Neurological injury is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality from general anesthesia and related surgical procedures that could be alleviated by development of effective, easy to administer and safe preconditioning treatments. We seek to define the neural immune signaling responsible for cold-preconditioning as means to identify novel targets for therapeutics development to protect brain before injury onset. Low-level pro-inflammatory mediator signaling changes over time are essential for cold-preconditioning neuroprotection. This signaling is consistent with the basic tenets of physiological conditioning hormesis, which require that irritative stimuli reach a threshold magnitude with sufficient time for adaptation to the stimuli for protection to become evident.
Accordingly, delineation of the immune signaling involved in cold-preconditioning neuroprotection requires that biological systems and experimental manipulations plus technical capacities are highly reproducible and sensitive. Our approach is to use hippocampal slice cultures as an in vitro model that closely reflects their in vivo counterparts with multi-synaptic neural networks influenced by mature and quiescent macroglia / microglia. This glial state is particularly important for microglia since they are the principal source of cytokines, which are operative in the femtomolar range. Also, slice cultures can be maintained in vitro for several weeks, which is sufficient time to evoke activating stimuli and assess adaptive responses. Finally, environmental conditions can be accurately controlled using slice cultures so that cytokine signaling of cold-preconditioning can be measured, mimicked, and modulated to dissect the critical node aspects. Cytokine signaling system analyses require the use of sensitive and reproducible multiplexed techniques. We use quantitative PCR for TNF-α to screen for microglial activation followed by quantitative real-time qPCR array screening to assess tissue-wide cytokine changes. The latter is a most sensitive and reproducible means to measure multiple cytokine system signaling changes simultaneously. Significant changes are confirmed with targeted qPCR and then protein detection. We probe for tissue-based cytokine protein changes using multiplexed microsphere flow cytometric assays using Luminex technology. Cell-specific cytokine production is determined with double-label immunohistochemistry. Taken together, this brain tissue preparation and style of use, coupled to the suggested investigative strategies, may be an optimal approach for identifying potential targets for the development of novel therapeutics that could mimic the advantages of cold-preconditioning.
27 Related JoVE Articles!
Screening Assay for Oxidative Stress in a Feline Astrocyte Cell Line, G355-5
Institutions: Western University of Health Sciences, Western University of Health Sciences, Products.
An often-suggested mechanism of virus induced neuronal damage is oxidative stress. Astrocytes have an important role in controlling oxidative stress of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Astrocytes help maintain a homeostatic environment for neurons as well as protecting neurons from Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). CM-H2DCFDA is a cell-permeable indicator for the presence of ROS. CM-H2
DCFDA enters the cell as a non-fluorescent compound, and becomes fluorescent after cellular esterases remove the acetate groups, and the compound is oxidized. The number of cells, measured by flow cytometry, that are found to be green fluorescing is an indication of the number of cells that are in an oxidative state. CM-H2
DCFDA is susceptible to oxidation by a large number of different ROS. This lack of specificity, regarding which ROS can oxidize CM-H2
DCFDA, makes this compound a valuable regent for use in the early stages of a pathogenesis investigation, as this assay can be used to screen for an oxidative cellular environment regardless of which oxygen radical or combination of ROS are responsible for the cellular conditions. Once it has been established that ROS are present by oxidation of CM-H2
DCFDA, then additional experiments can be performed to determine which ROS or combination of ROSs are involved in the particular pathogenesis process. The results of this study demonstrate that with the addition of hydrogen peroxide an increase in CM-H2
DCFDA fluoresce was detected relative to the saline controls, indicating that this assay is a valuable test for detecting an oxidative environment within G355-5 cells, a feline astrocyte cell line.
Neuroscience, Issue 53, Astrocytes, oxidative stress, flow cytometry, CM-H2DCFDA
Visualization of Endoplasmic Reticulum Localized mRNAs in Mammalian Cells
Institutions: University of Toronto.
In eukaryotes, most of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that encode secreted and membrane proteins are localized to the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, the visualization of these mRNAs can be challenging. This is especially true when only a fraction of the mRNA is ER-associated and their distribution to this organelle is obstructed by non-targeted (i.e.
"free") transcripts. In order to monitor ER-associated mRNAs, we have developed a method in which cells are treated with a short exposure to a digitonin extraction solution that selectively permeabilizes the plasma membrane, and thus removes the cytoplasmic contents, while simultaneously maintaining the integrity of the ER. When this method is coupled with fluorescent in situ
hybridization (FISH), one can clearly visualize ER-bound mRNAs by fluorescent microscopy. Using this protocol the degree of ER-association for either bulk poly(A) transcripts or specific mRNAs can be assessed and even quantified. In the process, one can use this assay to investigate the nature of mRNA-ER interactions.
Cellular Biology, Issue 70, Biochemistry, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Genomics, mRNA localization, RNA, digitonin extraction, cell fractionation, endoplasmic reticulum, secretion, microscopy, imaging, fluorescent in situ hybridization, FISH, cell biology
A high-throughput method to globally study the organelle morphology in S. cerevisiae
Institutions: University of British Columbia - UBC.
High-throughput methods to examine protein localization or organelle morphology is an effective tool for studying protein interactions and can help achieve an comprehensive understanding of molecular pathways. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with the development of the non-essential gene deletion array, we can globally study the morphology of different organelles like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondria using GFP (or variant)-markers in different gene backgrounds. However, incorporating GFP markers in each single mutant individually is a labor-intensive process. Here, we describe a procedure that is routinely used in our laboratory. By using a robotic system to handle high-density yeast arrays and drug selection techniques, we can significantly shorten the time required and improve reproducibility. In brief, we cross a GFP-tagged mitochondrial marker (Apc1-GFP) to a high-density array of 4,672 nonessential gene deletion mutants by robotic replica pinning. Through diploid selection, sporulation, germination and dual marker selection, we recover both alleles. As a result, each haploid single mutant contains Apc1-GFP incorporated at its genomic locus. Now, we can study the morphology of mitochondria in all non-essential mutant background. Using this high-throughput approach, we can conveniently study and delineate the pathways and genes involved in the inheritance and the formation of organelles in a genome-wide setting.
Microbiology, Issue 25, High throughput, confocal microscopy, Acp1, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Mouse Models of Periventricular Leukomalacia
Institutions: University of California, Davis.
We describe a protocol for establishing mouse models of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). PVL is the predominant form of brain injury in premature infants and the most common antecedent of cerebral palsy. PVL is characterized by periventricular white matter damage with prominent oligodendroglial injury. Hypoxia/ischemia with or without systemic infection/inflammation are the primary causes of PVL. We use P6 mice to create models of neonatal brain injury by the induction of hypoxia/ischemia with or without systemic infection/inflammation with unilateral carotid ligation followed by exposure to hypoxia with or without injection of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Immunohistochemistry of myelin basic protein (MBP) or O1 and electron microscopic examination show prominent myelin loss in cerebral white matter with additional damage to the hippocampus and thalamus. Establishment of mouse models of PVL will greatly facilitate the study of disease pathogenesis using available transgenic mouse strains, conduction of drug trials in a relatively high throughput manner to identify candidate therapeutic agents, and testing of stem cell transplantation using immunodeficiency mouse strains.
JoVE Neuroscience, Issue 39, brain, mouse, white matter injury, oligodendrocyte, periventricular leukomalacia
Isolation and Characterization of RNA-Containing Exosomes
Institutions: University of Gothenburg.
The field of exosome research is rapidly expanding, with a dramatic increase in publications in recent years. These small vesicles (30-100 nm) of endocytic origin were first proposed to function as a way for reticulocytes to eradicate the transferrin receptor while maturing into erythrocytes1
, and were later named exosomes. Exosomes are formed by inward budding of late endosomes, producing multivesicular bodies (MVBs), and are released into the environment by fusion of the MVBs with the plasma membrane2
. Since the first discovery of exosomes, a wide range of cells have been shown to release these vesicles. Exosomes have also been detected in several biological fluids, including plasma, nasal lavage fluid, saliva and breast milk3-6
. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the content and function of exosomes depends on the originating cell and the conditions under which they are produced. A variety of functions have been demonstrated for exosomes, such as induction of tolerance against allergen7,8
, eradication of established tumors in mice9
, inhibition and activation of natural killer cells10-12
, promotion of differentiation into T regulatory cells13
, stimulation of T cell proliferation14
and induction of T cell apoptosis15
. Year 2007 we demonstrated that exosomes released from mast cells contain messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA), and that the RNA can be shuttled from one cell to another via exosomes. In the recipient cells, the mRNA shuttled by exosomes was shown to be translated into protein, suggesting a regulatory function of the transferred RNA16
. Further, we have also shown that exosomes derived from cells grown under oxidative stress can induce tolerance against further stress in recipient cells and thus suggest a biological function of the exosomal shuttle RNA17
. Cell culture media and biological fluids contain a mixture of vesicles and shed fragments. A high quality isolation method for exosomes, followed by characterization and identification of the exosomes and their content, is therefore crucial to distinguish exosomes from other vesicles and particles. Here, we present a method for the isolation of exosomes from both cell culture medium and body fluids. This isolation method is based on repeated centrifugation and filtration steps, followed by a final ultracentrifugation step in which the exosomes are pelleted. Important methods to identify the exosomes and characterize the exosomal morphology and protein content are highlighted, including electron microscopy, flow cytometry and Western blot. The purification of the total exosomal RNA is based on spin column chromatography and the exosomal RNA yield and size distribution is analyzed using a Bioanalyzer.
Molecular Biology, Issue 59, Exosomes, microvesicles, mRNA, miRNA, RNA isolation, flow cytometry, electron microscopy, Western blot, Bioanalyzer
Glutamate and Hypoxia as a Stress Model for the Isolated Perfused Vertebrate Retina
Institutions: University Eye Hospital Tübingen.
Neuroprotection has been a strong field of investigation in ophthalmological research in the past decades and affects diseases such as glaucoma, retinal vascular occlusion, retinal detachment, and diabetic retinopathy. It was the object of this study to introduce a standardized stress model for future preclinical therapeutic testing.
Bovine retinas were prepared and perfused with an oxygen saturated standard solution, and the ERG was recorded. After recording stable b-waves, hypoxia (pure N2
) or glutamate stress (250 µm glutamate) was exerted for 45 min. To investigate the effects on photoreceptor function alone, 1 mM aspartate was added to obtain a-waves. ERG-recovery was monitored for 75 min.
For hypoxia, a decrease in a-wave amplitude of 87.0% was noted (p <0.01) after an exposition time of 45 min (decrease of 36.5% after the end of the washout p = 0.03). Additionally, an initial decrease in b-wave amplitudes of 87.23% was recorded, that reached statistical significance (p <0.01, decrease of 25.5% at the end of the washout, p = 0.03).
For 250 µm glutamate, an initial 7.8% reduction of a-wave amplitudes (p >0.05) followed by a reduction of 1.9% (p >0.05). A reduction of 83.7% of b-wave amplitudes (p <0.01) was noted; after a washout of 75 min the reduction was 2.3% (p = 0.62). In this study, a standardized stress model is presented that may be useful to identify possible neuroprotective effects in the future.
Medicine, Issue 97, Glutamate, Hypoxia, retinal toxicity, electroretinogram, intraocular toxicity, superfused retina
Real-Time Impedance-based Cell Analyzer as a Tool to Delineate Molecular Pathways Involved in Neurotoxicity and Neuroprotection in a Neuronal Cell Line
Institutions: University of Zürich.
Many brain-related disorders have neuronal cell death involved in their pathophysiology. Improved in vitro
models to study neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects of drugs and downstream pathways involved would help gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection/neurotoxicity and could potentially facilitate drug development. However, many existing in vitro
toxicity assays have major limitations – most assess neurotoxicity and neuroprotection at a single time point, not allowing to observe the time-course and kinetics of the effect. Furthermore, the opportunity to collect information about downstream signaling pathways involved in neuroprotection in real-time would be of great importance. In the current protocol we describe the use of a real-time impedance-based cell analyzer to determine neuroprotective effects of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A
) receptor agonists in a neuronal cell line under label-free and real-time conditions using impedance measurements. Furthermore, we demonstrate that inhibitors of second messenger pathways can be used to delineate downstream molecules involved in the neuroprotective effect. We also describe the utility of this technique to determine whether an effect on cell proliferation contributes to an observed neuroprotective effect. The system utilizes special microelectronic plates referred to as E-Plates which contain alternating gold microelectrode arrays on the bottom surface of the wells, serving as cell sensors. The impedance readout is modified by the number of adherent cells, cell viability, morphology, and adhesion. A dimensionless parameter called Cell Index is derived from the electrical impedance measurements and is used to represent the cell status. Overall, the real-time impedance-based cell analyzer allows for real-time, label-free assessment of neuroprotection and neurotoxicity, and the evaluation of second messenger pathways involvement, contributing to more detailed and high-throughput assessment of potential neuroprotective compounds in vitro
, for selecting therapeutic candidates.
Neuroscience, Issue 90,
neuroscience, neuronal cell line, neurotoxicity, neuroprotection, real-time impedance-based cell analyzer, second messenger pathways, serotonin
Experimental Methods for Testing the Effects of Neurotrophic Peptide, ADNF-9, Against Alcohol-induced Apoptosis during Pregnancy in C57BL/6 Mice
Institutions: University of Toledo .
Experimental designs for investigating the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure during early embryonic stages in fetal brain growth are challenging. This is mostly due to the difficulty of microdissection of fetal brains and their sectioning for determination of apoptotic cells caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. The experiments described here provide visualized techniques from mice breeding to the identification of cell death in fetal brain tissue. This study used C57BL/6 mice as the animal model for studying fetal alcohol exposure and the role of trophic peptide against alcohol-induced apoptosis. The breeding consists of a 2-hr matting window to determine the exact stage of embryonic age. An established fetal alcohol exposure model has been used in this study to determine the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in fetal brains. This involves free access to alcohol or pair-fed liquid diets as the sole source of nutrients for the pregnant mice.
The techniques involving dissection of fetuses and microdissection of fetal brains are described carefully, since the latter can be challenging. Microdissection requires a stereomicroscope and ultra-fine forceps. Step-by-step procedures for dissecting the fetal brains are provided visually. The fetal brains are dissected from the base of the primordium olfactory bulb to the base of the metencephalon.
For investigating apoptosis, fetal brains are first embedded in gelatin using a peel-away mold to facilitate their sectioning with a vibratome apparatus. Fetal brains embedded and fixed in paraformaldehyde are easily sectioned, and the free floating sections can be mounted in superfrost plus slides for determination of apoptosis or cell death.
TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling; TdT: terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase) assay has been used to identify cell death or apoptotic cells. It is noteworthy that apoptosis and cell-mediated cytotoxicity are characterized by DNA fragmentation. Thus, the visualized TUNEL-positive cells are indicative of cell death or apoptotic cells.
The experimental designs here provide information about the use of an established liquid diet for studying the effects of alcohol and the role of neurotrophic peptides during pregnancy in fetal brains. This involves breeding and feeding pregnant mice, microdissecting fetal brains, and determining apoptosis. Together, these visual and textual techniques might be a source for investigating prenatal exposure of harmful agents in fetal brains.
Neuroscience, Issue 74, Developmental Biology, Neurobiology, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biochemsitry, Biomedical Engineering, Pharmacology, Embryonic Structures, Nervous System, Nervous System Diseases, Neurotrophic Peptides, TUNEL, Apoptosis, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Neuroprotection, fetal brain sections, transgenic mice, animal model, assay
Sex Stratified Neuronal Cultures to Study Ischemic Cell Death Pathways
Institutions: University of Colorado School of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, University of Colorado School of Medicine.
Sex differences in neuronal susceptibility to ischemic injury and neurodegenerative disease have long been observed, but the signaling mechanisms responsible for those differences remain unclear. Primary disassociated embryonic neuronal culture provides a simplified experimental model with which to investigate the neuronal cell signaling involved in cell death as a result of ischemia or disease; however, most neuronal cultures used in research today are mixed sex. Researchers can and do test the effects of sex steroid treatment in mixed sex neuronal cultures in models of neuronal injury and disease, but accumulating evidence suggests that the female brain responds to androgens, estrogens, and progesterone differently than the male brain. Furthermore, neonate male and female rodents respond differently to ischemic injury, with males experiencing greater injury following cerebral ischemia than females. Thus, mixed sex neuronal cultures might obscure and confound the experimental results; important information might be missed. For this reason, the Herson Lab at the University of Colorado School of Medicine routinely prepares sex-stratified primary disassociated embryonic neuronal cultures from both hippocampus and cortex. Embryos are sexed before harvesting of brain tissue and male and female tissue are disassociated separately, plated separately, and maintained separately. Using this method, the Herson Lab has demonstrated a male-specific role for the ion channel TRPM2 in ischemic cell death. In this manuscript, we share and discuss our protocol for sexing embryonic mice and preparing sex-stratified hippocampal primary disassociated neuron cultures. This method can be adapted to prepare sex-stratified cortical cultures and the method for embryo sexing can be used in conjunction with other protocols for any study in which sex is thought to be an important determinant of outcome.
Neuroscience, Issue 82, male, female, sex, neuronal culture, ischemia, cell death, neuroprotection
Remote Limb Ischemic Preconditioning: A Neuroprotective Technique in Rodents
Institutions: University of Sydney.
Sublethal ischemia protects tissues against subsequent, more severe ischemia through the upregulation of endogenous mechanisms in the affected tissue. Sublethal ischemia has also been shown to upregulate protective mechanisms in remote tissues. A brief period of ischemia (5-10 min) in the hind limb of mammals induces self-protective responses in the brain, lung, heart and retina. The effect is known as remote ischemic preconditioning (RIP). It is a therapeutically promising way of protecting vital organs, and is already under clinical trials for heart and brain injuries. This publication demonstrates a controlled, minimally invasive method of making a limb – specifically the hind limb of a rat – ischemic. A blood pressure cuff developed for use in human neonates is connected to a manual sphygmomanometer and used to apply 160 mmHg pressure around the upper part of the hind limb. A probe designed to detect skin temperature is used to verify the ischemia, by recording the drop in skin temperature caused by pressure-induced occlusion of the leg arteries, and the rise in temperature which follows release of the cuff. This method of RIP affords protection to the rat retina against bright light-induced damage and degeneration.
Medicine, Issue 100, remote ischemic preconditioning, ischemic conditioning, ischemic tolerance, light injury, neuroprotection, mediated neuroprotection, stroke, retina, electroretinogram, rat
Quantification of Neurovascular Protection Following Repetitive Hypoxic Preconditioning and Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Mice
Institutions: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Washington University School of Medicine.
Experimental animal models of stroke are invaluable tools for understanding stroke pathology and developing more effective treatment strategies. A 2 week protocol for repetitive hypoxic preconditioning (RHP) induces long-term protection against central nervous system (CNS) injury in a mouse model of focal ischemic stroke. RHP consists of 9 stochastic exposures to hypoxia that vary in both duration (2 or 4 hr) and intensity (8% and 11% O2
). RHP reduces infarct volumes, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and the post-stroke inflammatory response for weeks following the last exposure to hypoxia, suggesting a long-term induction of an endogenous CNS-protective phenotype. The methodology for the dual quantification of infarct volume and BBB disruption is effective in assessing neurovascular protection in mice with RHP or other putative neuroprotectants. Adult male Swiss Webster mice were preconditioned by RHP or duration-equivalent exposures to 21% O2
room air). A 60 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) was induced 2 weeks following the last hypoxic exposure. Both the occlusion and reperfusion were confirmed by transcranial laser Doppler flowmetry. Twenty-two hr after reperfusion, Evans Blue (EB) was intravenously administered through a tail vein injection. 2 hr later, animals were sacrificed by isoflurane overdose and brain sections were stained with 2,3,5- triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). Infarcts volumes were then quantified. Next, EB was extracted from the tissue over 48 hr to determine BBB disruption after tMCAo. In summary, RHP is a simple protocol that can be replicated, with minimal cost, to induce long-term endogenous neurovascular protection from stroke injury in mice, with the translational potential for other CNS-based and systemic pro-inflammatory disease states.
Medicine, Issue 99, Hypoxia, preconditioning, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, stroke, neuroprotection, blood-brain barrier disruption
Using the Electroretinogram to Assess Function in the Rodent Retina and the Protective Effects of Remote Limb Ischemic Preconditioning
Institutions: University of Sydney.
The ERG is the sum of all retinal activity. The ERG is usually recorded from the cornea, which acts as an antenna that collects and sums signals from the retina. The ERG is a sensitive measure of changes in retinal function that are pan-retinal, but is less effective for detecting damage confined to a small area of retina. In the present work we describe how to record the ‘flash’ ERG, which is the potential generated when the retina is exposed to a brief light flash. We describe methods of anaesthesia, mydriasis and corneal management during recording; how to keep the retina dark adapted; electrode materials and placement; the range and calibration of stimulus energy; recording parameters and the extraction of data. We also describe a method of inducing ischemia in one limb, and how to use the ERG to assess the effects of this remote-from-the-retina ischemia on retinal function after light damage. A two-flash protocol is described which allows isolation of the cone-driven component of the dark-adapted ERG, and thereby the separation of the rod and cone components. Because it can be recorded with techniques that are minimally invasive, the ERG has been widely used in studies of the physiology, pharmacology and toxicology of the retina. We describe one example of this usefulness, in which the ERG is used to assess the function of the light-damaged retina, with and without a neuroprotective intervention; preconditioning by remote ischemia.
Neuroscience, Issue 100, remote ischemic preconditioning, ischemic tolerance, ischemic preconditioning, neuroprotection, retinal degeneration, light damage, photoreceptors, retina, electroretinogram, rat, mouse
Targeted Expression of GFP in the Hair Follicle Using Ex Vivo Viral Transduction
Institutions: AntiCancer, Inc..
There are many cell types in the hair follicle, including hair matrix cells which form the hair shaft and stem cells which can initiate the hair shaft during early anagen, the growth phase of the hair cycle, as well as pluripotent stem cells that play a role in hair follicle growth but have the potential to differentiate to non-follicle cells such as neurons. These properties of the hair follicle are discussed. The various cell types of the hair follicle are potential targets for gene therapy. Gene delivery system for the hair follicle using viral vectors or liposomes for gene targeting to the various cell types in the hair follicle and the results obtained are also discussed.
Cellular Biology, Issue 13, Springer Protocols, hair follicles, liposomes, adenovirus, genes, stem cells
Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation and Reoxygenation as an In Vitro Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Model for Studying Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction
Institutions: Texas A&M University Health Science Center College of Medicine, Baylor Scott & White Health.
Ischemia-Reperfusion (IR) injury is known to contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality associated with ischemic strokes. Ischemic cerebrovascular accidents account for 80% of all strokes. A common cause of IR injury is the rapid inflow of fluids following an acute/chronic occlusion of blood, nutrients, oxygen to the tissue triggering the formation of free radicals.
Ischemic stroke is followed by blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and vasogenic brain edema. Structurally, tight junctions (TJs) between the endothelial cells play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). IR injury is an early secondary injury leading to a non-specific, inflammatory response. Oxidative and metabolic stress following inflammation triggers secondary brain damage including BBB permeability and disruption of tight junction (TJ) integrity.
Our protocol presents an in vitro
example of oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD-R) on rat brain endothelial cell TJ integrity and stress fiber formation. Currently, several experimental in vivo
models are used to study the effects of IR injury; however they have several limitations, such as the technical challenges in performing surgeries, gene dependent molecular influences and difficulty in studying mechanistic relationships. However, in vitro
models may aid in overcoming many of those limitations. The presented protocol can be used to study the various molecular mechanisms and mechanistic relationships to provide potential therapeutic strategies. However, the results of in vitro
studies may differ from standard in vivo
studies and should be interpreted with caution.
Medicine, Issue 99, Oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation, ischemia-reperfusion injury, blood-brain barrier, brain endothelial cells, tight junctions, immunofluorescence, f-actin staining
Analysis of Oxidative Stress in Zebrafish Embryos
Institutions: University of Torino, Vesalius Research Center, VIB.
High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause a change of cellular redox state towards oxidative stress condition. This situation causes oxidation of molecules (lipid, DNA, protein) and leads to cell death. Oxidative stress also impacts the progression of several pathological conditions such as diabetes, retinopathies, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Thus, it is important to define tools to investigate oxidative stress conditions not only at the level of single cells but also in the context of whole organisms. Here, we consider the zebrafish embryo as a useful in vivo
system to perform such studies and present a protocol to measure in vivo
oxidative stress. Taking advantage of fluorescent ROS probes and zebrafish transgenic fluorescent lines, we develop two different methods to measure oxidative stress in vivo
: i) a “whole embryo ROS-detection method” for qualitative measurement of oxidative stress and ii) a “single-cell ROS detection method” for quantitative measurements of oxidative stress. Herein, we demonstrate the efficacy of these procedures by increasing oxidative stress in tissues by oxidant agents and physiological or genetic methods. This protocol is amenable for forward genetic screens and it will help address cause-effect relationships of ROS in animal models of oxidative stress-related pathologies such as neurological disorders and cancer.
Developmental Biology, Issue 89, Danio rerio, zebrafish embryos, endothelial cells, redox state analysis, oxidative stress detection, in vivo ROS measurements, FACS (fluorescence activated cell sorter), molecular probes
Direct Imaging of ER Calcium with Targeted-Esterase Induced Dye Loading (TED)
Institutions: University of Wuerzburg, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich.
Visualization of calcium dynamics is important to understand the role of calcium in cell physiology. To examine calcium dynamics, synthetic fluorescent Ca2+
indictors have become popular. Here we demonstrate TED (= targeted-esterase induced dye loading), a method to improve the release of Ca2+
indicator dyes in the ER lumen of different cell types. To date, TED was used in cell lines, glial cells, and neurons in vitro
. TED bases on efficient, recombinant targeting of a high carboxylesterase activity to the ER lumen using vector-constructs that express Carboxylesterases (CES). The latest TED vectors contain a core element of CES2 fused to a red fluorescent protein, thus enabling simultaneous two-color imaging. The dynamics of free calcium in the ER are imaged in one color, while the corresponding ER structure appears in red. At the beginning of the procedure, cells are transduced with a lentivirus. Subsequently, the infected cells are seeded on coverslips to finally enable live cell imaging. Then, living cells are incubated with the acetoxymethyl ester (AM-ester) form of low-affinity Ca2+
indicators, for instance Fluo5N-AM, Mag-Fluo4-AM, or Mag-Fura2-AM. The esterase activity in the ER cleaves off hydrophobic side chains from the AM form of the Ca2+
indicator and a hydrophilic fluorescent dye/Ca2+
complex is formed and trapped in the ER lumen. After dye loading, the cells are analyzed at an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. Cells are continuously perfused with Ringer-like solutions and the ER calcium dynamics are directly visualized by time-lapse imaging. Calcium release from the ER is identified by a decrease in fluorescence intensity in regions of interest, whereas the refilling of the ER calcium store produces an increase in fluorescence intensity. Finally, the change in fluorescent intensity over time is determined by calculation of ΔF/F0
Cellular Biology, Issue 75, Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Virology, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Surgery, Endoplasmic Reticulum, ER, Calcium Signaling, calcium store, calcium imaging, calcium indicator, metabotropic signaling, Ca2+, neurons, cells, mouse, animal model, cell culture, targeted esterase induced dye loading, imaging
Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro
model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2
on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3
cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro
BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
Growth-based Determination and Biochemical Confirmation of Genetic Requirements for Protein Degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Institutions: Ball State University, Cincinnati Children's Hospital.
Regulated protein degradation is crucial for virtually every cellular function. Much of what is known about the molecular mechanisms and genetic requirements for eukaryotic protein degradation was initially established in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
. Classical analyses of protein degradation have relied on biochemical pulse-chase and cycloheximide-chase methodologies. While these techniques provide sensitive means for observing protein degradation, they are laborious, time-consuming, and low-throughput. These approaches are not amenable to rapid or large-scale screening for mutations that prevent protein degradation. Here, a yeast growth-based assay for the facile identification of genetic requirements for protein degradation is described. In this assay, a reporter enzyme required for growth under specific selective conditions is fused to an unstable protein. Cells lacking the endogenous reporter enzyme but expressing the fusion protein can grow under selective conditions only when the fusion protein is stabilized (i.e.
when protein degradation is compromised). In the growth assay described here, serial dilutions of wild-type and mutant yeast cells harboring a plasmid encoding a fusion protein are spotted onto selective and non-selective medium. Growth under selective conditions is consistent with degradation impairment by a given mutation. Increased protein abundance should be biochemically confirmed. A method for the rapid extraction of yeast proteins in a form suitable for electrophoresis and western blotting is also demonstrated. A growth-based readout for protein stability, combined with a simple protocol for protein extraction for biochemical analysis, facilitates rapid identification of genetic requirements for protein degradation. These techniques can be adapted to monitor degradation of a variety of short-lived proteins. In the example presented, the His3 enzyme, which is required for histidine biosynthesis, was fused to Deg1
-Sec62 is targeted for degradation after it aberrantly engages the endoplasmic reticulum translocon. Cells harboring Deg1
-Sec62-His3 were able to grow under selective conditions when the protein was stabilized.
Molecular Biology, Issue 96, Ubiquitin-proteasome system, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, budding yeast, growth assay, protein extracts, western blotting, yeast genetics, mutants, endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation, protein degradation
Mechanical Stimulation-induced Calcium Wave Propagation in Cell Monolayers: The Example of Bovine Corneal Endothelial Cells
Institutions: KU Leuven.
Intercellular communication is essential for the coordination of physiological processes between cells in a variety of organs and tissues, including the brain, liver, retina, cochlea and vasculature. In experimental settings, intercellular Ca2+
-waves can be elicited by applying a mechanical stimulus to a single cell. This leads to the release of the intracellular signaling molecules IP3
that initiate the propagation of the Ca2+
-wave concentrically from the mechanically stimulated cell to the neighboring cells. The main molecular pathways that control intercellular Ca2+
-wave propagation are provided by gap junction channels through the direct transfer of IP3
and by hemichannels through the release of ATP. Identification and characterization of the properties and regulation of different connexin and pannexin isoforms as gap junction channels and hemichannels are allowed by the quantification of the spread of the intercellular Ca2+
-wave, siRNA, and the use of inhibitors of gap junction channels and hemichannels. Here, we describe a method to measure intercellular Ca2+
-wave in monolayers of primary corneal endothelial cells loaded with Fluo4-AM in response to a controlled and localized mechanical stimulus provoked by an acute, short-lasting deformation of the cell as a result of touching the cell membrane with a micromanipulator-controlled glass micropipette with a tip diameter of less than 1 μm. We also describe the isolation of primary bovine corneal endothelial cells and its use as model system to assess Cx43-hemichannel activity as the driven force for intercellular Ca2+
-waves through the release of ATP. Finally, we discuss the use, advantages, limitations and alternatives of this method in the context of gap junction channel and hemichannel research.
Cellular Biology, Issue 77, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Immunology, Ophthalmology, Gap Junctions, Connexins, Connexin 43, Calcium Signaling, Ca2+, Cell Communication, Paracrine Communication, Intercellular communication, calcium wave propagation, gap junctions, hemichannels, endothelial cells, cell signaling, cell, isolation, cell culture
Rapid Genotyping of Animals Followed by Establishing Primary Cultures of Brain Neurons
Institutions: University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, EZ BioResearch LLC.
High-resolution analysis of the morphology and function of mammalian neurons often requires the genotyping of individual animals followed by the analysis of primary cultures of neurons. We describe a set of procedures for: labeling newborn mice to be genotyped, rapid genotyping, and establishing low-density cultures of brain neurons from these mice. Individual mice are labeled by tattooing, which allows for long-term identification lasting into adulthood. Genotyping by the described protocol is fast and efficient, and allows for automated extraction of nucleic acid with good reliability. This is useful under circumstances where sufficient time for conventional genotyping is not available, e.g.,
in mice that suffer from neonatal lethality. Primary neuronal cultures are generated at low density, which enables imaging experiments at high spatial resolution. This culture method requires the preparation of glial feeder layers prior to neuronal plating. The protocol is applied in its entirety to a mouse model of the movement disorder DYT1 dystonia (ΔE-torsinA knock-in mice), and neuronal cultures are prepared from the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and striatum of these mice. This protocol can be applied to mice with other genetic mutations, as well as to animals of other species. Furthermore, individual components of the protocol can be used for isolated sub-projects. Thus this protocol will have wide applications, not only in neuroscience but also in other fields of biological and medical sciences.
Neuroscience, Issue 95, AP2, genotyping, glial feeder layer, mouse tail, neuronal culture, nucleic-acid extraction, PCR, tattoo, torsinA
Detection of Toxin Translocation into the Host Cytosol by Surface Plasmon Resonance
Institutions: University of Central Florida.
AB toxins consist of an enzymatic A subunit and a cell-binding B subunit1
. These toxins are secreted into the extracellular milieu, but they act upon targets within the eukaryotic cytosol. Some AB toxins travel by vesicle carriers from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before entering the cytosol2-4
. In the ER, the catalytic A chain dissociates from the rest of the toxin and moves through a protein-conducting channel to reach its cytosolic target5
. The translocated, cytosolic A chain is difficult to detect because toxin trafficking to the ER is an extremely inefficient process: most internalized toxin is routed to the lysosomes for degradation, so only a small fraction of surface-bound toxin reaches the Golgi apparatus and ER6-12
To monitor toxin translocation from the ER to the cytosol in cultured cells, we combined a subcellular fractionation protocol with the highly sensitive detection method of surface plasmon resonance (SPR)13-15
. The plasma membrane of toxin-treated cells is selectively permeabilized with digitonin, allowing collection of a cytosolic fraction which is subsequently perfused over an SPR sensor coated with an anti-toxin A chain antibody. The antibody-coated sensor can capture and detect pg/mL quantities of cytosolic toxin. With this protocol, it is possible to follow the kinetics of toxin entry into the cytosol and to characterize inhibitory effects on the translocation event. The concentration of cytosolic toxin can also be calculated from a standard curve generated with known quantities of A chain standards that have been perfused over the sensor. Our method represents a rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection system that does not require radiolabeling or other modifications to the target toxin.
Immunology, Issue 59, Surface plasmon resonance, AB toxin, translocation, endoplasmic reticulum, cell culture, cholera toxin, pertussis toxin
Investigating the Spreading and Toxicity of Prion-like Proteins Using the Metazoan Model Organism C. elegans
Institutions: Northwestern University.
Prions are unconventional self-propagating proteinaceous particles, devoid of any coding nucleic acid. These proteinaceous seeds serve as templates for the conversion and replication of their benign cellular isoform. Accumulating evidence suggests that many protein aggregates can act as self-propagating templates and corrupt the folding of cognate proteins. Although aggregates can be functional under certain circumstances, this process often leads to the disruption of the cellular protein homeostasis (proteostasis), eventually leading to devastating diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The exact mechanisms of prion propagation and cell-to-cell spreading of protein aggregates are still subjects of intense investigation. To further this knowledge, recently a new metazoan model in Caenorhabditis elegans
, for expression of the prion domain of the cytosolic yeast prion protein Sup35 has been established. This prion model offers several advantages, as it allows direct monitoring of the fluorescently tagged prion domain in living animals and ease of genetic approaches. Described here are methods to study prion-like behavior of protein aggregates and to identify modifiers of prion-induced toxicity using C. elegans
Cellular Biology, Issue 95, Caenorhabditis elegans, neurodegenerative diseases, protein misfolding diseases, prion-like spreading, cell-to-cell transmission, protein aggregation, non-cell autonomous toxicity, proteostasis
Polysome Fractionation and Analysis of Mammalian Translatomes on a Genome-wide Scale
Institutions: McGill University, Karolinska Institutet, McGill University.
mRNA translation plays a central role in the regulation of gene expression and represents the most energy consuming process in mammalian cells. Accordingly, dysregulation of mRNA translation is considered to play a major role in a variety of pathological states including cancer. Ribosomes also host chaperones, which facilitate folding of nascent polypeptides, thereby modulating function and stability of newly synthesized polypeptides. In addition, emerging data indicate that ribosomes serve as a platform for a repertoire of signaling molecules, which are implicated in a variety of post-translational modifications of newly synthesized polypeptides as they emerge from the ribosome, and/or components of translational machinery. Herein, a well-established method of ribosome fractionation using sucrose density gradient centrifugation is described. In conjunction with the in-house developed “anota” algorithm this method allows direct determination of differential translation of individual mRNAs on a genome-wide scale. Moreover, this versatile protocol can be used for a variety of biochemical studies aiming to dissect the function of ribosome-associated protein complexes, including those that play a central role in folding and degradation of newly synthesized polypeptides.
Biochemistry, Issue 87, Cells, Eukaryota, Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases, Neoplasms, Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes,
protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, translatome, mTOR, eIF4E, 4E-BP1
Mitochondria-associated ER Membranes (MAMs) and Glycosphingolipid Enriched Microdomains (GEMs): Isolation from Mouse Brain
Institutions: St Jude Children's Research Hospital.
Intracellular organelles are highly dynamic structures with varying shape and composition, which are subjected to cell-specific intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Their membranes are often juxtaposed at defined contact sites, which become hubs for the exchange of signaling molecules and membrane components1,2,3,4
. The inter-organellar membrane microdomains that are formed between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondria at the opening of the IP3-sensitive Ca2+
channel are known as the mitochondria associated-ER membranes or MAMs4,5,6
. The protein/lipid composition and biochemical properties of these membrane contact sites have been extensively studied particularly in relation to their role in regulating intracellular Ca2+4,5,6
. The ER serves as the primary store of intracellular Ca2+
, and in this capacity regulates a myriad of cellular processes downstream of Ca2+
signaling, including post-translational protein folding and protein maturation7. Mitochondria, on the other hand, maintain Ca2+
homeostasis, by buffering cytosolic Ca2+
concentration thereby preventing the initiation of apoptotic pathways downstream of Ca2+
. The dynamic nature of the MAMs makes them ideal sites to dissect basic cellular mechanisms, including Ca2+
signaling and regulation of mitochondrial Ca2+
concentration, lipid biosynthesis and transport, energy metabolism and cell survival 4,9,10,11,12
. Several protocols have been described for the purification of these microdomains from liver tissue and cultured cells13,14
Taking previously published methods into account, we have adapted a protocol for the isolation of mitochondria and MAMs from the adult mouse brain. To this procedure we have added an extra purification step, namely a Triton X100 extraction, which enables the isolation of the glycosphingolipid enriched microdomain (GEM) fraction of the MAMs. These GEM preparations share several protein components with caveolae and lipid rafts, derived from the plasma membrane or other intracellular membranes, and are proposed to function as gathering points for the clustering of receptor proteins and for protein–protein interactions4,15
Neuroscience, Issue 73, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Membrane Microdomains, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Mitochondria, Intracellular Membranes, Glycosphingolipids, Gangliosides, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Cell Biology, Neurosciences, MAMs, GEMs, Mitochondria, ER, membrane microdomains, subcellular fractionation, lipids, brain, mouse, isolation, animal model
Growth Factor-Coated Bead Placement on Dorsal Forebrain Explants
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI), University of California, Irvine (UCI), University of California, Irvine (UCI).
Developmental Biology, Issue 2, Growth Factor, Neuroscience, mouse, Affi-Gel Beads
Live Cell Calcium Imaging Combined with siRNA Mediated Gene Silencing Identifies Ca2+ Leak Channels in the ER Membrane and their Regulatory Mechanisms
Institutions: Saarland University, Saarland University.
In mammalian cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a key role in protein biogenesis as well as in calcium signalling1
. The heterotrimeric Sec61 complex in the ER membrane provides an aqueous path for newly-synthesized polypeptides into the lumen of the ER. Recent work from various laboratories suggested that this heterotrimeric complex may also form transient Ca2+
. The key observation for this notion was that release of nascent polypeptides from the ribosome and Sec61 complex by puromycin leads to transient release of Ca2+
from the ER. Furthermore, it had been observed in vitro
that the ER luminal protein BiP is involved in preventing ion permeability at the level of the Sec61 complex9,10
. We have established an experimental system that allows us to directly address the role of the Sec61 complex as potential Ca2+
leak channel and to characterize its putative regulatory mechanisms11-13
. This system combines siRNA mediated gene silencing and live cell Ca2+
. Cells are treated with siRNAs that are directed against the coding and untranslated region (UTR), respectively, of the SEC61A1
gene or a negative control siRNA. In complementation analysis, the cells are co-transfected with an IRES-GFP vector that allows the siRNA-resistant expression of the wildtype SEC61A1
gene. Then the cells are loaded with the ratiometric Ca2+
-indicator FURA-2 to monitor simultaneously changes in the cytosolic Ca2+
concentration in a number of cells via a fluorescence microscope. The continuous measurement of cytosolic Ca2+
also allows the evaluation of the impact of various agents, such as puromycin, small molecule inhibitors, and thapsigargin on Ca2+
leakage. This experimental system gives us the unique opportunities to i) evaluate the contribution of different ER membrane proteins to passive Ca2+
efflux from the ER in various cell types, ii) characterize the proteins and mechanisms that limit this passive Ca2+
efflux, and iii) study the effects of disease linked mutations in the relevant components.
Cell Biology, Issue 53, Cellular calcium homeostasis, calmodulin, complementation, endoplasmic reticulum, ER calcium leakage, gene silencing, IQ motif, mutant analysis, Sec61 complex
Using Chronic Social Stress to Model Postpartum Depression in Lactating Rodents
Institutions: Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Manchester Metropolitan University.
Exposure to chronic stress is a reliable predictor of depressive disorders, and social stress is a common ethologically relevant stressor in both animals and humans. However, many animal models of depression were developed in males and are not applicable or effective in studies of postpartum females. Recent studies have reported significant effects of chronic social stress during lactation, an ethologically relevant and effective stressor, on maternal behavior, growth, and behavioral neuroendocrinology. This manuscript will describe this chronic social stress paradigm using repeated exposure of a lactating dam to a novel male intruder, and the assessment of the behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine effects of this model. Chronic social stress (CSS) is a valuable model for studying the effects of stress on the behavior and physiology of the dam as well as her offspring and future generations. The exposure of pups to CSS can also be used as an early life stress that has long term effects on behavior, physiology, and neuroendocrinology.
Behavior, Issue 76, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Physiology, Anatomy, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Neurobehavioral Manifestations, Mental Health, Mood Disorders, Depressive Disorder, Anxiety Disorders, behavioral sciences, Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms, Mental Disorders, Stress, Depression, Anxiety, Postpartum, Maternal Behavior, Nursing, Growth, Transgenerational, animal model