The protein transduction technique enables the direct delivery of biologically active material into mammalian cells [for review see 1,2]. For this one can make use of the translocating ability of so-called cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), also designated as protein transduction domains (PTDs). The TAT-CPP derived from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat (trans-activator of transcription) protein has been widely used. The positively charged TAT promotes cell permeability thereby overcoming the barriers of the cellular membrane by endocytosis or/and direct membrane penetration2. In combination with a nuclear localization signal (NLS) fusion proteins are able to enter the nucleus exhibiting functionality. Our video presentation demonstrates, as an exemplification for the engineering of cell-permeable proteins, the construction, production and application of a cell-permeable version of the DNA-modifying enzyme Cre.
Cre is a site-specific recombinase that is able to recognize and recombine 34 base pair loxP sites in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. Therefore the Cre/loxP system is widely used to conditionally induce mutations in the genome of living cells3,4. The delivery of active Cre recombinase to cells, however, represents a limitation.
We describe the pSESAME vector system, which allows a direct insertion of the gene-of-interest and provides a platform to rapidly clone different domains and tags used within the vector in a convenient and standardized manner. Rearranging of the different tags has been shown to modify the biochemical properties of the fusion proteins providing a possibility to achieve higher yield and better solubility. We demonstrate how to express and purify recombinant cell-permeant proteins in and from E. coli. The functionality of the recombinant Cre protein is finally validated in cell culture by assessing its intracellular recombinase activity.
25 Related JoVE Articles!
Investigating Protein-protein Interactions in Live Cells Using Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer
Institutions: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour.
Assays based on Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) provide a sensitive and reliable means to monitor protein-protein interactions in live cells. BRET is the non-radiative transfer of energy from a 'donor' luciferase enzyme to an 'acceptor' fluorescent protein. In the most common configuration of this assay, the donor is Renilla reniformis
luciferase and the acceptor is Yellow Fluorescent Protein (YFP). Because the efficiency of energy transfer is strongly distance-dependent, observation of the BRET phenomenon requires that the donor and acceptor be in close proximity. To test for an interaction between two proteins of interest in cultured mammalian cells, one protein is expressed as a fusion with luciferase and the second as a fusion with YFP. An interaction between the two proteins of interest may bring the donor and acceptor sufficiently close for energy transfer to occur. Compared to other techniques for investigating protein-protein interactions, the BRET assay is sensitive, requires little hands-on time and few reagents, and is able to detect interactions which are weak, transient, or dependent on the biochemical environment found within a live cell. It is therefore an ideal approach for confirming putative interactions suggested by yeast two-hybrid or mass spectrometry proteomics studies, and in addition it is well-suited for mapping interacting regions, assessing the effect of post-translational modifications on protein-protein interactions, and evaluating the impact of mutations identified in patient DNA.
Cellular Biology, Issue 87, Protein-protein interactions, Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer, Live cell, Transfection, Luciferase, Yellow Fluorescent Protein, Mutations
Discovering Protein Interactions and Characterizing Protein Function Using HaloTag Technology
Institutions: Promega Corporation, MS Bioworks LLC.
Research in proteomics has exploded in recent years with advances in mass spectrometry capabilities that have led to the characterization of numerous proteomes, including those from viruses, bacteria, and yeast. In comparison, analysis of the human proteome lags behind, partially due to the sheer number of proteins which must be studied, but also the complexity of networks and interactions these present. To specifically address the challenges of understanding the human proteome, we have developed HaloTag technology for protein isolation, particularly strong for isolation of multiprotein complexes and allowing more efficient capture of weak or transient interactions and/or proteins in low abundance. HaloTag is a genetically encoded protein fusion tag, designed for covalent, specific, and rapid immobilization or labelling of proteins with various ligands. Leveraging these properties, numerous applications for mammalian cells were developed to characterize protein function and here we present methodologies including: protein pull-downs used for discovery of novel interactions or functional assays, and cellular localization. We find significant advantages in the speed, specificity, and covalent capture of fusion proteins to surfaces for proteomic analysis as compared to other traditional non-covalent approaches. We demonstrate these and the broad utility of the technology using two important epigenetic proteins as examples, the human bromodomain protein BRD4, and histone deacetylase HDAC1. These examples demonstrate the power of this technology in enabling the discovery of novel interactions and characterizing cellular localization in eukaryotes, which will together further understanding of human functional proteomics.
Cellular Biology, Issue 89, proteomics, HaloTag, protein interactions, mass spectrometry, bromodomain proteins, BRD4, histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC cellular assays, and confocal imaging
Analysis of Tubular Membrane Networks in Cardiac Myocytes from Atria and Ventricles
Institutions: Heart Research Center Goettingen, University Medical Center Goettingen, German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) partner site Goettingen, University of Maryland School of Medicine.
In cardiac myocytes a complex network of membrane tubules - the transverse-axial tubule system (TATS) - controls deep intracellular signaling functions. While the outer surface membrane and associated TATS membrane components appear to be continuous, there are substantial differences in lipid and protein content. In ventricular myocytes (VMs), certain TATS components are highly abundant contributing to rectilinear tubule networks and regular branching 3D architectures. It is thought that peripheral TATS components propagate action potentials from the cell surface to thousands of remote intracellular sarcoendoplasmic reticulum (SER) membrane contact domains, thereby activating intracellular Ca2+
release units (CRUs). In contrast to VMs, the organization and functional role of TATS membranes in atrial myocytes (AMs) is significantly different and much less understood. Taken together, quantitative structural characterization of TATS membrane networks in healthy and diseased myocytes is an essential prerequisite towards better understanding of functional plasticity and pathophysiological reorganization. Here, we present a strategic combination of protocols for direct quantitative analysis of TATS membrane networks in living VMs and AMs. For this, we accompany primary cell isolations of mouse VMs and/or AMs with critical quality control steps and direct membrane staining protocols for fluorescence imaging of TATS membranes. Using an optimized workflow for confocal or superresolution TATS image processing, binarized and skeletonized data are generated for quantitative analysis of the TATS network and its components. Unlike previously published indirect regional aggregate image analysis strategies, our protocols enable direct characterization of specific components and derive complex physiological properties of TATS membrane networks in living myocytes with high throughput and open access software tools. In summary, the combined protocol strategy can be readily applied for quantitative TATS network studies during physiological myocyte adaptation or disease changes, comparison of different cardiac or skeletal muscle cell types, phenotyping of transgenic models, and pharmacological or therapeutic interventions.
Bioengineering, Issue 92, cardiac myocyte, atria, ventricle, heart, primary cell isolation, fluorescence microscopy, membrane tubule, transverse-axial tubule system, image analysis, image processing, T-tubule, collagenase
The Use of the Ex Vivo Chandler Loop Apparatus to Assess the Biocompatibility of Modified Polymeric Blood Conduits
Institutions: The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine.
The foreign body reaction occurs when a synthetic surface is introduced to the body. It is characterized by adsorption of blood proteins and the subsequent attachment and activation of platelets, monocyte/macrophage adhesion, and inflammatory cell signaling events, leading to post-procedural complications. The Chandler Loop Apparatus is an experimental system that allows researchers to study the molecular and cellular interactions that occur when large volumes of blood are perfused over polymeric conduits. To that end, this apparatus has been used as an ex vivo
model allowing the assessment of the anti-inflammatory properties of various polymer surface modifications. Our laboratory has shown that blood conduits, covalently modified via photoactivation chemistry with recombinant CD47, can confer biocompatibility to polymeric surfaces. Appending CD47 to polymeric surfaces could be an effective means to promote the efficacy of polymeric blood conduits. Herein is the methodology detailing the photoactivation chemistry used to append recombinant CD47 to clinically relevant polymeric blood conduits and the use of the Chandler Loop as an ex vivo
experimental model to examine blood interactions with the CD47 modified and control conduits.
Bioengineering, Issue 90, Chandler loop apparatus, blood perfusion, biocompatibility, CD47, foreign body reaction, polymeric blood conduits
Workflow for High-content, Individual Cell Quantification of Fluorescent Markers from Universal Microscope Data, Supported by Open Source Software
Institutions: UCL Cancer Institute.
Advances in understanding the control mechanisms governing the behavior of cells in adherent mammalian tissue culture models are becoming increasingly dependent on modes of single-cell analysis. Methods which deliver composite data reflecting the mean values of biomarkers from cell populations risk losing subpopulation dynamics that reflect the heterogeneity of the studied biological system. In keeping with this, traditional approaches are being replaced by, or supported with, more sophisticated forms of cellular assay developed to allow assessment by high-content microscopy. These assays potentially generate large numbers of images of fluorescent biomarkers, which enabled by accompanying proprietary software packages, allows for multi-parametric measurements per cell. However, the relatively high capital costs and overspecialization of many of these devices have prevented their accessibility to many investigators.
Described here is a universally applicable workflow for the quantification of multiple fluorescent marker intensities from specific subcellular regions of individual cells suitable for use with images from most fluorescent microscopes. Key to this workflow is the implementation of the freely available Cell Profiler software1
to distinguish individual cells in these images, segment them into defined subcellular regions and deliver fluorescence marker intensity values specific to these regions. The extraction of individual cell intensity values from image data is the central purpose of this workflow and will be illustrated with the analysis of control data from a siRNA screen for G1 checkpoint regulators in adherent human cells. However, the workflow presented here can be applied to analysis of data from other means of cell perturbation (e.g.
, compound screens) and other forms of fluorescence based cellular markers and thus should be useful for a wide range of laboratories.
Cellular Biology, Issue 94, Image analysis, High-content analysis, Screening, Microscopy, Individual cell analysis, Multiplexed assays
Strategies for Tracking Anastasis, A Cell Survival Phenomenon that Reverses Apoptosis
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
Anastasis (Greek for “rising to life”) refers to the recovery of dying cells. Before these cells recover, they have passed through important checkpoints of apoptosis, including mitochondrial fragmentation, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c
into the cytosol, activation of caspases, chromatin condensation, DNA damage, nuclear fragmentation, plasma membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, cell surface exposure of phosphatidylserine, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Anastasis can occur when apoptotic stimuli are removed prior to death, thereby allowing dying cells to reverse apoptosis and potentially other death mechanisms. Therefore, anastasis appears to involve physiological healing processes that could also sustain damaged cells inappropriately. The functions and mechanisms of anastasis are still unclear, hampered in part by the limited tools for detecting past events after the recovery of apparently healthy cells. Strategies to detect anastasis will enable studies of the physiological mechanisms, the hazards of undead cells in disease pathology, and potential therapeutics to modulate anastasis. Here, we describe effective strategies using live cell microscopy and a mammalian caspase biosensor for identifying and tracking anastasis in mammalian cells.
Cellular Biology, Issue 96, Anastasis, apoptosis, apoptotic bodies, caspase, cell death, cell shrinkage, cell suicide, cytochrome c, DNA damage, genetic alterations, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), programmed cell death, reversal of apoptosis
Characterizing the Composition of Molecular Motors on Moving Axonal Cargo Using "Cargo Mapping" Analysis
Institutions: The Scripps Research Institute, University of California San Diego, University of California San Diego, University of California San Diego School of Medicine.
Understanding the mechanisms by which molecular motors coordinate their activities to transport vesicular cargoes within neurons requires the quantitative analysis of motor/cargo associations at the single vesicle level. The goal of this protocol is to use quantitative fluorescence microscopy to correlate (“map”) the position and directionality of movement of live cargo to the composition and relative amounts of motors associated with the same cargo. “Cargo mapping” consists of live imaging of fluorescently labeled cargoes moving in axons cultured on microfluidic devices, followed by chemical fixation during recording of live movement, and subsequent immunofluorescence (IF) staining of the exact same axonal regions with antibodies against motors. Colocalization between cargoes and their associated motors is assessed by assigning sub-pixel position coordinates to motor and cargo channels, by fitting Gaussian functions to the diffraction-limited point spread functions representing individual fluorescent point sources. Fixed cargo and motor images are subsequently superimposed to plots of cargo movement, to “map” them to their tracked trajectories. The strength of this protocol is the combination of live and IF data to record both the transport of vesicular cargoes in live cells and to determine the motors associated to these exact same vesicles. This technique overcomes previous challenges that use biochemical methods to determine the average motor composition of purified heterogeneous bulk vesicle populations, as these methods do not reveal compositions on single moving cargoes. Furthermore, this protocol can be adapted for the analysis of other transport and/or trafficking pathways in other cell types to correlate the movement of individual intracellular structures with their protein composition. Limitations of this protocol are the relatively low throughput due to low transfection efficiencies of cultured primary neurons and a limited field of view available for high-resolution imaging. Future applications could include methods to increase the number of neurons expressing fluorescently labeled cargoes.
Neuroscience, Issue 92, kinesin, dynein, single vesicle, axonal transport, microfluidic devices, primary hippocampal neurons, quantitative fluorescence microscopy
Application of Fluorescent Nanoparticles to Study Remodeling of the Endo-lysosomal System by Intracellular Bacteria
Institutions: Universität Osnabrück.
Fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) with desirable chemical, optical and mechanical properties are promising tools to label intracellular organelles. Here, we introduce a method using gold-BSA-rhodamine NPs to label the endo-lysosomal system of eukaryotic cells and monitor manipulations of host cellular pathways by the intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica
. The NPs were readily internalized by HeLa cells and localized in late endosomes/lysosomes. Salmonella
infection induced rearrangement of the vesicles and accumulation of NPs in Salmonella-
induced membrane structures. We deployed the Imaris software package for quantitative analyses of confocal microscopy images. The number of objects and their size distribution in non-infected cells were distinct from the ones in Salmonella
-infected cells, indicating extremely remodeling of the endo-lysosomal system by WT Salmonella
Immunology, Issue 95, fluorescent nanoparticles, endo-lysosomal system, labeling, intracellular bacteria, quantitative image analysis, tubular compartments
Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors
Institutions: University College London.
Inhibitory neurons act in the central nervous system to regulate the dynamics and spatio-temporal co-ordination of neuronal networks. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. It is released from the presynaptic terminals of inhibitory neurons within highly specialized intercellular junctions known as synapses, where it binds to GABAA
Rs) present at the plasma membrane of the synapse-receiving, postsynaptic neurons. Activation of these GABA-gated ion channels leads to influx of chloride resulting in postsynaptic potential changes that decrease the probability that these neurons will generate action potentials.
During development, diverse types of inhibitory neurons with distinct morphological, electrophysiological and neurochemical characteristics have the ability to recognize their target neurons and form synapses which incorporate specific GABAA
Rs subtypes. This principle of selective innervation of neuronal targets raises the question as to how the appropriate synaptic partners identify each other.
To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, a novel in vitro
co-culture model system was established, in which medium spiny GABAergic neurons, a highly homogenous population of neurons isolated from the embryonic striatum, were cultured with stably transfected HEK293 cell lines that express different GABAA
R subtypes. Synapses form rapidly, efficiently and selectively in this system, and are easily accessible for quantification. Our results indicate that various GABAA
R subtypes differ in their ability to promote synapse formation, suggesting that this reduced in vitro
model system can be used to reproduce, at least in part, the in vivo
conditions required for the recognition of the appropriate synaptic partners and formation of specific synapses. Here the protocols for culturing the medium spiny neurons and generating HEK293 cells lines expressing GABAA
Rs are first described, followed by detailed instructions on how to combine these two cell types in co-culture and analyze the formation of synaptic contacts.
Neuroscience, Issue 93, Developmental neuroscience, synaptogenesis, synaptic inhibition, co-culture, stable cell lines, GABAergic, medium spiny neurons, HEK 293 cell line
Electroporation of Functional Bacterial Effectors into Mammalian Cells
Institutions: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, University of Toronto, Washington State University.
The study of protein interactions in the context of living cells can generate critical information about localization, dynamics, and interacting partners. This information is particularly valuable in the context of host-pathogen interactions. Many pathogen proteins function within host cells in a variety of way such as, enabling evasion of the host immune system and survival within the intracellular environment. To study these pathogen-protein host-cell interactions, several approaches are commonly used, including: in vivo
infection with a strain expressing a tagged or mutant protein, or introduction of pathogen genes via
transfection or transduction. Each of these approaches has advantages and disadvantages. We sought a means to directly introduce exogenous proteins into cells. Electroporation is commonly used to introduce nucleic acids into cells, but has been more rarely applied to proteins although the biophysical basis is exactly the same. A standard electroporator was used to introduce affinity-tagged bacterial effectors into mammalian cells. Human epithelial and mouse macrophage cells were cultured by traditional methods, detached, and placed in 0.4 cm gap electroporation cuvettes with an exogenous bacterial pathogen protein of interest (e.g. Salmonella
Typhimurium GtgE). After electroporation (0.3 kV) and a short (4 hr) recovery period, intracellular protein was verified by fluorescently labeling the protein via its affinity tag and examining spatial and temporal distribution by confocal microscopy. The electroporated protein was also shown to be functional inside the cell and capable of correct subcellular trafficking and protein-protein interaction. While the exogenous proteins tended to accumulate on the surface of the cells, the electroporated samples had large increases in intracellular effector concentration relative to incubation alone. The protocol is simple and fast enough to be done in a parallel fashion, allowing for high-throughput characterization of pathogen proteins in host cells including subcellular targeting and function of virulence proteins.
Immunology, Issue 95, electroporation, protein, transfection, expression, localization, confocal microscopy, Salmonella, effector
Functional Characterization of Na+/H+ Exchangers of Intracellular Compartments Using Proton-killing Selection to Express Them at the Plasma Membrane
Institutions: Université Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Laboratoire de Physiomédecine Moléculaire, CNRS UMR7370, and Laboratories of Excellence Ion Channel Science and Therapeutics.
Endosomal acidification is critical for a wide range of processes, such as protein recycling and degradation, receptor desensitization, and neurotransmitter loading in synaptic vesicles. This acidification is described to be mediated by proton ATPases, coupled to ClC chloride transporters. Highly-conserved electroneutral protons transporters, the Na+
exchangers (NHE) 6, 7 and 9 are also expressed in these compartments. Mutations in their genes have been linked with human cognitive and neurodegenerative diseases. Paradoxically, their roles remain elusive, as their intracellular localization has prevented detailed functional characterization. This manuscript shows a method to solve this problem. This consists of the selection of mutant cell lines, capable of surviving acute cytosolic acidification by retaining intracellular NHEs at the plasma membrane. It then depicts two complementary protocols to measure the ion selectivity and activity of these exchangers: (i) one based on intracellular pH measurements using fluorescence video microscopy, and (ii) one based on the fast kinetics of lithium uptake. Such protocols can be extrapolated to measure other non-electrogenic transporters. Furthermore, the selection procedure presented here generates cells with an intracellular retention defective phenotype. Therefore these cells will also express other vesicular membrane proteins at the plasma membrane. The experimental strategy depicted here may therefore constitute a potentially powerful tool to study other intracellular proteins that will be then expressed at the plasma membrane together with the vesicular Na+
exchangers used for the selection.
Cellular Biology, Issue 97, Intracellular compartments, Somatic cell genetics, Na+/H+ exchangers. Intracellular pH measurements. Fast kinetics of ion flux. Kinetic parameters.
Analysis of Oxidative Stress in Zebrafish Embryos
Institutions: University of Torino, Vesalius Research Center, VIB.
High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause a change of cellular redox state towards oxidative stress condition. This situation causes oxidation of molecules (lipid, DNA, protein) and leads to cell death. Oxidative stress also impacts the progression of several pathological conditions such as diabetes, retinopathies, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Thus, it is important to define tools to investigate oxidative stress conditions not only at the level of single cells but also in the context of whole organisms. Here, we consider the zebrafish embryo as a useful in vivo
system to perform such studies and present a protocol to measure in vivo
oxidative stress. Taking advantage of fluorescent ROS probes and zebrafish transgenic fluorescent lines, we develop two different methods to measure oxidative stress in vivo
: i) a “whole embryo ROS-detection method” for qualitative measurement of oxidative stress and ii) a “single-cell ROS detection method” for quantitative measurements of oxidative stress. Herein, we demonstrate the efficacy of these procedures by increasing oxidative stress in tissues by oxidant agents and physiological or genetic methods. This protocol is amenable for forward genetic screens and it will help address cause-effect relationships of ROS in animal models of oxidative stress-related pathologies such as neurological disorders and cancer.
Developmental Biology, Issue 89, Danio rerio, zebrafish embryos, endothelial cells, redox state analysis, oxidative stress detection, in vivo ROS measurements, FACS (fluorescence activated cell sorter), molecular probes
Simultaneous Multicolor Imaging of Biological Structures with Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy
Institutions: University of Maine.
Localization-based super resolution microscopy can be applied to obtain a spatial map (image) of the distribution of individual fluorescently labeled single molecules within a sample with a spatial resolution of tens of nanometers. Using either photoactivatable (PAFP) or photoswitchable (PSFP) fluorescent proteins fused to proteins of interest, or organic dyes conjugated to antibodies or other molecules of interest, fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy (FPALM) can simultaneously image multiple species of molecules within single cells. By using the following approach, populations of large numbers (thousands to hundreds of thousands) of individual molecules are imaged in single cells and localized with a precision of ~10-30 nm. Data obtained can be applied to understanding the nanoscale spatial distributions of multiple protein types within a cell. One primary advantage of this technique is the dramatic increase in spatial resolution: while diffraction limits resolution to ~200-250 nm in conventional light microscopy, FPALM can image length scales more than an order of magnitude smaller. As many biological hypotheses concern the spatial relationships among different biomolecules, the improved resolution of FPALM can provide insight into questions of cellular organization which have previously been inaccessible to conventional fluorescence microscopy. In addition to detailing the methods for sample preparation and data acquisition, we here describe the optical setup for FPALM. One additional consideration for researchers wishing to do super-resolution microscopy is cost: in-house setups are significantly cheaper than most commercially available imaging machines. Limitations of this technique include the need for optimizing the labeling of molecules of interest within cell samples, and the need for post-processing software to visualize results. We here describe the use of PAFP and PSFP expression to image two protein species in fixed cells. Extension of the technique to living cells is also described.
Basic Protocol, Issue 82, Microscopy, Super-resolution imaging, Multicolor, single molecule, FPALM, Localization microscopy, fluorescent proteins
Monitoring Dynamic Changes In Mitochondrial Calcium Levels During Apoptosis Using A Genetically Encoded Calcium Sensor
Institutions: University of Texas Medical Branch.
Dynamic changes in intracellular calcium concentration in response to various stimuli regulates many cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis1
. During apoptosis, calcium accumulation in mitochondria promotes the release of pro-apoptotic factors from the mitochondria into the cytosol2
. It is therefore of interest to directly measure mitochondrial calcium in living cells in situ
during apoptosis. High-resolution fluorescent imaging of cells loaded with dual-excitation ratiometric and non-ratiometric synthetic calcium indicator dyes has been proven to be a reliable and versatile tool to study various aspects of intracellular calcium signaling. Measuring cytosolic calcium fluxes using these techniques is relatively straightforward. However, measuring intramitochondrial calcium levels in intact cells using synthetic calcium indicators such as rhod-2 and rhod-FF is more challenging. Synthetic indicators targeted to mitochondria have blunted responses to repetitive increases in mitochondrial calcium, and disrupt mitochondrial morphology3
. Additionally, synthetic indicators tend to leak out of mitochondria over several hours which makes them unsuitable for long-term experiments. Thus, genetically encoded calcium indicators based upon green fluorescent protein (GFP)4
targeted to mitochondria have greatly facilitated measurement of mitochondrial calcium dynamics. Here, we describe a simple method for real-time measurement of mitochondrial calcium fluxes in response to different stimuli. The method is based on fluorescence microscopy of 'ratiometric-pericam' which is selectively targeted to mitochondria. Ratiometric pericam is a calcium indicator based on a fusion of circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein and calmodulin4
. Binding of calcium to ratiometric pericam causes a shift of its excitation peak from 415 nm to 494 nm, while the emission spectrum, which peaks around 515 nm, remains unchanged. Ratiometric pericam binds a single calcium ion with a dissociation constant in vitro
of ~1.7 μM4
. These properties of ratiometric pericam allow the quantification of rapid and long-term changes in mitochondrial calcium concentration. Furthermore, we describe adaptation of this methodology to a standard wide-field calcium imaging microscope with commonly available filter sets. Using two distinct agonists, the purinergic agonist ATP and apoptosis-inducing drug staurosporine, we demonstrate that this method is appropriate for monitoring changes in mitochondrial calcium concentration with a temporal resolution of seconds to hours. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that ratiometric pericam is also useful for measuring mitochondrial fission/fragmentation during apoptosis. Thus, ratiometric pericam is particularly well suited for continuous long-term measurement of mitochondrial calcium dynamics during apoptosis.
Cellular Biology, Issue 50, Ratiometric pericam, mitochondria, calcium, apoptosis, staurosporine, live cell imaging
Determination of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and Reactive Oxygen Species in Live Rat Cortical Neurons
Institutions: Loyola University Chicago.
Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) is critical for maintaining the physiological function of the respiratory chain to generate ATP. A significant loss of ΔΨm renders cells depleted of energy with subsequent death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules, but their accumulation in pathological conditions leads to oxidative stress. The two major sources of ROS in cells are environmental toxins and the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many diseases; therefore, the ability to determine ΔΨm and ROS can provide important clues about the physiological status of the cell and the function of the mitochondria.
Several fluorescent probes (Rhodamine 123, TMRM, TMRE, JC-1) can be used to determine Δψm in a variety of cell types, and many fluorescence indicators (Dihydroethidium, Dihydrorhodamine 123, H2
DCF-DA) can be used to determine ROS. Nearly all of the available fluorescence probes used to assess ΔΨm or ROS are single-wavelength indicators, which increase or decrease their fluorescence intensity proportional to a stimulus that increases or decreases the levels of ΔΨm or ROS. Thus, it is imperative to measure the fluorescence intensity of these probes at the baseline level and after the application of a specific stimulus. This allows one to determine the percentage of change in fluorescence intensity between the baseline level and a stimulus. This change in fluorescence intensity reflects the change in relative levels of ΔΨm or ROS. In this video, we demonstrate how to apply the fluorescence indicator, TMRM, in rat cortical neurons to determine the percentage change in TMRM fluorescence intensity between the baseline level and after applying FCCP, a mitochondrial uncoupler. The lower levels of TMRM fluorescence resulting from FCCP treatment reflect the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. We also show how to apply the fluorescence probe H2
DCF-DA to assess the level of ROS in cortical neurons, first at baseline and then after application of H2
. This protocol (with minor modifications) can be also used to determine changes in ∆Ψm and ROS in different cell types and in neurons isolated from other brain regions.
Neuroscience, Issue 51, Mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species, neuroscience, cortical neurons
Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging of Molecular Rotors in Living Cells
Institutions: King's College London, Imperial College London , PhotoBiotics Ltd.
Diffusion is often an important rate-determining step in chemical reactions or biological processes and plays a role in a wide range of intracellular events. Viscosity is one of the key parameters affecting the diffusion of molecules and proteins, and changes in viscosity have been linked to disease and malfunction at the cellular level.1-3
While methods to measure the bulk viscosity are well developed, imaging microviscosity remains a challenge. Viscosity maps of microscopic objects, such as single cells, have until recently been hard to obtain. Mapping viscosity with fluorescence techniques is advantageous because, similar to other optical techniques, it is minimally invasive, non-destructive and can be applied to living cells and tissues.
Fluorescent molecular rotors exhibit fluorescence lifetimes and quantum yields which are a function of the viscosity of their microenvironment.4,5
Intramolecular twisting or rotation leads to non-radiative decay from the excited state back to the ground state. A viscous environment slows this rotation or twisting, restricting access to this non-radiative decay pathway. This leads to an increase in the fluorescence quantum yield and the fluorescence lifetime. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM) of modified hydrophobic BODIPY dyes that act as fluorescent molecular rotors show that the fluorescence lifetime of these probes is a function of the microviscosity of their environment.6-8
A logarithmic plot of the fluorescence lifetime versus the solvent viscosity yields a straight line that obeys the Förster Hoffman equation.9
This plot also serves as a calibration graph to convert fluorescence lifetime into viscosity.
Following incubation of living cells with the modified BODIPY fluorescent molecular rotor, a punctate dye distribution is observed in the fluorescence images. The viscosity value obtained in the puncta in live cells is around 100 times higher than that of water and of cellular cytoplasm.6,7
Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements yield rotational correlation times in agreement with these large microviscosity values. Mapping the fluorescence lifetime is independent of the fluorescence intensity, and thus allows the separation of probe concentration and viscosity effects.
In summary, we have developed a practical and versatile approach to map the microviscosity in cells based on FLIM of fluorescent molecular rotors.
Bioengineering, Issue 60, fluorescence, microscopy, FLIM, fluorescent molecular rotors
Cell-based Calcium Assay for Medium to High Throughput Screening of TRP Channel Functions using FlexStation 3
Institutions: The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.
The Molecular Devices' FlexStation 3 is a benchtop multi-mode microplate reader capable of automated fluorescence measurement in multi-well plates. It is ideal for medium- to high-throughput screens in academic settings. It has an integrated fluid transfer module equipped with a multi-channel pipetter and the machine reads one column at a time to monitor fluorescence changes of a variety of fluorescent reagents. For example, FlexStation 3 has been used to study the function of Ca2+
-permeable ion channels and G-protein coupled receptors by measuring the changes of intracellular free Ca2+
levels. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a large family of nonselective cation channels that play important roles in many physiological and pathophysiological functions. Most of the TRP channels are calcium permeable and induce calcium influx upon activation. In this video, we demonstrate the application of FlexStation 3 to study the pharmacological profile of the TRPA1 channel, a molecular sensor for numerous noxious stimuli. HEK293 cells transiently or stably expressing human TRPA1 channels, grown in 96-well plates, are loaded with a Ca2+
-sensitive fluorescent dye, Fluo-4, and real-time fluorescence changes in these cells are measured before and during the application of a TRPA1 agonist using the FLEX mode of the FlexStation 3. The effect of a putative TRPA1 antagonist was also examined. Data are transferred from the SoftMax Pro software to construct concentration-response relationships of TRPA1 activators and inhibitors.
Bioengineering, Issue 54, TRP channels, Calcium assay, FlexStation 3
Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy (CLEM) as a Tool to Visualize Microinjected Molecules and their Eukaryotic Sub-cellular Targets
Institutions: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center .
The eukaryotic cell relies on complex, highly regulated, and functionally distinct membrane bound compartments that preserve a biochemical polarity necessary for proper cellular function. Understanding how the enzymes, proteins, and cytoskeletal components govern and maintain this biochemical segregation is therefore of paramount importance. The use of fluorescently tagged molecules to localize to and/or perturb subcellular compartments has yielded a wealth of knowledge and advanced our understanding of cellular regulation. Imaging techniques such as fluorescent and confocal microscopy make ascertaining the position of a fluorescently tagged small molecule relatively straightforward, however the resolution of very small structures is limited 1
On the other hand, electron microscopy has revealed details of subcellular morphology at very high resolution, but its static nature makes it difficult to measure highly dynamic processes with precision 2,3
. Thus, the combination of light microscopy with electron microscopy of the same sample, termed Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy (CLEM) 4,5
, affords the dual advantages of ultrafast fluorescent imaging with the high-resolution of electron microscopy 6
. This powerful technique has been implemented to study many aspects of cell biology 5,7
. Since its inception, this procedure has increased our ability to distinguish subcellular architectures and morphologies at high resolution.
Here, we present a streamlined method for performing rapid microinjection followed by CLEM (Fig. 1
). The microinjection CLEM procedure can be used to introduce specific quantities of small molecules and/or proteins directly into the eukaryotic cell cytoplasm and study the effects from millimeter to multi-nanometer resolution (Fig. 2
). The technique is based on microinjecting cells grown on laser etched glass gridded coverslips affixed to the bottom of live cell dishes and imaging with both confocal fluorescent and electron microscopy. Localization of the cell(s) of interest is facilitated by the grid pattern, which is easily transferred, along with the cells of interest, to the Epon resin used for immobilization of samples and sectioning prior to electron microscopy analysis (Fig. 3
). Overlay of fluorescent and EM images allows the user to determine the subcellular localization as well as any morphological and/or ultrastructural changes induced by the microinjected molecule of interest (Fig. 4
). This technique is amenable to time points ranging from ≤5 s up to several hours, depending on the nature of the microinjected sample.
Cellular Biology, Issue 63, Correlative light and electron microscopy, microinjection, subcellular localization, fluorescent microscopy, microscopy, CLEM
Direct Imaging of ER Calcium with Targeted-Esterase Induced Dye Loading (TED)
Institutions: University of Wuerzburg, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich.
Visualization of calcium dynamics is important to understand the role of calcium in cell physiology. To examine calcium dynamics, synthetic fluorescent Ca2+
indictors have become popular. Here we demonstrate TED (= targeted-esterase induced dye loading), a method to improve the release of Ca2+
indicator dyes in the ER lumen of different cell types. To date, TED was used in cell lines, glial cells, and neurons in vitro
. TED bases on efficient, recombinant targeting of a high carboxylesterase activity to the ER lumen using vector-constructs that express Carboxylesterases (CES). The latest TED vectors contain a core element of CES2 fused to a red fluorescent protein, thus enabling simultaneous two-color imaging. The dynamics of free calcium in the ER are imaged in one color, while the corresponding ER structure appears in red. At the beginning of the procedure, cells are transduced with a lentivirus. Subsequently, the infected cells are seeded on coverslips to finally enable live cell imaging. Then, living cells are incubated with the acetoxymethyl ester (AM-ester) form of low-affinity Ca2+
indicators, for instance Fluo5N-AM, Mag-Fluo4-AM, or Mag-Fura2-AM. The esterase activity in the ER cleaves off hydrophobic side chains from the AM form of the Ca2+
indicator and a hydrophilic fluorescent dye/Ca2+
complex is formed and trapped in the ER lumen. After dye loading, the cells are analyzed at an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. Cells are continuously perfused with Ringer-like solutions and the ER calcium dynamics are directly visualized by time-lapse imaging. Calcium release from the ER is identified by a decrease in fluorescence intensity in regions of interest, whereas the refilling of the ER calcium store produces an increase in fluorescence intensity. Finally, the change in fluorescent intensity over time is determined by calculation of ΔF/F0
Cellular Biology, Issue 75, Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Virology, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Surgery, Endoplasmic Reticulum, ER, Calcium Signaling, calcium store, calcium imaging, calcium indicator, metabotropic signaling, Ca2+, neurons, cells, mouse, animal model, cell culture, targeted esterase induced dye loading, imaging
Mechanical Stimulation-induced Calcium Wave Propagation in Cell Monolayers: The Example of Bovine Corneal Endothelial Cells
Institutions: KU Leuven.
Intercellular communication is essential for the coordination of physiological processes between cells in a variety of organs and tissues, including the brain, liver, retina, cochlea and vasculature. In experimental settings, intercellular Ca2+
-waves can be elicited by applying a mechanical stimulus to a single cell. This leads to the release of the intracellular signaling molecules IP3
that initiate the propagation of the Ca2+
-wave concentrically from the mechanically stimulated cell to the neighboring cells. The main molecular pathways that control intercellular Ca2+
-wave propagation are provided by gap junction channels through the direct transfer of IP3
and by hemichannels through the release of ATP. Identification and characterization of the properties and regulation of different connexin and pannexin isoforms as gap junction channels and hemichannels are allowed by the quantification of the spread of the intercellular Ca2+
-wave, siRNA, and the use of inhibitors of gap junction channels and hemichannels. Here, we describe a method to measure intercellular Ca2+
-wave in monolayers of primary corneal endothelial cells loaded with Fluo4-AM in response to a controlled and localized mechanical stimulus provoked by an acute, short-lasting deformation of the cell as a result of touching the cell membrane with a micromanipulator-controlled glass micropipette with a tip diameter of less than 1 μm. We also describe the isolation of primary bovine corneal endothelial cells and its use as model system to assess Cx43-hemichannel activity as the driven force for intercellular Ca2+
-waves through the release of ATP. Finally, we discuss the use, advantages, limitations and alternatives of this method in the context of gap junction channel and hemichannel research.
Cellular Biology, Issue 77, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Immunology, Ophthalmology, Gap Junctions, Connexins, Connexin 43, Calcium Signaling, Ca2+, Cell Communication, Paracrine Communication, Intercellular communication, calcium wave propagation, gap junctions, hemichannels, endothelial cells, cell signaling, cell, isolation, cell culture
Synthesis, Cellular Delivery and In vivo Application of Dendrimer-based pH Sensors
Institutions: Eindhoven University of Technology & NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Center for Nanotechnology Innovation, NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Center for Nanotechnology Innovation.
The development of fluorescent indicators represented a revolution for life sciences. Genetically encoded and synthetic fluorophores with sensing abilities allowed the visualization of biologically relevant species with high spatial and temporal resolution. Synthetic dyes are of particular interest thanks to their high tunability and the wide range of measureable analytes. However, these molecules suffer several limitations related to small molecule behavior (poor solubility, difficulties in targeting, often no ratiometric imaging allowed). In this work we introduce the development of dendrimer-based sensors and present a procedure for pH measurement in vitro
, in living cells and in vivo
. We choose dendrimers as ideal platform for our sensors for their many desirable properties (monodispersity, tunable properties, multivalency) that made them a widely used scaffold for several biomedical devices. The conjugation of fluorescent pH indicators to the dendrimer scaffold led to an enhancement of their sensing performances. In particular dendrimers exhibit reduced cell leakage, improved intracellular targeting and allow ratiometric measurements. These novel sensors were successfully employed to measure pH in living HeLa cells and in vivo
in mouse brain.
Chemistry, Issue 79, Investigative Techniques, Chemistry and Materials (General), dendrimer, fluorescence, sensors, pH, delivery, confocal
Self-reporting Scaffolds for 3-Dimensional Cell Culture
Institutions: University of Nottingham, University of Nottingham, University of Nottingham.
Culturing cells in 3D on appropriate scaffolds is thought to better mimic the in vivo
microenvironment and increase cell-cell interactions. The resulting 3D cellular construct can often be more relevant to studying the molecular events and cell-cell interactions than similar experiments studied in 2D. To create effective 3D cultures with high cell viability throughout the scaffold the culture conditions such as oxygen and pH need to be carefully controlled as gradients in analyte concentration can exist throughout the 3D construct. Here we describe the methods of preparing biocompatible pH responsive sol-gel nanosensors and their incorporation into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) electrospun scaffolds along with their subsequent preparation for the culture of mammalian cells. The pH responsive scaffolds can be used as tools to determine microenvironmental pH within a 3D cellular construct. Furthermore, we detail the delivery of pH responsive nanosensors to the intracellular environment of mammalian cells whose growth was supported by electrospun PLGA scaffolds. The cytoplasmic location of the pH responsive nanosensors can be utilized to monitor intracellular pH (pHi) during ongoing experimentation.
Bioengineering, Issue 81, Biocompatible Materials, Nanosensors, scaffold, electrospinning, 3D cell culture, PLGA
Permeabilization of Adhered Cells Using an Inert Gas Jet
Institutions: McGill University, Montreal Heart Institute.
Various cell transfection techniques exist and these can be broken down to three broad categories: viral, chemical and mechanical. This protocol describes a mechanical method to temporally permeabilize adherent cells using an inert gas jet that can facilitate the transfer of normally non-permeable macromolecules into cells. We believe this technique works by imparting shear forces on the plasma membrane of adherent cells, resulting in the temporary formation of micropores. Once these pores are created, the cells are then permeable to genetic material and other biomolecules. The mechanical forces involved do run the risk of permanently damaging or detaching cells from their substrate. There is, therefore, a narrow range of inert gas dynamics where the technique is effective. An inert gas jet has proven efficient at permeabilizing various adherent cell lines including HeLa, HEK293 and human abdominal aortic endothelial cells. This protocol is appropriate for the permeabilization of adherent cells both in vitro
and, as we have demonstrated, in vivo
, showing it may be used for research and potentially in future clinical applications. It also has the advantage of permeabilizing cells in a spatially restrictive manner, which could prove to be a valuable research tool.
Bioengineering, Issue 79, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Transfection, Permeabilization, transfection, shear stress, adherent cells, SEM, cell, microscopy, imaging
Models and Methods to Evaluate Transport of Drug Delivery Systems Across Cellular Barriers
Institutions: University of Maryland, University of Maryland.
Sub-micrometer carriers (nanocarriers; NCs) enhance efficacy of drugs by improving solubility, stability, circulation time, targeting, and release. Additionally, traversing cellular barriers in the body is crucial for both oral delivery of therapeutic NCs into the circulation and transport from the blood into tissues, where intervention is needed. NC transport across cellular barriers is achieved by: (i) the paracellular route, via transient disruption of the junctions that interlock adjacent cells, or (ii) the transcellular route, where materials are internalized by endocytosis, transported across the cell body, and secreted at the opposite cell surface (transyctosis). Delivery across cellular barriers can be facilitated by coupling therapeutics or their carriers with targeting agents that bind specifically to cell-surface markers involved in transport. Here, we provide methods to measure the extent and mechanism of NC transport across a model cell barrier, which consists of a monolayer of gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells grown on a porous membrane located in a transwell insert. Formation of a permeability barrier is confirmed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), transepithelial transport of a control substance, and immunostaining of tight junctions. As an example, ~200 nm polymer NCs are used, which carry a therapeutic cargo and are coated with an antibody that targets a cell-surface determinant. The antibody or therapeutic cargo is labeled with 125
I for radioisotope tracing and labeled NCs are added to the upper chamber over the cell monolayer for varying periods of time. NCs associated to the cells and/or transported to the underlying chamber can be detected. Measurement of free 125
I allows subtraction of the degraded fraction. The paracellular route is assessed by determining potential changes caused by NC transport to the barrier parameters described above. Transcellular transport is determined by addressing the effect of modulating endocytosis and transcytosis pathways.
Bioengineering, Issue 80, Antigens, Enzymes, Biological Therapy, bioengineering (general), Pharmaceutical Preparations, Macromolecular Substances, Therapeutics, Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena, Biological Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, drug delivery systems, targeted nanocarriers, transcellular transport, epithelial cells, tight junctions, transepithelial electrical resistance, endocytosis, transcytosis, radioisotope tracing, immunostaining
Direct Protein Delivery to Mammalian Cells Using Cell-permeable Cys2-His2 Zinc-finger Domains
Institutions: The Scripps Research Institute, ShanghaiTech University.
Due to their modularity and ability to be reprogrammed to recognize a wide range of DNA sequences, Cys2
zinc-finger DNA-binding domains have emerged as useful tools for targeted genome engineering. Like many other DNA-binding proteins, zinc-fingers also possess the innate ability to cross cell membranes. We recently demonstrated that this intrinsic cell-permeability could be leveraged for intracellular protein delivery. Genetic fusion of zinc-finger motifs leads to efficient transport of protein and enzyme cargo into a broad range of mammalian cell types. Unlike other protein transduction technologies, delivery via zinc-finger domains does not inhibit enzyme activity and leads to high levels of cytosolic delivery. Here a detailed step-by-step protocol is presented for the implementation of zinc-finger technology for protein delivery into mammalian cells. Key steps for achieving high levels of intracellular zinc-finger-mediated delivery are highlighted and strategies for maximizing the performance of this system are discussed.
Molecular Biology, Issue 97, protein delivery, cell-penetrating peptide, zinc-finger, protein transduction domain, chemical biology, molecular biology