More than 32,000 patients are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer in the United States per year and the disease is associated with very high mortality 1. Urgent need exists to develop novel clinically-translatable therapeutic strategies that can improve on the dismal survival statistics of pancreatic cancer patients. Although gene therapy in cancer has shown a tremendous promise, the major challenge is in the development of safe and effective delivery system, which can lead to sustained transgene expression.
Gelatin is one of the most versatile natural biopolymer, widely used in food and pharmaceutical products. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that type B gelatin could physical encapsulate DNA, which preserved the supercoiled structure of the plasmid and improved transfection efficiency upon intracellular delivery. By thiolation of gelatin, the sulfhydryl groups could be introduced into the polymer and would form disulfide bond within nanoparticles, which stabilizes the whole complex and once disulfide bond is broken due to the presence of glutathione in cytosol, payload would be released 2-5. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-modified GENS, when administered into the systemic circulation, provides long-circulation times and preferentially targets to the tumor mass due to the hyper-permeability of the neovasculature by the enhanced permeability and retention effect 6. Studies have shown over-expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on Panc-1 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells 7. In order to actively target pancreatic cancer cell line, EGFR specific peptide was conjugated on the particle surface through a PEG spacer.8
Most anti-tumor gene therapies are focused on administration of the tumor suppressor genes, such as wild-type p53 (wt-p53), to restore the pro-apoptotic function in the cells 9. The p53 mechanism functions as a critical signaling pathway in cell growth, which regulates apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, metabolism and other processes 10. In pancreatic cancer, most cells have mutations in p53 protein, causing the loss of apoptotic activity. With the introduction of wt-p53, the apoptosis could be repaired and further triggers cell death in cancer cells 11.
Based on the above rationale, we have designed EGFR targeting peptide-modified thiolated gelatin nanoparticles for wt-p53 gene delivery and evaluated delivery efficiency and transfection in Panc-1 cells.
20 Related JoVE Articles!
Three-Dimensional (3D) Tumor Spheroid Invasion Assay
Institutions: The Institute of Cancer Research, The Institute of Cancer Research.
Invasion of surrounding normal tissues is generally considered to be a key hallmark of malignant (as opposed to benign) tumors. For some cancers in particular (e.g
., brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme
and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck – SCCHN) it is a cause of severe morbidity and can be life-threatening even in the absence of distant metastases. In addition, cancers which have relapsed following treatment unfortunately often present with a more aggressive phenotype. Therefore, there is an opportunity to target the process of invasion to provide novel therapies that could be complementary to standard anti-proliferative agents. Until now, this strategy has been hampered by the lack of robust, reproducible assays suitable for a detailed analysis of invasion and for drug screening. Here we provide a simple micro-plate method (based on uniform, self-assembling 3D tumor spheroids) which has great potential for such studies. We exemplify the assay platform using a human glioblastoma cell line and also an SCCHN model where the development of resistance against targeted epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors is associated with enhanced matrix-invasive potential. We also provide two alternative methods of semi-automated quantification: one using an imaging cytometer and a second which simply requires standard microscopy and image capture with digital image analysis.
Medicine, Issue 99, invasion, metastasis, 3D, tumor spheroids, extracellular matrix, imaging, high-throughput, drug development.
Analysis of Cell Migration within a Three-dimensional Collagen Matrix
Institutions: Witten/Herdecke University.
The ability to migrate is a hallmark of various cell types and plays a crucial role in several physiological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and immune responses. However, cell migration is also a key mechanism in cancer enabling these cancer cells to detach from the primary tumor to start metastatic spreading. Within the past years various cell migration assays have been developed to analyze the migratory behavior of different cell types. Because the locomotory behavior of cells markedly differs between a two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) environment it can be assumed that the analysis of the migration of cells that are embedded within a 3D environment would yield in more significant cell migration data. The advantage of the described 3D collagen matrix migration assay is that cells are embedded within a physiological 3D network of collagen fibers representing the major component of the extracellular matrix. Due to time-lapse video microscopy real cell migration is measured allowing the determination of several migration parameters as well as their alterations in response to pro-migratory factors or inhibitors. Various cell types could be analyzed using this technique, including lymphocytes/leukocytes, stem cells, and tumor cells. Likewise, also cell clusters or spheroids could be embedded within the collagen matrix concomitant with analysis of the emigration of single cells from the cell cluster/ spheroid into the collagen lattice. We conclude that the 3D collagen matrix migration assay is a versatile method to analyze the migration of cells within a physiological-like 3D environment.
Bioengineering, Issue 92, cell migration, 3D collagen matrix, cell tracking
Systematic Analysis of In Vitro Cell Rolling Using a Multi-well Plate Microfluidic System
Institutions: Brigham and Women's Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard University, Harvard University, Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
A major challenge for cell-based therapy is the inability to systemically target a large quantity of viable cells with high efficiency to tissues of interest following intravenous or intraarterial infusion. Consequently, increasing cell homing is currently studied as a strategy to improve cell therapy. Cell rolling on the vascular endothelium is an important step in the process of cell homing and can be probed in-vitro
using a parallel plate flow chamber (PPFC). However, this is an extremely tedious, low throughput assay, with poorly controlled flow conditions. Instead, we used a multi-well plate microfluidic system that enables study of cellular rolling properties in a higher throughput under precisely controlled, physiologically relevant shear flow1,2
. In this paper, we show how the rolling properties of HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) cells on P- and E-selectin-coated surfaces as well as on cell monolayer-coated surfaces can be readily examined. To better simulate inflammatory conditions, the microfluidic channel surface was coated with endothelial cells (ECs), which were then activated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), significantly increasing interactions with HL-60 cells under dynamic conditions. The enhanced throughput and integrated multi-parameter software analysis platform, that permits rapid analysis of parameters such as rolling velocities and rolling path, are important advantages for assessing cell rolling properties in-vitro
. Allowing rapid and accurate analysis of engineering approaches designed to impact cell rolling and homing, this platform may help advance exogenous cell-based therapy.
Bioengineering, Issue 80, Microfluidics, Endothelial Cells, Leukocyte Rolling, HL-60 cells, TNF-α, P-selectin, E-selectin
Visualizing Neuroblast Cytokinesis During C. elegans Embryogenesis
Institutions: Concordia University.
This protocol describes the use of fluorescence microscopy to image dividing cells within developing Caenorhabditis elegans
embryos. In particular, this protocol focuses on how to image dividing neuroblasts, which are found underneath the epidermal cells and may be important for epidermal morphogenesis. Tissue formation is crucial for metazoan development and relies on external cues from neighboring tissues. C. elegans
is an excellent model organism to study tissue morphogenesis in vivo
due to its transparency and simple organization, making its tissues easy to study via microscopy. Ventral enclosure is the process where the ventral surface of the embryo is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells. This event is thought to be facilitated by the underlying neuroblasts, which provide chemical guidance cues to mediate migration of the overlying epithelial cells. However, the neuroblasts are highly proliferative and also may act as a mechanical substrate for the ventral epidermal cells. Studies using this experimental protocol could uncover the importance of intercellular communication during tissue formation, and could be used to reveal the roles of genes involved in cell division within developing tissues.
Neuroscience, Issue 85, C. elegans, morphogenesis, cytokinesis, neuroblasts, anillin, microscopy, cell division
Adaptation of Semiautomated Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC) Assays for Clinical and Preclinical Research Applications
Institutions: London Health Sciences Centre, Western University, London Health Sciences Centre, Lawson Health Research Institute, Western University.
The majority of cancer-related deaths occur subsequent to the development of metastatic disease. This highly lethal disease stage is associated with the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). These rare cells have been demonstrated to be of clinical significance in metastatic breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. The current gold standard in clinical CTC detection and enumeration is the FDA-cleared CellSearch system (CSS). This manuscript outlines the standard protocol utilized by this platform as well as two additional adapted protocols that describe the detailed process of user-defined marker optimization for protein characterization of patient CTCs and a comparable protocol for CTC capture in very low volumes of blood, using standard CSS reagents, for studying in vivo
preclinical mouse models of metastasis. In addition, differences in CTC quality between healthy donor blood spiked with cells from tissue culture versus patient blood samples are highlighted. Finally, several commonly discrepant items that can lead to CTC misclassification errors are outlined. Taken together, these protocols will provide a useful resource for users of this platform interested in preclinical and clinical research pertaining to metastasis and CTCs.
Medicine, Issue 84, Metastasis, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), CellSearch system, user defined marker characterization, in vivo, preclinical mouse model, clinical research
A Modified In vitro Invasion Assay to Determine the Potential Role of Hormones, Cytokines and/or Growth Factors in Mediating Cancer Cell Invasion
Institutions: Roswell Park Cancer Institute, D'Youville College.
Blood serum serves as a chemoattractant towards which cancer cells migrate and invade, facilitating their intravasation into microvessels. However, the actual molecules towards which the cells migrate remain elusive. This modified invasion assay has been developed to identify targets which drive cell migration and invasion. This technique compares the invasion index under three conditions to determine whether a specific hormone, growth factor, or cytokine plays a role in mediating the invasive potential of a cancer cell. These conditions include i) normal fetal bovine serum (FBS), ii) charcoal-stripped FBS (CS-FBS), which removes hormones, growth factors, and cytokines and iii) CS-FBS + molecule (denoted “X”). A significant change in cell invasion with CS-FBS as compared to FBS, indicates the involvement of hormones, cytokines or growth factors in mediating the change. Individual molecules can then be added back to CS-FBS to assay their ability to reverse or rescue the invasion phenotype. Furthermore, two or more factors can be combined to evaluate the additive or synergistic effects of multiple molecules in driving or inhibiting invasion. Overall, this method enables the investigator to determine whether hormones, cytokines, and/or growth factors play a role in cell invasion by serving as chemoattractants or inhibitors of invasion for a particular type of cancer cell or a specific mutant. By identifying specific chemoattractants and inhibitors, this modified invasion assay may help to elucidate signaling pathways that direct cancer cell invasion.
Medicine, Issue 98, hormone, cytokine, growth factor, migration, invasion, collagen, cancer
Assessing Neural Stem Cell Motility Using an Agarose Gel-based Microfluidic Device
Institutions: Cornell University, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, Instituto de Investigacion Principe Felipe, Cornell University.
While microfluidic technology is reaching a new level of maturity for macromolecular assays, cell-based assays are still at an infant stage1
. This is largely due to the difficulty with which one can create a cell-compatible and steady microenvironment using conventional microfabrication techniques and materials. We address this problem via the introduction of a novel microfabrication material, agarose gel, as the base material for the microfluidic device. Agarose gel is highly malleable, and permeable to gas and nutrients necessary for cell survival, and thus an ideal material for cell-based assays. We have shown previously that agarose gel based devices have been successful in studying bacterial and neutrophil cell migration2
. In this report, three parallel microfluidic channels are patterned in an agarose gel membrane of about 1mm thickness. Constant flows with media/buffer are maintained in the two side channels using a peristaltic pump. Cells are maintained in the center channel for observation. Since the nutrients and chemicals in the side channels are constantly diffusing from the side to center channel, the chemical environment of the center channel is easily controlled via the flow along the side channels. Using this device, we demonstrate that the movement of neural stem cells can be monitored optically with ease under various chemical conditions, and the experimental results show that the over expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) enhances the motility of neural stem cells. Motility of neural stem cells is an important biomarker for assessing cells aggressiveness, thus tumorigenic factor3
. Deciphering the mechanism underlying NSC motility will yield insight into both disorders of neural development and into brain cancer stem cell invasion.
Cell Biology, Issue 12, Bioengineering, microfluidic device, motility, chemotaxis, EGFR, neural stem cell, brain tumor cell
Modeling Astrocytoma Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo Using Cortical Astrocytes or Neural Stem Cells from Conditional, Genetically Engineered Mice
Institutions: University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine.
Current astrocytoma models are limited in their ability to define the roles of oncogenic mutations in specific brain cell types during disease pathogenesis and their utility for preclinical drug development. In order to design a better model system for these applications, phenotypically wild-type cortical astrocytes and neural stem cells (NSC) from conditional, genetically engineered mice (GEM) that harbor various combinations of floxed oncogenic alleles were harvested and grown in culture. Genetic recombination was induced in vitro
using adenoviral Cre-mediated recombination, resulting in expression of mutated oncogenes and deletion of tumor suppressor genes. The phenotypic consequences of these mutations were defined by measuring proliferation, transformation, and drug response in vitro
. Orthotopic allograft models, whereby transformed cells are stereotactically injected into the brains of immune-competent, syngeneic littermates, were developed to define the role of oncogenic mutations and cell type on tumorigenesis in vivo
. Unlike most established human glioblastoma cell line xenografts, injection of transformed GEM-derived cortical astrocytes into the brains of immune-competent littermates produced astrocytomas, including the most aggressive subtype, glioblastoma, that recapitulated the histopathological hallmarks of human astrocytomas, including diffuse invasion of normal brain parenchyma. Bioluminescence imaging of orthotopic allografts from transformed astrocytes engineered to express luciferase was utilized to monitor in vivo
tumor growth over time. Thus, astrocytoma models using astrocytes and NSC harvested from GEM with conditional oncogenic alleles provide an integrated system to study the genetics and cell biology of astrocytoma pathogenesis in vitro
and in vivo
and may be useful in preclinical drug development for these devastating diseases.
Neuroscience, Issue 90, astrocytoma, cortical astrocytes, genetically engineered mice, glioblastoma, neural stem cells, orthotopic allograft
Analyzing the Effects of Stromal Cells on the Recruitment of Leukocytes from Flow
Institutions: University of Birmingham, University of Birmingham, University of Birmingham.
Stromal cells regulate the recruitment of circulating leukocytes during inflammation through cross-talk with neighboring endothelial cells. Here we describe two in vitro
“vascular” models for studying the recruitment of circulating neutrophils from flow by inflamed endothelial cells. A major advantage of these models is the ability to analyze each step in the leukocyte adhesion cascade in order, as would occur in vivo
. We also describe how both models can be adapted to study the role of stromal cells, in this case mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), in regulating leukocyte recruitment.
Primary endothelial cells were cultured alone or together with human MSC in direct contact on Ibidi microslides or on opposite sides of a Transwell filter for 24 hr. Cultures were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) for 4 hr and incorporated into a flow-based adhesion assay. A bolus of neutrophils was perfused over the endothelium for 4 min. The capture of flowing neutrophils and their interactions with the endothelium was visualized by phase-contrast microscopy.
In both models, cytokine-stimulation increased endothelial recruitment of flowing neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of the behavior of recruited neutrophils showed a dose-dependent decrease in rolling and a dose-dependent increase in transmigration through the endothelium. In co-culture, MSC suppressed neutrophil adhesion to TNFα-stimulated endothelium.
Our flow based-adhesion models mimic the initial phases of leukocyte recruitment from the circulation. In addition to leukocytes, they can be used to examine the recruitment of other cell types, such as therapeutically administered MSC or circulating tumor cells. Our multi-layered co-culture models have shown that MSC communicate with endothelium to modify their response to pro-inflammatory cytokines, altering the recruitment of neutrophils. Further research using such models is required to fully understand how stromal cells from different tissues and conditions (inflammatory disorders or cancer) influence the recruitment of leukocytes during inflammation.
Immunology, Issue 95, Endothelial cells, leukocytes, mesenchymal stromal cells, mesenchymal stem cells, co-culture, adhesion, inflammation, recruitment, flow based adhesion assay, Ibidi microslide, neutrophil
Pharmacologic Induction of Epidermal Melanin and Protection Against Sunburn in a Humanized Mouse Model
Institutions: University of Kentucky College of Medicine, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, University of Kentucky College of Medicine.
Fairness of skin, UV sensitivity and skin cancer risk all correlate with the physiologic function of the melanocortin 1 receptor, a Gs
-coupled signaling protein found on the surface of melanocytes. Mc1r stimulates adenylyl cyclase and cAMP production which, in turn, up-regulates melanocytic production of melanin in the skin. In order to study the mechanisms by which Mc1r signaling protects the skin against UV injury, this study relies on a mouse model with "humanized skin" based on epidermal expression of stem cell factor (Scf). K14-Scf
transgenic mice retain melanocytes in the epidermis and therefore have the ability to deposit melanin in the epidermis. In this animal model, wild type Mc1r status results in robust deposition of black eumelanin pigment and a UV-protected phenotype. In contrast, K14-Scf
animals with defective Mc1r signaling ability exhibit a red/blonde pigmentation, very little eumelanin in the skin and a UV-sensitive phenotype. Reasoning that eumelanin deposition might be enhanced by topical agents that mimic Mc1r signaling, we found that direct application of forskolin extract to the skin of Mc1r-defective fair-skinned mice resulted in robust eumelanin induction and UV protection 1
. Here we describe the method for preparing and applying a forskolin-containing natural root extract to K14-Scf
fair-skinned mice and report a method for measuring UV sensitivity by determining minimal erythematous dose (MED). Using this animal model, it is possible to study how epidermal cAMP induction and melanization of the skin affect physiologic responses to UV exposure.
Medicine, Issue 79, Skin, Inflammation, Photometry, Ultraviolet Rays, Skin Pigmentation, melanocortin 1 receptor, Mc1r, forskolin, cAMP, mean erythematous dose, skin pigmentation, melanocyte, melanin, sunburn, UV, inflammation
Polymalic Acid-based Nano Biopolymers for Targeting of Multiple Tumor Markers: An Opportunity for Personalized Medicine?
Institutions: Cedars-Sinai Medical Center.
Tumors with similar grade and morphology often respond differently to the same treatment because of variations in molecular profiling. To account for this diversity, personalized medicine is developed for silencing malignancy associated genes. Nano drugs fit these needs by targeting tumor and delivering antisense oligonucleotides for silencing of genes. As drugs for the treatment are often administered repeatedly, absence of toxicity and negligible immune response are desirable. In the example presented here, a nano medicine is synthesized from the biodegradable, non-toxic and non-immunogenic platform polymalic acid by controlled chemical ligation of antisense oligonucleotides and tumor targeting molecules. The synthesis and treatment is exemplified for human Her2-positive breast cancer using an experimental mouse model. The case can be translated towards synthesis and treatment of other tumors.
Chemistry, Issue 88, Cancer treatment, personalized medicine, polymalic acid, nanodrug, biopolymer, targeting, host compatibility, biodegradability
Protocols for Oral Infection of Lepidopteran Larvae with Baculovirus
Institutions: Iowa State University.
Baculoviruses are widely used both as protein expression vectors and as insect pest control agents. This video shows how lepidopteran larvae can be infected with polyhedra by droplet feeding and diet plug-based bioassays. This accompanying Springer Protocols section provides an overview of the baculovirus lifecycle and use of baculoviruses as insecticidal agents, including discussion of the pros and cons for use of baculoviruses as insecticides, and progress made in genetic enhancement of baculoviruses for improved insecticidal efficacy.
Plant Biology, Issue 19, Springer Protocols, Baculovirus insecticides, recombinant baculovirus, insect pest management
Flow Cytometry Analysis of Immune Cells Within Murine Aortas
Institutions: Eastern Virginia Medical School, LaJolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology.
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process of medium and large size vessels that is characterized by the formation of plaques consisting of foam cells, immune cells, vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, platelets, extracellular matrix, and a lipid-rich core with extensive necrosis and fibrosis of surrounding tissues.1
The innate and adaptive arms of the immune response are involved in the initiation, development and persistence of atherosclerosis.2, 3
There is a significant body of evidence that different subsets of the immune cells, such as macrophages, dendritic cells, T and B lymphocytes, are present within the aortas of healthy and atherosclerosis-prone mice4
. Additionally, immune cells are found in the surrounding aortic adventitia which suggests an important role of this tissue in atherogenesis.2
For some time, the quantitative detection of different types of immune cells, their activation status, and the cellular composition within the aortic wall was limited by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical methods for the study of atherosclerosis. Few attempts were made to perform flow cytometry using human aortas, and a number of problems, such as a high autofluorescence, have been reported5,6
. Human atherosclerotic plaques were digested with collagenase 1, and free cells were collected and stained for CD14+/CD11c+ to highlight macrophage-derived foam cells. In this study, a "mock" channel was used to avoid false-positive staining.6
Necrotic materials accumulating during the digestion process give rise in a large amount of debris that generates a high autofluorescence in aortic samples. To resolve this problem, a panel of negative and positive controls has been proposed, but only double staining could be applied in these samples. We have developed a new flow cytometry-based method7
to analyze the immune cell composition and characterize the activation, proliferation, differentiation of immune cells in healthy and atherosclerosis-prone aorta. This method allows the investigation of the immune cell composition of the aortic wall and opens possibilities to use a broad spectrum of immunological methods for investigations of immune aspects of this disease.
Immunology, Issue 53, atherosclerosis, immune response, leukocytes, adventitia, flow cytometry
Multi-photon Imaging of Tumor Cell Invasion in an Orthotopic Mouse Model of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Institutions: Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University, West Virginia University , West Virginia University .
Loco-regional invasion of head and neck cancer is linked to metastatic risk and presents a difficult challenge in designing and implementing patient management strategies. Orthotopic mouse models of oral cancer have been developed to facilitate the study of factors that impact invasion and serve as model system for evaluating anti-tumor therapeutics. In these systems, visualization of disseminated tumor cells within oral cavity tissues has typically been conducted by either conventional histology or with in vivo
bioluminescent methods. A primary drawback of these techniques is the inherent inability to accurately visualize and quantify early tumor cell invasion arising from the primary site in three dimensions. Here we describe a protocol that combines an established model for squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (SCOT) with two-photon imaging to allow multi-vectorial visualization of lingual tumor spread. The OSC-19 head and neck tumor cell line was stably engineered to express the F-actin binding peptide LifeAct fused to the mCherry fluorescent protein (LifeAct-mCherry). Fox1nu/nu
mice injected with these cells reliably form tumors that allow the tongue to be visualized by ex-vivo
application of two-photon microscopy. This technique allows for the orthotopic visualization of the tumor mass and locally invading cells in excised tongues without disruption of the regional tumor microenvironment. In addition, this system allows for the quantification of tumor cell invasion by calculating distances that invaded cells move from the primary tumor site. Overall this procedure provides an enhanced model system for analyzing factors that contribute to SCOT invasion and therapeutic treatments tailored to prevent local invasion and distant metastatic spread. This method also has the potential to be ultimately combined with other imaging modalities in an in vivo setting.
Medicine, Issue 53, Invasion, mouse model, two-photon microscopy, tongue, orthotopic, head and neck cancer
Imaging Leukocyte Adhesion to the Vascular Endothelium at High Intraluminal Pressure
Institutions: Monash University.
Worldwide, hypertension is reported to be in approximately a quarter of the population and is the leading biomedical risk factor for mortality worldwide. In the vasculature hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation leading to atherosclerosis and various disease states such as chronic kidney disease2
and heart failure4
. An initial step in vascular inflammation leading to atherogenesis is the adhesion cascade which involves the rolling, tethering, adherence and subsequent transmigration of leukocytes through the endothelium. Recruitment and accumulation of leukocytes to the endothelium is mediated by an upregulation of adhesion molecules such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin as well as increases in cytokine and chemokine release and an upregulation of reactive oxygen species5
. In vitro
methods such as static adhesion assays help to determine mechanisms involved in cell-to-cell adhesion as well as the analysis of cell adhesion molecules. Methods employed in previous in vitro
studies have demonstrated that acute increases in pressure on the endothelium can lead to monocyte adhesion, an upregulation of adhesion molecules and inflammatory markers6
however, similar to many in vitro
assays, these findings have not been performed in real time under physiological flow conditions, nor with whole blood. Therefore, in vivo
assays are increasingly utilised in animal models to demonstrate vascular inflammation and plaque development. Intravital microscopy is now widely used to assess leukocyte adhesion, rolling, migration and transmigration7-9
. When combining the effects of pressure on leukocyte to endothelial adhesion the in vivo
studies are less extensive. One such study examines the real time effects of flow and shear on arterial growth and remodelling but inflammatory markers were only assessed via immunohistochemistry10
. Here we present a model for recording leukocyte adhesion in real time in intact pressurised blood vessels using whole blood perfusion. The methodology is a modification of an ex vivo
vessel chamber perfusion model9
which enables real-time analysis of leukocyte -endothelial adhesive interactions in intact vessels. Our modification enables the manipulation of the intraluminal pressure up to 200 mmHg allowing for study not only under physiological flow conditions but also pressure conditions. While pressure myography systems have been previously demonstrated to observe vessel wall and lumen diameter11
as well as vessel contraction this is the first time demonstrating leukocyte-endothelial interactions in real time. Here we demonstrate the technique using carotid arteries harvested from rats and cannulated to a custom-made flow chamber coupled to a fluorescent microscope. The vessel chamber is equipped with a large bottom coverglass allowing a large diameter objective lens with short working distance to image the vessel. Furthermore, selected agonist and/or antagonists can be utilized to further investigate the mechanisms controlling cell adhesion. Advantages of this method over intravital microscopy include no involvement of invasive surgery and therefore a higher throughput can be obtained. This method also enables the use of localised inhibitor treatment to the desired vessel whereas intravital only enables systemic inhibitor treatment.
Immunology, Issue 54, Leukocyte adhesion, intraluminal pressure, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, hypertension
Chemically-blocked Antibody Microarray for Multiplexed High-throughput Profiling of Specific Protein Glycosylation in Complex Samples
Institutions: Institute for Hepatitis and Virus Research, Thomas Jefferson University , Drexel University College of Medicine, Van Andel Research Institute, Serome Biosciences Inc..
In this study, we describe an effective protocol for use in a multiplexed high-throughput antibody microarray with glycan binding protein detection that allows for the glycosylation profiling of specific proteins. Glycosylation of proteins is the most prevalent post-translational modification found on proteins, and leads diversified modifications of the physical, chemical, and biological properties of proteins. Because the glycosylation machinery is particularly susceptible to disease progression and malignant transformation, aberrant glycosylation has been recognized as early detection biomarkers for cancer and other diseases. However, current methods to study protein glycosylation typically are too complicated or expensive for use in most normal laboratory or clinical settings and a more practical method to study protein glycosylation is needed. The new protocol described in this study makes use of a chemically blocked antibody microarray with glycan-binding protein (GBP) detection and significantly reduces the time, cost, and lab equipment requirements needed to study protein glycosylation. In this method, multiple immobilized glycoprotein-specific antibodies are printed directly onto the microarray slides and the N-glycans on the antibodies are blocked. The blocked, immobilized glycoprotein-specific antibodies are able to capture and isolate glycoproteins from a complex sample that is applied directly onto the microarray slides. Glycan detection then can be performed by the application of biotinylated lectins and other GBPs to the microarray slide, while binding levels can be determined using Dylight 549-Streptavidin. Through the use of an antibody panel and probing with multiple biotinylated lectins, this method allows for an effective glycosylation profile of the different proteins found in a given human or animal sample to be developed.
Glycosylation of protein, which is the most ubiquitous post-translational modification on proteins, modifies the physical, chemical, and biological properties of a protein, and plays a fundamental role in various biological processes1-6
. Because the glycosylation machinery is particularly susceptible to disease progression and malignant transformation, aberrant glycosylation has been recognized as early detection biomarkers for cancer and other diseases 7-12
. In fact, most current cancer biomarkers, such as the L3 fraction of α-1 fetoprotein (AFP) for hepatocellular carcinoma 13-15
, and CA199 for pancreatic cancer 16, 17
are all aberrant glycan moieties on glycoproteins. However, methods to study protein glycosylation have been complicated, and not suitable for routine laboratory and clinical settings. Chen et al.
has recently invented a chemically blocked antibody microarray with a glycan-binding protein (GBP) detection method for high-throughput and multiplexed profile glycosylation of native glycoproteins in a complex sample 18
. In this affinity based microarray method, multiple immobilized glycoprotein-specific antibodies capture and isolate glycoproteins from the complex mixture directly on the microarray slide, and the glycans on each individual captured protein are measured by GBPs. Because all normal antibodies contain N-glycans which could be recognized by most GBPs, the critical step of this method is to chemically block the glycans on the antibodies from binding to GBP. In the procedure, the cis
-diol groups of the glycans on the antibodies were first oxidized to aldehyde groups by using NaIO4
in sodium acetate buffer avoiding light. The aldehyde groups were then conjugated to the hydrazide group of a cross-linker, 4-(4-N-MaleimidoPhenyl)butyric acid Hydrazide HCl (MPBH), followed by the conjugation of a dipeptide, Cys-Gly, to the maleimide group of the MPBH. Thus, the cis-diol groups on glycans of antibodies were converted into bulky none hydroxyl groups, which hindered the lectins and other GBPs bindings to the capture antibodies. This blocking procedure makes the GBPs and lectins bind only to the glycans of captured proteins. After this chemically blocking, serum samples were incubated with the antibody microarray, followed by the glycans detection by using different biotinylated lectins and GBPs, and visualized with Cy3-streptavidin. The parallel use of an antibody panel and multiple lectin probing provides discrete glycosylation profiles of multiple proteins in a given sample 18-20
. This method has been used successfully in multiple different labs 1, 7, 13, 19-31
. However, stability of MPBH and Cys-Gly, complicated and extended procedure in this method affect the reproducibility, effectiveness and efficiency of the method. In this new protocol, we replaced both MPBH and Cys-Gly with one much more stable reagent glutamic acid hydrazide (Glu-hydrazide), which significantly improved the reproducibility of the method, simplified and shorten the whole procedure so that the it can be completed within one working day. In this new protocol, we describe the detailed procedure of the protocol which can be readily adopted by normal labs for routine protein glycosylation study and techniques which are necessary to obtain reproducible and repeatable results.
Molecular Biology, Issue 63, Glycoproteins, glycan-binding protein, specific protein glycosylation, multiplexed high-throughput glycan blocked antibody microarray
A Galvanotaxis Assay for Analysis of Neural Precursor Cell Migration Kinetics in an Externally Applied Direct Current Electric Field
Institutions: University of Toronto, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, University of Toronto.
The discovery of neural stem and progenitor cells (collectively termed neural precursor cells) (NPCs) in the adult mammalian brain has led to a body of research aimed at utilizing the multipotent and proliferative properties of these cells for the development of neuroregenerative strategies. A critical step for the success of such strategies is the mobilization of NPCs toward a lesion site following exogenous transplantation or to enhance the response of the endogenous precursors that are found in the periventricular region of the CNS. Accordingly, it is essential to understand the mechanisms that promote, guide, and enhance NPC migration. Our work focuses on the utilization of direct current electric fields (dcEFs) to promote and direct NPC migration - a phenomenon known as galvanotaxis. Endogenous physiological electric fields function as critical cues for cell migration during normal development and wound repair. Pharmacological disruption of the trans-neural tube potential in axolotl embryos causes severe developmental malformations1
. In the context of wound healing, the rate of repair of wounded cornea is directly correlated with the magnitude of the epithelial wound potential that arises after injury, as shown by pharmacological enhancement or disruption of this dcEF2-3
. We have demonstrated that adult subependymal NPCs undergo rapid and directed cathodal migration in vitro
when exposed to an externally applied dcEF. In this protocol we describe our lab's techniques for creating a simple and effective galvanotaxis assay for high-resolution, long-term observation of directed cell body translocation (migration) on a single-cell level. This assay would be suitable for investigating the mechanisms that regulate dcEF transduction into cellular motility through the use of transgenic or knockout mice, short interfering RNA, or specific receptor agonists/antagonists.
Neuroscience, Issue 68, Biomedical Engineering, Cellular Biology, Physiology, Molecular Biology, neural precursor cells, galvanotaxis, cell migration, time-lapse imaging, electric fields
A High-content Imaging Workflow to Study Grb2 Signaling Complexes by Expression Cloning
Institutions: University College London, Massachusetts General Hospital.
Signal transduction by growth factor receptors is essential for cells to maintain proliferation and differentiation and requires tight control. Signal transduction is initiated by binding of an external ligand to a transmembrane receptor and activation of downstream signaling cascades. A key regulator of mitogenic signaling is Grb2, a modular protein composed of an internal SH2 (Src Homology 2) domain flanked by two SH3 domains that lacks enzymatic activity. Grb2 is constitutively associated with the GTPase Son-Of-Sevenless (SOS) via its N-terminal SH3 domain. The SH2 domain of Grb2 binds to growth factor receptors at phosphorylated tyrosine residues thus coupling receptor activation to the SOS-Ras-MAP kinase signaling cascade. In addition, other roles for Grb2 as a positive or negative regulator of signaling and receptor endocytosis have been described. The modular composition of Grb2 suggests that it can dock to a variety of receptors and transduce signals along a multitude of different pathways1-3
Described here is a simple microscopy assay that monitors recruitment of Grb2 to the plasma membrane. It is adapted from an assay that measures changes in sub-cellular localization of green-fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Grb2 in response to a stimulus4-6
. Plasma membrane receptors that bind Grb2 such as activated Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) recruit GFP-Grb2 to the plasma membrane upon cDNA expression and subsequently relocate to endosomal compartments in the cell. In order to identify in vivo
protein complexes of Grb2, this technique can be used to perform a genome-wide high-content screen based on changes in Grb2 sub-cellular localization. The preparation of cDNA expression clones, transfection and image acquisition are described in detail below. Compared to other genomic methods used to identify protein interaction partners, such as yeast-two-hybrid, this technique allows the visualization of protein complexes in mammalian cells at the sub-cellular site of interaction by a simple microscopy-based assay. Hence both qualitative features, such as patterns of localization can be assessed, as well as the quantitative strength of the interaction.
Molecular Biology, Issue 68, Grb2, cDNA preparation, high-throughput, high-content screening, signal transduction, expression cloning, 96-well
Isolation of Primary Myofibroblasts from Mouse and Human Colon Tissue
Institutions: UCLA, UC Irvine.
The myofibroblast is a stromal cell of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that has been gaining considerable attention for its critical role in many GI functions. While several myofibroblast cell lines are commercially available to study these cells in vitro
, research results from a cell line exposed to experimental cell culture conditions have inherent limitations due to the overly reductionist nature of the work. Use of primary myofibroblasts offers a great advantage in terms of confirming experimental findings identified in a cell line. Isolation of primary myofibroblasts from an animal model allows for the study of myofibroblasts under conditions that more closely mimic the disease state being studied. Isolation of primary myofibroblasts from human colon tissue provides arguably the most relevant experimental data, since the cells come directly from patients with the underlying disease. We describe a well-established technique that can be utilized to isolate primary myofibroblasts from both mouse and human colon tissue. These isolated cells have been characterized to be alpha-smooth muscle actin and vimentin-positive, and desmin-negative, consistent with subepithelial intestinal myofibroblasts. Primary myofibroblast cells can be grown in cell culture and used for experimental purposes over a limited number of passages.
Cellular Biology, Issue 80, Myofibroblasts, Mesenchymal Stromal Cells, Gastrointestinal Tract, stroma, colon, primary cells
Production, Characterization and Potential Uses of a 3D Tissue-engineered Human Esophageal Mucosal Model
Institutions: University of Sheffield, University of Sheffield, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.
The incidence of both esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor, Barrett’s Metaplasia, are rising rapidly in the western world. Furthermore esophageal adenocarcinoma generally has a poor prognosis, with little improvement in survival rates in recent years. These are difficult conditions to study and there has been a lack of suitable experimental platforms to investigate disorders of the esophageal mucosa.
A model of the human esophageal mucosa has been developed in the MacNeil laboratory which, unlike conventional 2D cell culture systems, recapitulates the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions present in vivo
and produces a mature, stratified epithelium similar to that of the normal human esophagus. Briefly, the model utilizes non-transformed normal primary human esophageal fibroblasts and epithelial cells grown within a porcine-derived acellular esophageal scaffold. Immunohistochemical characterization of this model by CK4, CK14, Ki67 and involucrin staining demonstrates appropriate recapitulation of the histology of the normal human esophageal mucosa.
This model provides a robust, biologically relevant experimental model of the human esophageal mucosa. It can easily be manipulated to investigate a number of research questions including the effectiveness of pharmacological agents and the impact of exposure to environmental factors such as alcohol, toxins, high temperature or gastro-esophageal refluxate components. The model also facilitates extended culture periods not achievable with conventional 2D cell culture, enabling, inter alia
, the study of the impact of repeated exposure of a mature epithelium to the agent of interest for up to 20 days. Furthermore, a variety of cell lines, such as those derived from esophageal tumors or Barrett’s Metaplasia, can be incorporated into the model to investigate processes such as tumor invasion and drug responsiveness in a more biologically relevant environment.
Bioengineering, Issue 99, esophagus, epithelium, tissue engineering, 3D construct, esophageal cancer, Barrett’s Metaplasia