds of dimethacrylated PEG (PEGDM) inducing crosslinking at the chain ends. Crosslinking can be achieved within 10 minutes. PEG hydrogels constructed in such a manner have been shown to favorably support cells7,9
, and the low photoinitiator concentration and brief exposure to UV irradiation is not detrimental to viability and function of the encapsulated tissue10
. While we methacrylate our PEG with the method described below, PEGDM can also be directly purchased from vendors such as Sigma.
An inherent consequence of encapsulation is isolation of the cells from a vascular network. Supply of nutrients, notably oxygen, is therefore reduced and limited by diffusion. This reduced oxygen availability may especially impact β-cells whose insulin secretory function is highly dependent on oxygen11-13
. Capsule composition and geometry will also impact diffusion rates and lengths for oxygen. Therefore, we also describe a technique for identifying hypoxic cells within our PEG capsules. Infection of the cells with a recombinant adenovirus allows for a fluorescent signal to be produced when intracellular hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathways are activated14
. As HIFs are the primary regulators of the transcriptional response to hypoxia, they represent an ideal target marker for detection of hypoxic signaling15
. This approach allows for easy and rapid detection of hypoxic cells. Briefly, the adenovirus has the sequence for a red fluorescent protein (Ds Red DR from Clontech) under the control of a hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) trimer. Stabilization of HIF-1 by low oxygen conditions will drive transcription of the fluorescent protein (Figure 1). Additional details on the construction of this virus have been published previously15
. The virus is stored in 10% glycerol at -80° C as many 150 μL aliquots in 1.5 mL centrifuge tubes at a concentration of 3.4 x 1010
Previous studies in our lab have shown that MIN6 cells encapsulated as aggregates maintain their viability throughout 4 weeks of culture in 20% oxygen. MIN6 aggregates cultured at 2 or 1% oxygen showed both signs of necrotic cells (still about 85-90% viable) by staining with ethidium bromide as well as morphological changes relative to cells in 20% oxygen. The smooth spherical shape of the aggregates displayed at 20% was lost and aggregates appeared more like disorganized groups of cells. While the low oxygen stress does not cause a pronounced drop in viability, it is clearly impacting MIN6 aggregation and function as measured by glucose-stimulated insulin secretion15
. Western blot analysis of encapsulated cells in 20% and 1% oxygen also showed a significant increase in HIF-1α for cells cultured in the low oxygen conditions which correlates with the expression of the DsRed DR protein.
Bioengineering, Issue 58, Cell encapsulation, PEG, cell aggregation, hypoxia, insulin secretion, fluorescent imaging
Shrinkage of Dental Composite in Simulated Cavity Measured with Digital Image Correlation
Institutions: University of Minnesota.
Polymerization shrinkage of dental resin composites can lead to restoration debonding or cracked tooth tissues in composite-restored teeth. In order to understand where and how shrinkage strain and stress develop in such restored teeth, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was used to provide a comprehensive view of the displacement and strain distributions within model restorations that had undergone polymerization shrinkage.
Specimens with model cavities were made of cylindrical glass rods with both diameter and length being 10 mm. The dimensions of the mesial-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavity prepared in each specimen measured 3 mm and 2 mm in width and depth, respectively. After filling the cavity with resin composite, the surface under observation was sprayed with first a thin layer of white paint and then fine black charcoal powder to create high-contrast speckles. Pictures of that surface were then taken before curing and 5 min after. Finally, the two pictures were correlated using DIC software to calculate the displacement and strain distributions.
The resin composite shrunk vertically towards the bottom of the cavity, with the top center portion of the restoration having the largest downward displacement. At the same time, it shrunk horizontally towards its vertical midline. Shrinkage of the composite stretched the material in the vicinity of the “tooth-restoration” interface, resulting in cuspal deflections and high tensile strains around the restoration. Material close to the cavity walls or floor had direct strains mostly in the directions perpendicular to the interfaces. Summation of the two direct strain components showed a relatively uniform distribution around the restoration and its magnitude equaled approximately to the volumetric shrinkage strain of the material.
Medicine, Issue 89, image processing, computer-assisted, polymer matrix composites, testing of materials (composite materials), dental composite restoration, polymerization shrinkage, digital image correlation, full-field strain measurement, interfacial debonding
Fluorescence-based Monitoring of PAD4 Activity via a Pro-fluorescence Substrate Analog
Institutions: Lehigh University.
Post-translational modifications may lead to altered protein functional states by increasing the covalent variations on the side chains of many protein substrates. The histone tails represent one of the most heavily modified stretches within all human proteins. Peptidyl-arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) has been shown to convert arginine residues into the non-genetically encoded citrulline residue. Few assays described to date have been operationally facile with satisfactory sensitivity. Thus, the lack of adequate assays has likely contributed to the absence of potent non-covalent PAD4 inhibitors. Herein a novel fluorescence-based assay that allows for the monitoring of PAD4 activity is described. A pro-fluorescent substrate analog was designed to link PAD4 enzymatic activity to fluorescence liberation upon the addition of the protease trypsin. It was shown that the assay is compatible with high-throughput screening conditions and has a strong signal-to-noise ratio. Furthermore, the assay can also be performed with crude cell lysates containing over-expressed PAD4.
Chemistry, Issue 93, PAD4, PADI4, citrullination, arginine, post-translational modification, HTS, assay, fluorescence, citrulline
Dried Blood Spot Collection of Health Biomarkers to Maximize Participation in Population Studies
Institutions: Harvard School of Public Health, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Pennsylvania State University.
Biomarkers are directly-measured biological indicators of disease, health, exposures, or other biological information. In population and social sciences, biomarkers need to be easy to obtain, transport, and analyze. Dried Blood Spots meet this need, and can be collected in the field with high response rates. These elements are particularly important in longitudinal study designs including interventions where attrition is critical to avoid, and high response rates improve the interpretation of results. Dried Blood Spot sample collection is simple, quick, relatively painless, less invasive then venipuncture, and requires minimal field storage requirements (i.e.
samples do not need to be immediately frozen and can be stored for a long period of time in a stable freezer environment before assay). The samples can be analyzed for a variety of different analytes, including cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glycosylated hemoglobin, numerous cytokines, and other analytes, as well as provide genetic material. DBS collection is depicted as employed in several recent studies.
Medicine, Issue 83, dried blood spots (DBS), Biomarkers, cardiometabolic risk, Inflammation, standard precautions, blood collection
An Affordable HIV-1 Drug Resistance Monitoring Method for Resource Limited Settings
Institutions: University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Jembi Health Systems, University of Amsterdam, Stanford Medical School.
HIV-1 drug resistance has the potential to seriously compromise the effectiveness and impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART). As ART programs in sub-Saharan Africa continue to expand, individuals on ART should be closely monitored for the emergence of drug resistance. Surveillance of transmitted drug resistance to track transmission of viral strains already resistant to ART is also critical. Unfortunately, drug resistance testing is still not readily accessible in resource limited settings, because genotyping is expensive and requires sophisticated laboratory and data management infrastructure. An open access genotypic drug resistance monitoring method to manage individuals and assess transmitted drug resistance is described. The method uses free open source software for the interpretation of drug resistance patterns and the generation of individual patient reports. The genotyping protocol has an amplification rate of greater than 95% for plasma samples with a viral load >1,000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. The sensitivity decreases significantly for viral loads <1,000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. The method described here was validated against a method of HIV-1 drug resistance testing approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Viroseq genotyping method. Limitations of the method described here include the fact that it is not automated and that it also failed to amplify the circulating recombinant form CRF02_AG from a validation panel of samples, although it amplified subtypes A and B from the same panel.
Medicine, Issue 85, Biomedical Technology, HIV-1, HIV Infections, Viremia, Nucleic Acids, genetics, antiretroviral therapy, drug resistance, genotyping, affordable
Biomarkers in an Animal Model for Revealing Neural, Hematologic, and Behavioral Correlates of PTSD
Institutions: Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, GenProMarkers, Inc..
Identification of biomarkers representing the evolution of the pathophysiology of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is vitally important, not only for objective diagnosis but also for the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and resilience to trauma. Ongoing research is directed at identifying molecular biomarkers for PTSD, including traumatic stress induced proteins, transcriptomes, genomic variances and genetic modulators, using biologic samples from subjects' blood, saliva, urine, and postmortem brain tissues. However, the correlation of these biomarker molecules in peripheral or postmortem samples to altered brain functions associated with psychiatric symptoms in PTSD remains unresolved. Here, we present an animal model of PTSD in which both peripheral blood and central brain biomarkers, as well as behavioral phenotype, can be collected and measured, thus providing the needed correlation of the central biomarkers of PTSD, which are mechanistic and pathognomonic but cannot be collected from people, with the peripheral biomarkers and behavioral phenotypes, which can.
Our animal model of PTSD employs restraint and tail shocks repeated for three continuous days - the inescapable tail-shock model (ITS) in rats. This ITS model mimics the pathophysiology of PTSD 17, 7, 4, 10
. We and others have verified that the ITS model induces behavioral and neurobiological alterations similar to those found in PTSD subjects 17, 7, 10, 9
. Specifically, these stressed rats exhibit (1) a delayed and exaggerated startle response appearing several days after stressor cessation, which given the compressed time scale of the rat's life compared to a humans, corresponds to the one to three months delay of symptoms in PTSD patients (DSM-IV-TR PTSD Criterian D/E 13
), (2) enhanced plasma corticosterone (CORT) for several days, indicating compromise of the hypothalamopituitary axis (HPA), and (3) retarded body weight gain after stressor cessation, indicating dysfunction of metabolic regulation.
The experimental paradigms employed for this model are: (1) a learned helplessness paradigm in the rat assayed by measurement of acoustic startle response (ASR) and a charting of body mass; (2) microdissection of the rat brain into regions and nuclei; (3) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for blood levels of CORT; (4) a gene expression microarray plus related bioinformatics tools 18
. This microarray, dubbed rMNChip, focuses on mitochondrial and mitochondria-related nuclear genes in the rat so as to specifically address the neuronal bioenergetics hypothesized to be involved in PTSD.
Medicine, Issue 68, Genetics, Physiology, Neuroscience, Immunology, PTSD, biomarker, stress, fear, startle, corticosterone, animal model, RNA, RT-PCR, gene chip, cDNA microarray, oligonucleotide microarray, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, cingulate cortex, hypothalamus, white blood cell
Enhancement of Apoptotic and Autophagic Induction by a Novel Synthetic C-1 Analogue of 7-deoxypancratistatin in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma and Neuroblastoma Cells with Tamoxifen
Institutions: University of Windsor, Brock University.
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers amongst women in North America. Many current anti-cancer treatments, including ionizing radiation, induce apoptosis via DNA damage. Unfortunately, such treatments are non-selective to cancer cells and produce similar toxicity in normal cells. We have reported selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by the natural compound pancratistatin (PST). Recently, a novel PST analogue, a C-1 acetoxymethyl derivative of 7-deoxypancratistatin (JCTH-4), was produced by de novo synthesis and it exhibits comparable selective apoptosis inducing activity in several cancer cell lines. Recently, autophagy has been implicated in malignancies as both pro-survival and pro-death mechanisms in response to chemotherapy. Tamoxifen (TAM) has invariably demonstrated induction of pro-survival autophagy in numerous cancers. In this study, the efficacy of JCTH-4 alone and in combination with TAM to induce cell death in human breast cancer (MCF7) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells was evaluated. TAM alone induced autophagy, but insignificant cell death whereas JCTH-4 alone caused significant induction of apoptosis with some induction of autophagy. Interestingly, the combinatory treatment yielded a drastic increase in apoptotic and autophagic induction. We monitored time-dependent morphological changes in MCF7 cells undergoing TAM-induced autophagy, JCTH-4-induced apoptosis and autophagy, and accelerated cell death with combinatorial treatment using time-lapse microscopy. We have demonstrated these compounds to induce apoptosis/autophagy by mitochondrial targeting in these cancer cells. Importantly, these treatments did not affect the survival of noncancerous human fibroblasts. Thus, these results indicate that JCTH-4 in combination with TAM could be used as a safe and very potent anti-cancer therapy against breast cancer and neuroblastoma cells.
Cancer Biology, Issue 63, Medicine, Biochemistry, Breast adenocarcinoma, neuroblastoma, tamoxifen, combination therapy, apoptosis, autophagy
Swimming Performance Assessment in Fishes
Institutions: University of Alberta.
Swimming performance tests of fish have been integral to studies of muscle energetics, swimming mechanics, gas exchange, cardiac physiology, disease, pollution, hypoxia and temperature. This paper describes a flexible protocol to assess fish swimming performance using equipment in which water velocity can be controlled. The protocol involves one to several stepped increases in flow speed that are intended to cause fish to fatigue. Step speeds and their duration can be set to capture swimming abilities of different physiological and ecological relevance. Most frequently step size is set to determine critical swimming velocity (Ucrit
), which is intended to capture maximum sustained swimming ability. Traditionally this test has consisted of approximately ten steps each of 20 min duration. However, steps of shorter duration (e.g. 1 min) are increasingly being utilized to capture acceleration ability or burst swimming performance. Regardless of step size, swimming tests can be repeated over time to gauge individual variation and recovery ability. Endpoints related to swimming such as measures of metabolic rate, fin use, ventilation rate, and of behavior, such as the distance between schooling fish, are often included before, during and after swimming tests. Given the diversity of fish species, the number of unexplored research questions, and the importance of many species to global ecology and economic health, studies of fish swimming performance will remain popular and invaluable for the foreseeable future.
Physiology, Issue 51, fish, swimming, Ucrit, burst, sustained, prolonged, schooling performance
In vivo Bioluminescence Imaging of Tumor Hypoxia Dynamics of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis in a Mouse Model
Institutions: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center , University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center , Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine.
It is well recognized that tumor hypoxia plays an important role in promoting malignant progression and affecting therapeutic response negatively. There is little knowledge about in situ, in vivo,
tumor hypoxia during intracranial development of malignant brain tumors because of lack of efficient means to monitor it in these deep-seated orthotopic tumors. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI), based on the detection of light emitted by living cells expressing a luciferase gene, has been rapidly adopted for cancer research, in particular, to evaluate tumor growth or tumor size changes in response to treatment in preclinical animal studies. Moreover, by expressing a reporter gene under the control of a promoter sequence, the specific gene expression can be monitored non-invasively by BLI. Under hypoxic stress, signaling responses are mediated mainly via the hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) to drive transcription of various genes. Therefore, we have used a HIF-1α reporter construct, 5HRE-ODD-luc, stably transfected into human breast cancer MDA-MB231 cells (MDA-MB231/5HRE-ODD-luc). In vitro
HIF-1α bioluminescence assay is performed by incubating the transfected cells in a hypoxic chamber (0.1% O2
) for 24 hr before BLI, while the cells in normoxia (21% O2
) serve as a control. Significantly higher photon flux observed for the cells under hypoxia suggests an increased HIF-1α binding to its promoter (HRE elements), as compared to those in normoxia. Cells are injected directly into the mouse brain to establish a breast cancer brain metastasis model. In vivo
bioluminescence imaging of tumor hypoxia dynamics is initiated 2 wks after implantation and repeated once a week. BLI reveals increasing light signals from the brain as the tumor progresses, indicating increased intracranial tumor hypoxia. Histological and immunohistochemical studies are used to confirm the in vivo
imaging results. Here, we will introduce approaches of in vitro
HIF-1α bioluminescence assay, surgical establishment of a breast cancer brain metastasis in a nude mouse and application of in vivo
bioluminescence imaging to monitor intracranial tumor hypoxia.
Medicine, Issue 56, bioluminescence imaging (BLI), tumor hypoxia dynamics, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), breast cancer brain metastasis
Creating Defined Gaseous Environments to Study the Effects of Hypoxia on C. elegans
Institutions: University of Washington, University of Washington.
Oxygen is essential for all metazoans to survive, with one known exception1
. Decreased O2
availability (hypoxia) can arise during states of disease, normal development or changes in environmental conditions2-5
. Understanding the cellular signaling pathways that are involved in the response to hypoxia could provide new insight into treatment strategies for diverse human pathologies, from stroke to cancer. This goal has been impeded, at least in part, by technical difficulties associated with controlled hypoxic exposure in genetically amenable model organisms.
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
is ideally suited as a model organism for the study of hypoxic response, as it is easy to culture and genetically manipulate. Moreover, it is possible to study cellular responses to specific hypoxic O2
concentrations without confounding effects since C. elegans
(and other gasses) by diffusion, as opposed to a facilitated respiratory system6
. Factors known to be involved in the response to hypoxia are conserved in C. elegans
. The actual response to hypoxia depends on the specific concentration of O2
that is available. In C. elegans
, exposure to moderate hypoxia elicits a transcriptional response mediated largely by hif-1
, the highly-conserved hypoxia-inducible transcription factor6-9
. C .elegans
embryos require hif-1
to survive in 5,000-20,000 ppm O27,10
. Hypoxia is a general term for "less than normal O2
". Normoxia (normal O2
) can also be difficult to define. We generally consider room air, which is 210,000 ppm O2
to be normoxia. However, it has been shown that C. elegans
has a behavioral preference for O2
concentrations from 5-12% (50,000-120,000 ppm O2
. In larvae and adults, hif-1
acts to prevent hypoxia-induced diapause in 5,000 ppm O212
. However, hif-1
does not play a role in the response to lower concentrations of O2
(anoxia, operational definition <10 ppm O2
. In anoxia, C. elegans
enters into a reversible state of suspended animation in which all microscopically observable activity ceases10
. The fact that different physiological responses occur in different conditions highlights the importance of having experimental control over the hypoxic concentration of O2
Here, we present a method for the construction and implementation of environmental chambers that produce reliable and reproducible hypoxic conditions with defined concentrations of O2
. The continual flow method ensures rapid equilibration of the chamber and increases the stability of the system. Additionally, the transparency and accessibility of the chambers allow for direct visualization of animals being exposed to hypoxia. We further demonstrate an effective method of harvesting C. elegans
samples rapidly after exposure to hypoxia, which is necessary to observe many of the rapidly-reversed changes that occur in hypoxia10,14
. This method provides a basic foundation that can be easily modified for individual laboratory needs, including different model systems and a variety of gasses.
Biochemistry, Issue 65, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Genetics, Developmental Biology, C. elegans, hypoxia, hypoxia inducible factor-1 (hif-1), anoxia, oxygen
Analysis of Oxidative Stress in Zebrafish Embryos
Institutions: University of Torino, Vesalius Research Center, VIB.
High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause a change of cellular redox state towards oxidative stress condition. This situation causes oxidation of molecules (lipid, DNA, protein) and leads to cell death. Oxidative stress also impacts the progression of several pathological conditions such as diabetes, retinopathies, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Thus, it is important to define tools to investigate oxidative stress conditions not only at the level of single cells but also in the context of whole organisms. Here, we consider the zebrafish embryo as a useful in vivo
system to perform such studies and present a protocol to measure in vivo
oxidative stress. Taking advantage of fluorescent ROS probes and zebrafish transgenic fluorescent lines, we develop two different methods to measure oxidative stress in vivo
: i) a “whole embryo ROS-detection method” for qualitative measurement of oxidative stress and ii) a “single-cell ROS detection method” for quantitative measurements of oxidative stress. Herein, we demonstrate the efficacy of these procedures by increasing oxidative stress in tissues by oxidant agents and physiological or genetic methods. This protocol is amenable for forward genetic screens and it will help address cause-effect relationships of ROS in animal models of oxidative stress-related pathologies such as neurological disorders and cancer.
Developmental Biology, Issue 89, Danio rerio, zebrafish embryos, endothelial cells, redox state analysis, oxidative stress detection, in vivo ROS measurements, FACS (fluorescence activated cell sorter), molecular probes
Inducing Plasticity of Astrocytic Receptors by Manipulation of Neuronal Firing Rates
Institutions: University of California Riverside, University of California Riverside, University of California Riverside.
Close to two decades of research has established that astrocytes in situ
and in vivo
express numerous G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that can be stimulated by neuronally-released transmitter. However, the ability of astrocytic receptors to exhibit plasticity in response to changes in neuronal activity has received little attention. Here we describe a model system that can be used to globally scale up or down astrocytic group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in acute brain slices. Included are methods on how to prepare parasagittal hippocampal slices, construct chambers suitable for long-term slice incubation, bidirectionally manipulate neuronal action potential frequency, load astrocytes and astrocyte processes with fluorescent Ca2+
indicator, and measure changes in astrocytic Gq GPCR activity by recording spontaneous and evoked astrocyte Ca2+
events using confocal microscopy. In essence, a “calcium roadmap” is provided for how to measure plasticity of astrocytic Gq GPCRs. Applications of the technique for study of astrocytes are discussed. Having an understanding of how astrocytic receptor signaling is affected by changes in neuronal activity has important implications for both normal synaptic function as well as processes underlying neurological disorders and neurodegenerative disease.
Neuroscience, Issue 85, astrocyte, plasticity, mGluRs, neuronal Firing, electrophysiology, Gq GPCRs, Bolus-loading, calcium, microdomains, acute slices, Hippocampus, mouse
Pre-clinical Evaluation of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Treatment of Acute Leukemia
Institutions: University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, University Hospital of Essen.
Receptor tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the development and progression of many cancers, including both leukemia and solid tumors, and are attractive druggable therapeutic targets. Here we describe an efficient four-step strategy for pre-clinical evaluation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of acute leukemia. Initially, western blot analysis is used to confirm target inhibition in cultured leukemia cells. Functional activity is then evaluated using clonogenic assays in methylcellulose or soft agar cultures. Experimental compounds that demonstrate activity in cell culture assays are evaluated in vivo
using NOD-SCID-gamma (NSG) mice transplanted orthotopically with human leukemia cell lines. Initial in vivo
pharmacodynamic studies evaluate target inhibition in leukemic blasts isolated from the bone marrow. This approach is used to determine the dose and schedule of administration required for effective target inhibition. Subsequent studies evaluate the efficacy of the TKIs in vivo
using luciferase expressing leukemia cells, thereby allowing for non-invasive bioluminescent monitoring of leukemia burden and assessment of therapeutic response using an in vivo
bioluminescence imaging system. This strategy has been effective for evaluation of TKIs in vitro
and in vivo
and can be applied for identification of molecularly-targeted agents with therapeutic potential or for direct comparison and prioritization of multiple compounds.
Medicine, Issue 79, Leukemia, Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Therapeutics, novel small molecule inhibitor, receptor tyrosine kinase, leukemia
Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model System to Study Protein Homeostasis in a Multicellular Organism
Institutions: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.
The folding and assembly of proteins is essential for protein function, the long-term health of the cell, and longevity of the organism. Historically, the function and regulation of protein folding was studied in vitro
, in isolated tissue culture cells and in unicellular organisms. Recent studies have uncovered links between protein homeostasis (proteostasis), metabolism, development, aging, and temperature-sensing. These findings have led to the development of new tools for monitoring protein folding in the model metazoan organism Caenorhabditis elegans
. In our laboratory, we combine behavioral assays, imaging and biochemical approaches using temperature-sensitive or naturally occurring metastable proteins as sensors of the folding environment to monitor protein misfolding. Behavioral assays that are associated with the misfolding of a specific protein provide a simple and powerful readout for protein folding, allowing for the fast screening of genes and conditions that modulate folding. Likewise, such misfolding can be associated with protein mislocalization in the cell. Monitoring protein localization can, therefore, highlight changes in cellular folding capacity occurring in different tissues, at various stages of development and in the face of changing conditions. Finally, using biochemical tools ex vivo
, we can directly monitor protein stability and conformation. Thus, by combining behavioral assays, imaging and biochemical techniques, we are able to monitor protein misfolding at the resolution of the organism, the cell, and the protein, respectively.
Biochemistry, Issue 82, aging, Caenorhabditis elegans, heat shock response, neurodegenerative diseases, protein folding homeostasis, proteostasis, stress, temperature-sensitive
Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro
model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2
on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3
cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro
BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
Modeling Neural Immune Signaling of Episodic and Chronic Migraine Using Spreading Depression In Vitro
Institutions: The University of Chicago Medical Center, The University of Chicago Medical Center.
Migraine and its transformation to chronic migraine are healthcare burdens in need of improved treatment options. We seek to define how neural immune signaling modulates the susceptibility to migraine, modeled in vitro
using spreading depression (SD), as a means to develop novel therapeutic targets for episodic and chronic migraine. SD is the likely cause of migraine aura and migraine pain. It is a paroxysmal loss of neuronal function triggered by initially increased neuronal activity, which slowly propagates within susceptible brain regions. Normal brain function is exquisitely sensitive to, and relies on, coincident low-level immune signaling. Thus, neural immune signaling likely affects electrical activity of SD, and therefore migraine. Pain perception studies of SD in whole animals are fraught with difficulties, but whole animals are well suited to examine systems biology aspects of migraine since SD activates trigeminal nociceptive pathways. However, whole animal studies alone cannot be used to decipher the cellular and neural circuit mechanisms of SD. Instead, in vitro
preparations where environmental conditions can be controlled are necessary. Here, it is important to recognize limitations of acute slices and distinct advantages of hippocampal slice cultures. Acute brain slices cannot reveal subtle changes in immune signaling since preparing the slices alone triggers: pro-inflammatory changes that last days, epileptiform behavior due to high levels of oxygen tension needed to vitalize the slices, and irreversible cell injury at anoxic slice centers.
In contrast, we examine immune signaling in mature hippocampal slice cultures since the cultures closely parallel their in vivo
counterpart with mature trisynaptic function; show quiescent astrocytes, microglia, and cytokine levels; and SD is easily induced in an unanesthetized preparation. Furthermore, the slices are long-lived and SD can be induced on consecutive days without injury, making this preparation the sole means to-date capable of modeling the neuroimmune consequences of chronic SD, and thus perhaps chronic migraine. We use electrophysiological techniques and non-invasive imaging to measure
neuronal cell and circuit functions coincident with SD. Neural immune gene expression variables are measured with qPCR screening, qPCR arrays, and, importantly, use of cDNA preamplification for detection of ultra-low level targets such as interferon-gamma using whole, regional, or specific cell enhanced (via laser dissection microscopy) sampling. Cytokine cascade signaling is further assessed with multiplexed phosphoprotein related targets with gene expression and phosphoprotein changes confirmed via cell-specific immunostaining. Pharmacological and siRNA strategies are used to mimic
SD immune signaling.
Neuroscience, Issue 52, innate immunity, hormesis, microglia, T-cells, hippocampus, slice culture, gene expression, laser dissection microscopy, real-time qPCR, interferon-gamma
Strategies for Study of Neuroprotection from Cold-preconditioning
Institutions: The University of Chicago Medical Center.
Neurological injury is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality from general anesthesia and related surgical procedures that could be alleviated by development of effective, easy to administer and safe preconditioning treatments. We seek to define the neural immune signaling responsible for cold-preconditioning as means to identify novel targets for therapeutics development to protect brain before injury onset. Low-level pro-inflammatory mediator signaling changes over time are essential for cold-preconditioning neuroprotection. This signaling is consistent with the basic tenets of physiological conditioning hormesis, which require that irritative stimuli reach a threshold magnitude with sufficient time for adaptation to the stimuli for protection to become evident.
Accordingly, delineation of the immune signaling involved in cold-preconditioning neuroprotection requires that biological systems and experimental manipulations plus technical capacities are highly reproducible and sensitive. Our approach is to use hippocampal slice cultures as an in vitro
model that closely reflects their in vivo
counterparts with multi-synaptic neural networks influenced by mature and quiescent macroglia / microglia. This glial state is particularly important for microglia since they are the principal source of cytokines, which are operative in the femtomolar range. Also, slice cultures can be maintained in vitro
for several weeks, which is sufficient time to evoke activating stimuli and assess adaptive responses. Finally, environmental conditions can be accurately controlled using slice cultures so that cytokine signaling of cold-preconditioning can be measured, mimicked, and modulated to dissect the critical node aspects. Cytokine signaling system analyses require the use of sensitive and reproducible multiplexed techniques. We use quantitative PCR for TNF-α to screen for microglial activation followed by quantitative real-time qPCR array screening to assess tissue-wide cytokine changes. The latter is a most sensitive and reproducible means to measure multiple cytokine system signaling changes simultaneously. Significant changes are confirmed with targeted qPCR and then protein detection. We probe for tissue-based cytokine protein changes using multiplexed microsphere flow cytometric assays using Luminex technology. Cell-specific cytokine production is determined with double-label immunohistochemistry. Taken together, this brain tissue preparation and style of use, coupled to the suggested investigative strategies, may be an optimal approach for identifying potential targets for the development of novel therapeutics that could mimic the advantages of cold-preconditioning.
Neuroscience, Issue 43, innate immunity, hormesis, microglia, hippocampus, slice culture, immunohistochemistry, neural-immune, gene expression, real-time PCR
Induction and Testing of Hypoxia in Cell Culture
Institutions: Baylor College of Medicine.
Hypoxia is defined as the reduction or lack of oxygen in organs, tissues, or cells. This decrease of oxygen tension can be due to a reduced supply in oxygen (causes include insufficient blood vessel network, defective blood vessel, and anemia) or to an increased consumption of oxygen relative to the supply (caused by a sudden higher cell proliferation rate). Hypoxia can be physiologic or pathologic such as in solid cancers 1-3
, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis etc… Each tissues and cells have a different ability to adapt to this new condition. During hypoxia, hypoxia inducible factor alpha (HIF) is stabilized and regulates various genes such as those involved in angiogenesis or transport of oxygen 4
. The stabilization of this protein is a hallmark of hypoxia, therefore detecting HIF is routinely used to screen for hypoxia 5-7
In this article, we propose two simple methods to induce hypoxia in mammalian cell cultures and simple tests to evaluate the hypoxic status of these cells.
Cell Biology, Issue 54, mammalian cell, hypoxia, anoxia, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), reoxygenation, normoxia
Free Radicals in Chemical Biology: from Chemical Behavior to Biomarker Development
Institutions: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche.
The involvement of free radicals in life sciences has constantly increased with time and has been connected to several physiological and pathological processes. This subject embraces diverse scientific areas, spanning from physical, biological and bioorganic chemistry to biology and medicine, with applications to the amelioration of quality of life, health and aging. Multidisciplinary skills are required for the full investigation of the many facets of radical processes in the biological environment and chemical knowledge plays a crucial role in unveiling basic processes and mechanisms. We developed a chemical biology approach able to connect free radical chemical reactivity with biological processes, providing information on the mechanistic pathways and products. The core of this approach is the design of biomimetic models to study biomolecule behavior (lipids, nucleic acids and proteins) in aqueous systems, obtaining insights of the reaction pathways as well as building up molecular libraries of the free radical reaction products. This context can be successfully used for biomarker discovery and examples are provided with two classes of compounds: mono-trans isomers of cholesteryl esters, which are synthesized and used as references for detection in human plasma, and purine 5',8-cyclo-2'-deoxyribonucleosides, prepared and used as reference in the protocol for detection of such lesions in DNA samples, after ionizing radiations or obtained from different health conditions.
Chemistry, Issue 74, Biochemistry, Chemical Engineering, Chemical Biology, chemical analysis techniques, chemistry (general), life sciences, radiation effects (biological, animal and plant), biomarker, biomimetic chemistry, free radicals, trans lipids, cyclopurine lesions, DNA, chromatography, spectroscopy, synthesis
A Swine Model of Neonatal Asphyxia
Institutions: University of Alberta, University of Alberta.
Annually more than 1 million neonates die worldwide as related to asphyxia. Asphyxiated neonates commonly have multi-organ failure including hypotension, perfusion deficit, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, pulmonary hypertension, vasculopathic enterocolitis, renal failure and thrombo-embolic complications. Animal models are developed to help us understand the patho-physiology and pharmacology of neonatal asphyxia. In comparison to rodents and newborn lambs, the newborn piglet has been proven to be a valuable model. The newborn piglet has several advantages including similar development as that of 36-38 weeks human fetus with comparable body systems, large body size (˜1.5-2 kg at birth) that allows the instrumentation and monitoring of the animal and controls the confounding variables of hypoxia and hemodynamic derangements.
We here describe an experimental protocol to simulate neonatal asphyxia and allow us to examine the systemic and regional hemodynamic changes during the asphyxiating and reoxygenation process as well as the respective effects of interventions. Further, the model has the advantage of studying multi-organ failure or dysfunction simultaneously and the interaction with various body systems. The experimental model is a non-survival procedure that involves the surgical instrumentation of newborn piglets (1-3 day-old and 1.5-2.5 kg weight, mixed breed) to allow the establishment of mechanical ventilation, vascular (arterial and central venous) access and the placement of catheters and flow probes (Transonic Inc.) for the continuously monitoring of intra-vascular pressure and blood flow across different arteries including main pulmonary, common carotid, superior mesenteric and left renal arteries. Using these surgically instrumented piglets, after stabilization for 30-60 minutes as defined by Z<10% variation in hemodynamic parameters and normal blood gases, we commence an experimental protocol of severe hypoxemia which is induced via normocapnic alveolar hypoxia. The piglet is ventilated with 10-15% oxygen by increasing the inhaled concentration of nitrogen gas for 2h, aiming for arterial oxygen saturations of 30-40%. This degree of hypoxemia will produce clinical asphyxia with severe metabolic acidosis, systemic hypotension and cardiogenic shock with hypoperfusion to vital organs. The hypoxia is followed by reoxygenation with 100% oxygen for 0.5h and then 21% oxygen for 3.5h. Pharmacologic interventions can be introduced in due course and their effects investigated in a blinded, block-randomized fashion.
Medicine, Issue 56, Developmental Biology, pigs, newborn, hypoxia, asphyxia, reoxygenation