Endometriosis is a common disease affecting 40 to 70% of reproductive-aged women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and/or infertility. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of a blue dye (methylene blue) to stain peritoneal surfaces during laparoscopy (L/S) to detect the loss of peritoneal integrity in patients with pelvic pain and suspected endometriosis. Forty women with CPP and 5 women without pain were evaluated in this pilot study. During L/S, concentrated dye was sprayed onto peritoneal surfaces, then aspirated and rinsed with Lactated Ringers solution. Areas of localized dye uptake were evaluated for the presence of visible endometriotic lesions. Areas of intense peritoneal staining were resected and some fixed in 2.5% buffered gluteraldehyde and examined by scanning (SEM) electron microscopy. Blue dye uptake was more common in women with endometriosis and chronic pelvic pain than controls (85% vs. 40%). Resection of the blue stained areas revealed endometriosis by SEM and loss of peritoneal cell-cell contact compared to normal, non-staining peritoneum. Affected peritoneum was associated with visible endometriotic implants in most but not all patients. Subjective pain relief was reported in 80% of subjects. Based on scanning electron microscopy, we conclude that endometrial cells extend well beyond visible implants of endometriosis and appear to disrupt the underlying mesothelium. Subtle lesions of endometriosis could therefore cause pelvic pain by disruption of peritoneal integrity, allowing menstrual or ovulatory blood and associated pain factors access to underlying sensory nerves. Complete resection of affected peritoneum may provide a better long-term treatment for endometriosis and CPP. This simple technique appears to improve detection of subtle or near invisible endometriosis in women with CPP and minimal visual findings at L/S and may serve to elevate diagnostic accuracy for endometriosis at laparoscopy.
21 Related JoVE Articles!
Measuring Frailty in HIV-infected Individuals. Identification of Frail Patients is the First Step to Amelioration and Reversal of Frailty
Institutions: University of Arizona, University of Arizona.
A simple, validated protocol consisting of a battery of tests is available to identify elderly patients with frailty syndrome. This syndrome of decreased reserve and resistance to stressors increases in incidence with increasing age. In the elderly, frailty may pursue a step-wise loss of function from non-frail to pre-frail to frail. We studied frailty in HIV-infected patients and found that ~20% are frail using the Fried phenotype using stringent criteria developed for the elderly1,2
. In HIV infection the syndrome occurs at a younger age.
HIV patients were checked for 1) unintentional weight loss; 2) slowness as determined by walking speed; 3) weakness as measured by a grip dynamometer; 4) exhaustion by responses to a depression scale; and 5) low physical activity was determined by assessing kilocalories expended in a week's time. Pre-frailty was present with any two of five criteria and frailty was present if any three of the five criteria were abnormal.
The tests take approximately 10-15 min to complete and they can be performed by medical assistants during routine clinic visits. Test results are scored by referring to standard tables. Understanding which of the five components contribute to frailty in an individual patient can allow the clinician to address relevant underlying problems, many of which are not evident in routine HIV clinic visits.
Medicine, Issue 77, Infection, Virology, Infectious Diseases, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Retroviridae Infections, Body Weight Changes, Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Physical Examination, Muscle Strength, Behavior, Virus Diseases, Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis, Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena, HIV, HIV-1, AIDS, Frailty, Depression, Weight Loss, Weakness, Slowness, Exhaustion, Aging, clinical techniques
CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Capture Using a Disposable Microfluidic Chip for HIV
Institutions: Brigham and Women's Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Cellular Biology, Issue 8, microfluidic, blood, diagnostics, bioengineering, HIV, Translational Research
Development of New Therapeutic Applications Using Microfluidics
Institutions: MGH - Massachusetts General Hospital.
Cellular Biology, Issue 8, Microfluidics, Translational Research, Diagnostics, Bioengineering
Immunohistochemistry on Paraffin Sections of Mouse Epidermis Using Fluorescent Antibodies
Institutions: Ottawa Health Research Institute, Ottawa Health Research Institute.
In the epidermis, immunohistochemistry is an efficient means of localizing specific proteins to their relative expression compartment; namely the basal, suprabasal, and stratum corneum layers. The precise localization within the epidermis of a particular protein lends clues toward its functional role within the epidermis. In this chapter, we describe a reliable method for immunolocalization within the epidermis modified for both frozen and paraffin sections that we use very routinely in our laboratory. Paraffin sections generally provide much better morphology, hence, superior results and photographs; however, not all antibodies will work with the harsh fixation and treatment involved in their processing. Therefore, the protocol for frozen sectioning is also included. Within paraffin sectioning, two fixation protocols are described (Bouin's and paraformaldehyde); the choice of fixative will be directly related to the antibody specifications and may require another fixing method.
Cellular Biology, Issue 11, Springer Protocols, Immunohistochemistry, epidermis, differentiation, keratins, antibody
An Affordable HIV-1 Drug Resistance Monitoring Method for Resource Limited Settings
Institutions: University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Jembi Health Systems, University of Amsterdam, Stanford Medical School.
HIV-1 drug resistance has the potential to seriously compromise the effectiveness and impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART). As ART programs in sub-Saharan Africa continue to expand, individuals on ART should be closely monitored for the emergence of drug resistance. Surveillance of transmitted drug resistance to track transmission of viral strains already resistant to ART is also critical. Unfortunately, drug resistance testing is still not readily accessible in resource limited settings, because genotyping is expensive and requires sophisticated laboratory and data management infrastructure. An open access genotypic drug resistance monitoring method to manage individuals and assess transmitted drug resistance is described. The method uses free open source software for the interpretation of drug resistance patterns and the generation of individual patient reports. The genotyping protocol has an amplification rate of greater than 95% for plasma samples with a viral load >1,000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. The sensitivity decreases significantly for viral loads <1,000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. The method described here was validated against a method of HIV-1 drug resistance testing approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Viroseq genotyping method. Limitations of the method described here include the fact that it is not automated and that it also failed to amplify the circulating recombinant form CRF02_AG from a validation panel of samples, although it amplified subtypes A and B from the same panel.
Medicine, Issue 85, Biomedical Technology, HIV-1, HIV Infections, Viremia, Nucleic Acids, genetics, antiretroviral therapy, drug resistance, genotyping, affordable
Community-based Adapted Tango Dancing for Individuals with Parkinson's Disease and Older Adults
Institutions: Emory University School of Medicine, Brigham and Woman‘s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital.
Adapted tango dancing improves mobility and balance in older adults and additional populations with balance impairments. It is composed of very simple step elements. Adapted tango involves movement initiation and cessation, multi-directional perturbations, varied speeds and rhythms. Focus on foot placement, whole body coordination, and attention to partner, path of movement, and aesthetics likely underlie adapted tango’s demonstrated efficacy for improving mobility and balance. In this paper, we describe the methodology to disseminate the adapted tango teaching methods to dance instructor trainees and to implement the adapted tango by the trainees in the community for older adults and individuals with Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Efficacy in improving mobility (measured with the Timed Up and Go, Tandem stance, Berg Balance Scale, Gait Speed and 30 sec chair stand), safety and fidelity of the program is maximized through targeted instructor and volunteer training and a structured detailed syllabus outlining class practices and progression.
Behavior, Issue 94, Dance, tango, balance, pedagogy, dissemination, exercise, older adults, Parkinson's Disease, mobility impairments, falls
Collection, Isolation, and Flow Cytometric Analysis of Human Endocervical Samples
Institutions: University of Manitoba, University of Manitoba.
Despite the public health importance of mucosal pathogens (including HIV), relatively little is known about mucosal immunity, particularly at the female genital tract (FGT). Because heterosexual transmission now represents the dominant mechanism of HIV transmission, and given the continual spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is critical to understand the interplay between host and pathogen at the genital mucosa. The substantial gaps in knowledge around FGT immunity are partially due to the difficulty in successfully collecting and processing mucosal samples. In order to facilitate studies with sufficient sample size, collection techniques must be minimally invasive and efficient. To this end, a protocol for the collection of cervical cytobrush samples and subsequent isolation of cervical mononuclear cells (CMC) has been optimized. Using ex vivo
flow cytometry-based immunophenotyping, it is possible to accurately and reliably quantify CMC lymphocyte/monocyte population frequencies and phenotypes. This technique can be coupled with the collection of cervical-vaginal lavage (CVL), which contains soluble immune mediators including cytokines, chemokines and anti-proteases, all of which can be used to determine the anti- or pro-inflammatory environment in the vagina.
Medicine, Issue 89, mucosal, immunology, FGT, lavage, cervical, CMC
The Mesenteric Lymph Duct Cannulated Rat Model: Application to the Assessment of Intestinal Lymphatic Drug Transport
Institutions: Monash University (Parkville Campus).
The intestinal lymphatic system plays key roles in fluid transport, lipid absorption and immune function. Lymph flows directly from the small intestine via a series of lymphatic vessels and nodes that converge at the superior mesenteric lymph duct. Cannulation of the mesenteric lymph duct thus enables the collection of mesenteric lymph flowing from the intestine. Mesenteric lymph consists of a cellular fraction of immune cells (99% lymphocytes), aqueous fraction (fluid, peptides and proteins such as cytokines and gut hormones) and lipoprotein fraction (lipids, lipophilic molecules and apo-proteins). The mesenteric lymph duct cannulation model can therefore be used to measure the concentration and rate of transport of a range of factors from the intestine via the lymphatic system. Changes to these factors in response to different challenges (e.g.,
diets, antigens, drugs) and in disease (e.g.,
inflammatory bowel disease, HIV, diabetes) can also be determined. An area of expanding interest is the role of lymphatic transport in the absorption of orally administered lipophilic drugs and prodrugs that associate with intestinal lipid absorption pathways. Here we describe, in detail, a mesenteric lymph duct cannulated rat model which enables evaluation of the rate and extent of lipid and drug transport via the lymphatic system for several hours following intestinal delivery. The method is easily adaptable to the measurement of other parameters in lymph. We provide detailed descriptions of the difficulties that may be encountered when establishing this complex surgical method, as well as representative data from failed and successful experiments to provide instruction on how to confirm experimental success and interpret the data obtained.
Immunology, Issue 97, Intestine, Mesenteric, Lymphatic, Lymph, Carotid artery, Cannulation, Cannula, Rat, Drug, Lipid, Absorption, Surgery
Understanding Early Organogenesis Using a Simplified In Situ Hybridization Protocol in Xenopus
Institutions: Hospital for Sick Children, University of Western Ontario, University of Western Ontario, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Western Ontario.
Organogenesis is the study of how organs are specified and then acquire their specific shape and functions during development. The Xenopuslaevis
embryo is very useful for studying organogenesis because their large size makes them very suitable for identifying organs at the earliest steps in organogenesis. At this time, the primary method used for identifying a specific organ or primordium is whole mount in situ
hybridization with labeled antisense RNA probes specific to a gene that is expressed in the organ of interest. In addition, it is relatively easy to manipulate genes or signaling pathways in Xenopus
and in situ
hybridization allows one to then assay for changes in the presence or morphology of a target organ. Whole mount in situ
hybridization is a multi-day protocol with many steps involved. Here we provide a simplified protocol with reduced numbers of steps and reagents used that works well for routine assays. In situ
hybridization robots have greatly facilitated the process and we detail how and when we utilize that technology in the process. Once an in situ
hybridization is complete, capturing the best image of the result can be frustrating. We provide advice on how to optimize imaging of in situ
hybridization results. Although the protocol describes assessing organogenesis in Xenopus laevis
, the same basic protocol can almost certainly be adapted to Xenopus tropicalis
and other model systems.
Developmental Biology, Issue 95, Xenopus, organogenesis, in situ hybridization, RNA methods, embryology, imaging, whole mount
Title Cell Encapsulation by Droplets
Institutions: Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital.
Cellular Biology, Issue 8, tissue engineering, microfluidics, ejection, imaging, bioengineering
Using Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) to Develop Diagnostic Tools
Institutions: Brigham and Women's Hospital.
Cellular Biology, Issue 8, microfluidics, diagnostics, capture, blood, HIV, bioengineering
Experimental Approaches to Tissue Engineering
Institutions: Brigham and Women's Hospital.
Issue 7, Cell Biology, tissue engineering, microfluidics, stem cells
Mouse Sperm Cryopreservation and Recovery using the I·Cryo Kit
Institutions: Charles River , Charles River .
Thousands of new genetically modified (GM) strains of mice have been created since the advent of transgenesis and knockout technologies. Many of these valuable animals exist only as live animals, with no backup plan in case of emergency. Cryopreservation of embryos can provide this backup, but is costly, can be a lengthy procedure, and generally requires a large number of animals for success. Since the discovery that mouse sperm can be successfully cryopreserved with a basic cryoprotective agent (CPA) consisting of 18% raffinose and 3% skim milk, sperm cryopreservation has become an acceptable and cost-effective procedure for archiving, distributing and recovery of these valuable strains.
Here we demonstrate a newly developed I•Cryo kit for mouse sperm cryopreservation. Sperm from five commonly-used strains of inbred mice were frozen using this kit and then recovered. Higher protection ratios of sperm motility (> 60%) and rapid progressive motility (> 45%) compared to the control (basic CPA) were seen for sperm frozen with this kit in 5 inbred mouse strains. Two cell stage embryo development after IVF with the recovered sperm was improved consistently in all 5 mouse strains examined. Over a 1.5 year period, 49 GM mouse lines were archived by sperm cryopreservation with the I•Cryo kit and later recovered by IVF.
Basic Protocols, Issue 58, Cryopreservation, Sperm, In vitro fertilization (IVF), Mouse, Genetics
A Method for Ovarian Follicle Encapsulation and Culture in a Proteolytically Degradable 3 Dimensional System
Institutions: Northwestern University, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Northwestern University, Northwestern University.
The ovarian follicle is the functional unit of the ovary that secretes sex hormones and supports oocyte maturation. In vitro
follicle techniques provide a tool to model follicle development in order to investigate basic biology, and are further being developed as a technique to preserve fertility in the clinic1-4
. Our in vitro
culture system employs hydrogels in order to mimic the native ovarian environment by maintaining the 3D follicular architecture, cell-cell interactions and paracrine signaling that direct follicle development 5
. Previously, follicles were successfully cultured in alginate, an inert algae-derived polysaccharide that undergoes gelation with calcium ions6-8
. Alginate hydrogels formed at a concentration of 0.25% w/v were the most permissive for follicle culture, and retained the highest developmental competence 9
. Alginate hydrogels are not degradable, thus an increase in the follicle diameter results in a compressive force on the follicle that can impact follicle growth10
. We subsequently developed a culture system based on a fibrin-alginate interpenetrating network (FA-IPN), in which a mixture of fibrin and alginate are gelled simultaneously. This combination provides a dynamic mechanical environment because both components contribute to matrix rigidity initially; however, proteases secreted by the growing follicle degrade fibrin in the matrix leaving only alginate to provide support. With the IPN, the alginate content can be reduced below 0.25%, which is not possible with alginate alone 5
. Thus, as the follicle expands, it will experience a reduced compressive force due to the reduced solids content. Herein, we describe an encapsulation method and an in vitro
culture system for ovarian follicles within a FA-IPN. The dynamic mechanical environment mimics the natural ovarian environment in which small follicles reside in a rigid cortex and move to a more permissive medulla as they increase in size11
. The degradable component may be particularly critical for clinical translation in order to support the greater than 106
-fold increase in volume that human follicles normally undergo in vivo
Bioengineering, Issue 49, Ovarian follicle, fibrin-alginate, 3D culture system, dynamic environment
Establishment and Characterization of UTI and CAUTI in a Mouse Model
Institutions: Washington University School of Medicine.
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are highly prevalent, a significant cause of morbidity and are increasingly resistant to treatment with antibiotics. Females are disproportionately afflicted by UTI: 50% of all women will have a UTI in their lifetime. Additionally, 20-40% of these women who have an initial UTI will suffer a recurrence with some suffering frequent recurrences with serious deterioration in the quality of life, pain and discomfort, disruption of daily activities, increased healthcare costs, and few treatment options other than long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli
(UPEC) is the primary causative agent of community acquired UTI. Catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI) is the most common hospital acquired infection accounting for a million occurrences in the US annually and dramatic healthcare costs. While UPEC is also the primary cause of CAUTI, other causative agents are of increased significance including Enterococcus faecalis
. Here we utilize two well-established mouse models that recapitulate many of the clinical characteristics of these human diseases. For UTI, a C3H/HeN model recapitulates many of the features of UPEC virulence observed in humans including host responses, IBC formation and filamentation. For CAUTI, a model using C57BL/6 mice, which retain catheter bladder implants, has been shown to be susceptible to E. faecalis
bladder infection. These representative models are being used to gain striking new insights into the pathogenesis of UTI disease, which is leading to the development of novel therapeutics and management or prevention strategies.
Medicine, Issue 100, Escherichia coli, UPEC, Enterococcus faecalis, uropathogenic, catheter, urinary tract infection, IBC, chronic cystitis
Assessment and Evaluation of the High Risk Neonate: The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale
Institutions: Brown University, Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, University of Massachusetts, Boston.
There has been a long-standing interest in the assessment of the neurobehavioral integrity of the newborn infant. The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) was developed as an assessment for the at-risk infant. These are infants who are at increased risk for poor developmental outcome because of insults during prenatal development, such as substance exposure or prematurity or factors such as poverty, poor nutrition or lack of prenatal care that can have adverse effects on the intrauterine environment and affect the developing fetus. The NNNS assesses the full range of infant neurobehavioral performance including neurological integrity, behavioral functioning, and signs of stress/abstinence. The NNNS is a noninvasive neonatal assessment tool with demonstrated validity as a predictor, not only of medical outcomes such as cerebral palsy diagnosis, neurological abnormalities, and diseases with risks to the brain, but also of developmental outcomes such as mental and motor functioning, behavior problems, school readiness, and IQ. The NNNS can identify infants at high risk for abnormal developmental outcome and is an important clinical tool that enables medical researchers and health practitioners to identify these infants and develop intervention programs to optimize the development of these infants as early as possible. The video shows the NNNS procedures, shows examples of normal and abnormal performance and the various clinical populations in which the exam can be used.
Behavior, Issue 90, NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale, NNNS, High risk infant, Assessment, Evaluation, Prediction, Long term outcome
Design and Implementation of an fMRI Study Examining Thought Suppression in Young Women with, and At-risk, for Depression
Institutions: McMaster University, McMaster University, University of Calgary, McMaster University.
Ruminative brooding is associated with increased vulnerability to major depression. Individuals who regularly ruminate will often try to reduce the frequency of their negative thoughts by actively suppressing them. We aim to identify the neural correlates underlying thought suppression in at-risk and depressed individuals. Three groups of women were studied; a major depressive disorder group, an at-risk group (having a first degree relative with depression) and controls. Participants performed a mixed block-event fMRI paradigm involving thought suppression, free thought and motor control periods. Participants identified the re-emergence of “to-be-suppressed” thoughts (“popping” back into conscious awareness) with a button press. During thought suppression the control group showed the greatest activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, followed by the at-risk, then depressed group. During the re-emergence of intrusive thoughts compared to successful re-suppression of those thoughts, the control group showed the greatest activation of the anterior cingulate cortices, followed by the at-risk, then depressed group. At-risk participants displayed anomalies in the neural regulation of thought suppression resembling the dysregulation found in depressed individuals. The predictive value of these changes in the onset of depression remains to be determined.
Behavior, Issue 99, Major Depressive Disorder, Risk, Thought Suppression, fMRI, Women, Rumination, Thought Intrusion
Dried Blood Spots - Preparing and Processing for Use in Immunoassays and in Molecular Techniques
Institutions: University of Duisburg-Essen.
The idea of collecting blood on a paper card and subsequently using the dried blood spots (DBS) for diagnostic purposes originated a century ago. Since then, DBS testing for decades has remained predominantly focused on the diagnosis of infectious diseases especially in resource-limited settings or the systematic screening of newborns for inherited metabolic disorders and only recently have a variety of new and innovative DBS applications begun to emerge. For many years, pre-analytical variables were only inappropriately considered in the field of DBS testing and even today, with the exception of newborn screening, the entire pre-analytical phase, which comprises the preparation and processing of DBS for their final analysis has not been standardized. Given this background, a comprehensive step-by-step protocol, which covers al the essential phases, is proposed, i.e.,
collection of blood; preparation of blood spots; drying of blood spots; storage and transportation of DBS; elution of DBS, and finally analyses of DBS eluates. The effectiveness of this protocol was first evaluated with 1,762 coupled serum/DBS pairs for detecting markers of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus infections on an automated analytical platform. In a second step, the protocol was utilized during a pilot study, which was conducted on active drug users in the German cities of Berlin and Essen.
Molecular Biology, Issue 97, Dried blood spots, filter paper cards, specimen storage, infectious diseases, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus
Detection of Architectural Distortion in Prior Mammograms via Analysis of Oriented Patterns
Institutions: University of Calgary , University of Calgary .
We demonstrate methods for the detection of architectural distortion in prior mammograms of interval-cancer cases based on analysis of the orientation of breast tissue patterns in mammograms. We hypothesize that architectural distortion modifies the normal orientation of breast tissue patterns in mammographic images before the formation of masses or tumors. In the initial steps of our methods, the oriented structures in a given mammogram are analyzed using Gabor filters and phase portraits to detect node-like sites of radiating or intersecting tissue patterns. Each detected site is then characterized using the node value, fractal dimension, and a measure of angular dispersion specifically designed to represent spiculating patterns associated with architectural distortion.
Our methods were tested with a database of 106 prior mammograms of 56 interval-cancer cases and 52 mammograms of 13 normal cases using the features developed for the characterization of architectural distortion, pattern classification via
quadratic discriminant analysis, and validation with the leave-one-patient out procedure. According to the results of free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis, our methods have demonstrated the capability to detect architectural distortion in prior mammograms, taken 15 months (on the average) before clinical diagnosis of breast cancer, with a sensitivity of 80% at about five false positives per patient.
Medicine, Issue 78, Anatomy, Physiology, Cancer Biology, angular spread, architectural distortion, breast cancer, Computer-Assisted Diagnosis, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), entropy, fractional Brownian motion, fractal dimension, Gabor filters, Image Processing, Medical Informatics, node map, oriented texture, Pattern Recognition, phase portraits, prior mammograms, spectral analysis
FISH for Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis
Institutions: Guy’s & St Thomas’ Centre for Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis.
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is an established alternative to pre-natal diagnosis, and involves selecting pre-implantation embryos from a cohort generated by assisted reproduction technology (ART). This selection may be required because of familial monogenic disease (e.g. cystic fibrosis), or because one partner carries a chromosome rearrangement (e.g. a two-way reciprocal translocation). PGD is available for couples who have had previous affected children, and/or in the case of chromosome rearrangements, recurrent miscarriages, or infertility. Oocytes aspirated following ovarian stimulation are fertilized by in vitro
immersion in semen (IVF) or by intracytoplasmic injection of an individual spermatozoon (ICSI). Pre-implantation cleavage-stage embryos are biopsied, usually by the removal of a single cell on day 3 post-fertilization, and the biopsied cell is tested to establish the genetic status of the embryo. Fluorescence in situ
hybridization (FISH) on the fixed nuclei of biopsied cells with target-specific DNA probes is the technique of choice to detect chromosome imbalance associated with chromosome rearrangements, and to select female embryos in families with X-linked disease for which there is no mutation-specific test. FISH has also been used to screen embryos for spontaneous chromosome aneuploidy (also known as PGS or PGD-AS) in order to try and improve the efficiency of assisted reproduction; however, the predictive value of this test using the spreading and FISH technique described here is likely to be unacceptably low in most people's hands and it is not recommended for routine clinical use. We describe the selection of suitable probes for single-cell FISH, spreading techniques for blastomere nuclei, and in situ
hybridization and signal scoring, applied to PGD in a clinical setting.
Medicine, Issue 48, Fluorescence in situ hybridization, Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, PGD, Sex determination, Translocations, Chromosome aneuploidy
High-throughput Flow Cytometry Cell-based Assay to Detect Antibodies to N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor or Dopamine-2 Receptor in Human Serum
Institutions: The University of Sydney, Westmead Millennium Institute for Medical Research.
Over the recent years, antibodies against surface and conformational proteins involved in neurotransmission have been detected in autoimmune CNS diseases in children and adults. These antibodies have been used to guide diagnosis and treatment. Cell-based assays have improved the detection of antibodies in patient serum. They are based on the surface expression of brain antigens on eukaryotic cells, which are then incubated with diluted patient sera followed by fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibodies. After washing, secondary antibody binding is then analyzed by flow cytometry. Our group has developed a high-throughput flow cytometry live cell-based assay to reliably detect antibodies against specific neurotransmitter receptors. This flow cytometry method is straight forward, quantitative, efficient, and the use of a high-throughput sampler system allows for large patient cohorts to be easily assayed in a short space of time. Additionally, this cell-based assay can be easily adapted to detect antibodies to many different antigenic targets, both from the central nervous system and periphery. Discovering additional novel antibody biomarkers will enable prompt and accurate diagnosis and improve treatment of immune-mediated disorders.
Medicine, Issue 81, Flow cytometry, cell-based assay, autoantibody, high-throughput sampler, autoimmune CNS disease