Sarcoma is a very rare disease that is heterogeneous in nature, all hampering the development of new therapies. Sarcoma patients are ideal candidates for personalized medicine after stratification, explaining the current interest in developing a reproducible and low-cost xenotransplant model for this disease. The chick chorioallantoic membrane is a natural immunodeficient host capable of sustaining grafted tissues and cells without species-specific restrictions. In addition, it is easily accessed, manipulated and imaged using optical and fluorescence stereomicroscopy. Histology further allows detailed analysis of heterotypic cellular interactions.
This protocol describes in detail the in ovo grafting of the chorioallantoic membrane with fresh sarcoma-derived tumor tissues, their single cell suspensions, and permanent and transient fluorescently labeled established sarcoma cell lines (Saos-2 and SW1353). The chick survival rates are up to 75%. The model is used to study graft- (viability, Ki67 proliferation index, necrosis, infiltration) and host (fibroblast infiltration, vascular ingrowth) behavior. For localized grafting of single cell suspensions, ECM gel provides significant advantages over inert containment materials. The Ki67 proliferation index is related to the distance of the cells from the surface of the CAM and the duration of application on the CAM, the latter determining a time frame for the addition of therapeutic products.
18 Related JoVE Articles!
Heterogeneity Mapping of Protein Expression in Tumors using Quantitative Immunofluorescence
Institutions: University of Edinburgh, HistoRx Inc..
Morphologic heterogeneity within an individual tumor is well-recognized by histopathologists in surgical practice. While this often takes the form of areas of distinct differentiation into recognized histological subtypes, or different pathological grade, often there are more subtle differences in phenotype which defy accurate classification (Figure 1). Ultimately, since morphology is dictated by the underlying molecular phenotype, areas with visible differences are likely to be accompanied by differences in the expression of proteins which orchestrate cellular function and behavior, and therefore, appearance. The significance of visible and invisible (molecular) heterogeneity for prognosis is unknown, but recent evidence suggests that, at least at the genetic level, heterogeneity exists in the primary tumor1,2
, and some of these sub-clones give rise to metastatic (and therefore lethal) disease.
Moreover, some proteins are measured as biomarkers because they are the targets of therapy (for instance ER and HER2 for tamoxifen and trastuzumab (Herceptin), respectively). If these proteins show variable expression within a tumor then therapeutic responses may also be variable. The widely used histopathologic scoring schemes for immunohistochemistry either ignore, or numerically homogenize the quantification of protein expression. Similarly, in destructive techniques, where the tumor samples are homogenized (such as gene expression profiling), quantitative information can be elucidated, but spatial information is lost. Genetic heterogeneity mapping approaches in pancreatic cancer have relied either on generation of a single cell suspension3
, or on macrodissection4
. A recent study has used quantum dots in order to map morphologic and molecular heterogeneity in prostate cancer tissue5
, providing proof of principle that morphology and molecular mapping is feasible, but falling short of quantifying the heterogeneity. Since immunohistochemistry is, at best, only semi-quantitative and subject to intra- and inter-observer bias, more sensitive and quantitative methodologies are required in order to accurately map and quantify tissue heterogeneity in situ
We have developed and applied an experimental and statistical methodology in order to systematically quantify the heterogeneity of protein expression in whole tissue sections of tumors, based on the Automated QUantitative Analysis (AQUA) system6
. Tissue sections are labeled with specific antibodies directed against cytokeratins and targets of interest, coupled to fluorophore-labeled secondary antibodies. Slides are imaged using a whole-slide fluorescence scanner. Images are subdivided into hundreds to thousands of tiles, and each tile is then assigned an AQUA score which is a measure of protein concentration within the epithelial (tumor) component of the tissue. Heatmaps are generated to represent tissue expression of the proteins and a heterogeneity score assigned, using a statistical measure of heterogeneity originally used in ecology, based on the Simpson's biodiversity index7
To date there have been no attempts to systematically map and quantify this variability in tandem with protein expression, in histological preparations. Here, we illustrate the first use of the method applied to ER and HER2 biomarker expression in ovarian cancer. Using this method paves the way for analyzing heterogeneity as an independent variable in studies of biomarker expression in translational studies, in order to establish the significance of heterogeneity in prognosis and prediction of responses to therapy.
Medicine, Issue 56, quantitative immunofluorescence, heterogeneity, cancer, biomarker, targeted therapy, immunohistochemistry, proteomics, histopathology
Production, Characterization and Potential Uses of a 3D Tissue-engineered Human Esophageal Mucosal Model
Institutions: University of Sheffield, University of Sheffield, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.
The incidence of both esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor, Barrett’s Metaplasia, are rising rapidly in the western world. Furthermore esophageal adenocarcinoma generally has a poor prognosis, with little improvement in survival rates in recent years. These are difficult conditions to study and there has been a lack of suitable experimental platforms to investigate disorders of the esophageal mucosa.
A model of the human esophageal mucosa has been developed in the MacNeil laboratory which, unlike conventional 2D cell culture systems, recapitulates the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions present in vivo
and produces a mature, stratified epithelium similar to that of the normal human esophagus. Briefly, the model utilizes non-transformed normal primary human esophageal fibroblasts and epithelial cells grown within a porcine-derived acellular esophageal scaffold. Immunohistochemical characterization of this model by CK4, CK14, Ki67 and involucrin staining demonstrates appropriate recapitulation of the histology of the normal human esophageal mucosa.
This model provides a robust, biologically relevant experimental model of the human esophageal mucosa. It can easily be manipulated to investigate a number of research questions including the effectiveness of pharmacological agents and the impact of exposure to environmental factors such as alcohol, toxins, high temperature or gastro-esophageal refluxate components. The model also facilitates extended culture periods not achievable with conventional 2D cell culture, enabling, inter alia
, the study of the impact of repeated exposure of a mature epithelium to the agent of interest for up to 20 days. Furthermore, a variety of cell lines, such as those derived from esophageal tumors or Barrett’s Metaplasia, can be incorporated into the model to investigate processes such as tumor invasion and drug responsiveness in a more biologically relevant environment.
Bioengineering, Issue 99, esophagus, epithelium, tissue engineering, 3D construct, esophageal cancer, Barrett’s Metaplasia
In vivo Bioluminescence Imaging of Tumor Hypoxia Dynamics of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis in a Mouse Model
Institutions: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center , University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center , Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine.
It is well recognized that tumor hypoxia plays an important role in promoting malignant progression and affecting therapeutic response negatively. There is little knowledge about in situ, in vivo,
tumor hypoxia during intracranial development of malignant brain tumors because of lack of efficient means to monitor it in these deep-seated orthotopic tumors. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI), based on the detection of light emitted by living cells expressing a luciferase gene, has been rapidly adopted for cancer research, in particular, to evaluate tumor growth or tumor size changes in response to treatment in preclinical animal studies. Moreover, by expressing a reporter gene under the control of a promoter sequence, the specific gene expression can be monitored non-invasively by BLI. Under hypoxic stress, signaling responses are mediated mainly via the hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) to drive transcription of various genes. Therefore, we have used a HIF-1α reporter construct, 5HRE-ODD-luc, stably transfected into human breast cancer MDA-MB231 cells (MDA-MB231/5HRE-ODD-luc). In vitro
HIF-1α bioluminescence assay is performed by incubating the transfected cells in a hypoxic chamber (0.1% O2
) for 24 hr before BLI, while the cells in normoxia (21% O2
) serve as a control. Significantly higher photon flux observed for the cells under hypoxia suggests an increased HIF-1α binding to its promoter (HRE elements), as compared to those in normoxia. Cells are injected directly into the mouse brain to establish a breast cancer brain metastasis model. In vivo
bioluminescence imaging of tumor hypoxia dynamics is initiated 2 wks after implantation and repeated once a week. BLI reveals increasing light signals from the brain as the tumor progresses, indicating increased intracranial tumor hypoxia. Histological and immunohistochemical studies are used to confirm the in vivo
imaging results. Here, we will introduce approaches of in vitro
HIF-1α bioluminescence assay, surgical establishment of a breast cancer brain metastasis in a nude mouse and application of in vivo
bioluminescence imaging to monitor intracranial tumor hypoxia.
Medicine, Issue 56, bioluminescence imaging (BLI), tumor hypoxia dynamics, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), breast cancer brain metastasis
Isolation, Enrichment, and Maintenance of Medulloblastoma Stem Cells
Institutions: Vanderbilt University.
Brain tumors have been suggested to possess a small population of stem cells that are the root cause of tumorigenesis. Neurosphere assays have been generally adopted to study the nature of neural stem cells, including those derived from normal and tumorous tissues. However, appreciable amounts of differentiation and cell death are common in cultured neurospheres likely due to sub-optimal condition such as accessibility of all cells within sphere aggregates to culture medium.
Medulloblastoma, the most common pediatric CNS tumor, is characterized by its rapid progression and tendency to spread along the entire brain-spinal axis with dismal clinical outcome. Medulloblastoma is a neuroepithelial tumor of the cerebellum, accounting for 20% and 40% of intracranial and posterior fossa tumor in childhood, respectively1
. It is now well established that Shh signaling stimulates proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNPs) during cerebellar development 2-4
. Numerous studies using mouse models, in which the Shh pathway is constitutively activated, have linked Shh signaling with medulloblastoma 5-9
A recent report has shown that a subset of medulloblastoma cells derived from Patched1LacZ/+
mice are cancer stem cells, which are capable of initiating and propogating tumors 10
. Here we describe an efficient method to isolate, enrich and maintain tumor stem cells derived from several mouse models of medulloblastoma, with constitutively activated Shh pathway due to a mutation in Smoothened (11
, hereon referred as SmoM2), a GPCR that is critical for Shh pathway activation. In every isolated medulloblastoma tissue, we were able to establish numerous highly proliferative colonies. These cells robustly expressed several neural stem cell markers such as Nestin and Sox2, can undergo serial passages (greater than 20) and were clonogenic. While these cultured tumor stem cells were relatively small, often bipoar with high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio when cultured under conditions favoring stem cell growth, they dramatically altered their morphology, extended multiple cellular processes, flattened and withdrew from the cell cycle upon switching to a cell culture medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. More importantly, these tumor stem cells differentiated into Tuj1+ or NeuN+ neurons, GFAP+ astrocytes and CNPase+ oligodendrocytes, thus highlighting their multi-potency. Furthermore, these cells were capable of propagating secondary medulloblastomas when orthotopically transplanted into host mice.
Medicine, Issue 43, medulloblastoma, stem cells, isolation, in vitro culture
Multispectral Real-time Fluorescence Imaging for Intraoperative Detection of the Sentinel Lymph Node in Gynecologic Oncology
Institutions: University Medical Center Groningen, Technical University Munich, University Medical Center Groningen.
The prognosis in virtually all solid tumors depends on the presence or absence of lymph node metastases.1-3
Surgical treatment most often combines radical excision of the tumor with a full lymphadenectomy in the drainage area of the tumor. However, removal of lymph nodes is associated with increased morbidity due to infection, wound breakdown and lymphedema.4,5
As an alternative, the sentinel lymph node procedure (SLN) was developed several decades ago to detect the first draining lymph node from the tumor.6
In case of lymphogenic dissemination, the SLN is the first lymph node that is affected (Figure 1). Hence, if the SLN does not contain metastases, downstream lymph nodes will also be free from tumor metastases and need not to be removed. The SLN procedure is part of the treatment for many tumor types, like breast cancer and melanoma, but also for cancer of the vulva and cervix.7
The current standard methodology for SLN-detection is by peritumoral injection of radiocolloid one day prior to surgery, and a colored dye intraoperatively. Disadvantages of the procedure in cervical and vulvar cancer are multiple injections in the genital area, leading to increased psychological distress for the patient, and the use of radioactive colloid.
Multispectral fluorescence imaging is an emerging imaging modality that can be applied intraoperatively without the need for injection of radiocolloid. For intraoperative fluorescence imaging, two components are needed: a fluorescent agent and a quantitative optical system for intraoperative imaging. As a fluorophore we have used indocyanine green (ICG). ICG has been used for many decades to assess cardiac function, cerebral perfusion and liver perfusion.8
It is an inert drug with a safe pharmaco-biological profile. When excited at around 750 nm, it emits light in the near-infrared spectrum around 800 nm. A custom-made multispectral fluorescence imaging camera system was used.9
The aim of this video article is to demonstrate the detection of the SLN using intraoperative fluorescence imaging in patients with cervical and vulvar cancer. Fluorescence imaging is used in conjunction with the standard procedure, consisting of radiocolloid and a blue dye. In the future, intraoperative fluorescence imaging might replace the current method and is also easily transferable to other indications like breast cancer and melanoma.
Medicine, Issue 44, Image-guided surgery, multispectral fluorescence, sentinel lymph node, gynecologic oncology
RNAscope for In situ Detection of Transcriptionally Active Human Papillomavirus in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Institutions: Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Inc..
The 'gold standard' for oncogenic HPV detection is the demonstration of transcriptionally active high-risk HPV in tumor tissue. However, detection of E6/E7 mRNA by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) requires RNA extraction which destroys the tumor tissue context critical for morphological correlation and has been difficult to be adopted in routine clinical practice. Our recently developed RNA in situ
hybridization technology, RNAscope, permits direct visualization of RNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue with single molecule sensitivity and single cell resolution, which enables highly sensitive and specific in situ
analysis of any RNA biomarker in routine clinical specimens. The RNAscope HPV assay was designed to detect the E6/E7 mRNA of seven high-risk HPV genotypes (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58) using a pool of genotype-specific probes. It has demonstrated excellent sensitivity and specificity against the current 'gold standard' method of detecting E6/E7 mRNA by qRT-PCR. HPV status determined by RNAscope is strongly prognostic of clinical outcome in oropharyngeal cancer patients.
Medicine, Issue 85, RNAscope, Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC), Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OPSCC), Human Papillomavirus (HPV), E6/ E7 mRNA, in situ hybridization, tumor
Solubilization and Bio-conjugation of Quantum Dots and Bacterial Toxicity Assays by Growth Curve and Plate Count
Institutions: McGill University, Montreal, QC Canada.
Quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles with size-dependent emission spectra that can be excited by a broad choice of wavelengths. QDs have attracted a lot of interest for imaging, diagnostics, and therapy due to their bright, stable fluorescence1,2 3,4,5
. QDs can be conjugated to a variety of bio-active molecules for binding to bacteria and mammalian cells6
QDs are also being widely investigated as cytotoxic agents for targeted killing of bacteria. The emergence of multiply-resistant bacterial strains is rapidly becoming a public health crisis, particularly in the case of Gram negative pathogens 7
. Because of the well-known antimicrobial effect of certain nanomaterials, especially Ag, there are hundreds of studies examining the toxicity of nanoparticles to bacteria 8
. Bacterial studies have been performed with other types of semiconductor nanoparticles as well, especially TiO29,10-11
, but also ZnO12
and others including CuO 13
. Some comparisons of bacterial strains have been performed in these studies, usually comparing a Gram negative strain with a Gram positive. With all of these particles, mechanisms of toxicity are attributed to oxidation: either the photogeneration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the particles or the direct release of metal ions that can cause oxidative toxicity. Even with these materials, results of different studies vary greatly. In some studies the Gram positive test strain is reportedly more sensitive than the Gram negative 10
; in others it is the opposite 14
. These studies have been well reviewed 15
In all nanoparticle studies, particle composition, size, surface chemistry, sample aging/breakdown, and wavelength, power, and duration of light exposure can all dramatically affect the results. In addition, synthesis byproducts and solvents must be considered16 17
. High-throughput screening techniques are needed to be able to develop effective new nanomedicine agents.
CdTe QDs have anti-microbial effects alone18
or in combination with antibiotics. In a previous study, we showed that coupling of antibiotics to CdTe can increase toxicity to bacteria but decrease toxicity to mammalian cells, due to decreased production of reactive oxygen species from the conjugates19
. Although it is unlikely that cadmium-containing compounds will be approved for use in humans, such preparations could be used for disinfection of surfaces or sterilization of water.
In this protocol, we give a straightforward approach to solubilizing CdTe QDs with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The QDs are ready to use within an hour. We then demonstrate coupling to an antimicrobial agent.
The second part of the protocol demonstrates a 96-well bacterial inhibition assay using the conjugated and unconjugated QDs. The optical density is read over many hours, permitting the effects of QD addition and light exposure to be evaluated immediately as well as after a recovery period. We also illustrate a colony count for quantifying bacterial survival.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 65, Bioengineering, Molecular Biology, Quantum dots, solubilization, conjugation, cytotoxicity, phototoxicity, growth curve, plate count
Tracking the Mammary Architectural Features and Detecting Breast Cancer with Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging
Institutions: Weizmann Institute of Science, Weizmann Institute of Science, Meir Medical Center, Meir Medical Center.
Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer among women worldwide. Early detection of breast cancer has a critical role in improving the quality of life and survival of breast cancer patients. In this paper a new approach for the detection of breast cancer is described, based on tracking the mammary architectural elements using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).
The paper focuses on the scanning protocols and image processing algorithms and software that were designed to fit the diffusion properties of the mammary fibroglandular tissue and its changes during malignant transformation. The final output yields pixel by pixel vector maps that track the architecture of the entire mammary ductal glandular trees and parametric maps of the diffusion tensor coefficients and anisotropy indices.
The efficiency of the method to detect breast cancer was tested by scanning women volunteers including 68 patients with breast cancer confirmed by histopathology findings. Regions with cancer cells exhibited a marked reduction in the diffusion coefficients and in the maximal anisotropy index as compared to the normal breast tissue, providing an intrinsic contrast for delineating the boundaries of malignant growth. Overall, the sensitivity of the DTI parameters to detect breast cancer was found to be high, particularly in dense breasts, and comparable to the current standard breast MRI method that requires injection of a contrast agent. Thus, this method offers a completely non-invasive, safe and sensitive tool for breast cancer detection.
Medicine, Issue 94, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, breast, breast cancer, diagnosis, water diffusion, diffusion tensor imaging
Method for Novel Anti-Cancer Drug Development using Tumor Explants of Surgical Specimens
Institutions: The Ohio State University Medical Center, The Ohio State University Medical Center.
The current therapies for malignant glioma have only palliative effect. For therapeutic development, one hurdle is the discrepancy of efficacy determined by current drug efficacy tests and the efficacy on patients. Thus, novel and reliable methods for evaluating drug efficacy are warranted in pre-clinical phase. In vitro
culture of tumor tissues, including cell lines, has substantial phenotypic, genetic, and epigenetic alterations of cancer cells caused by artificial environment of cell culture, which may not reflect the biology of original tumors in situ. Xenograft models with the immunodeficient mice also have limitations, i.e., the lack of immune system and interspecies genetic and epigenetic discrepancies in microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate a novel method using the surgical specimens of malignant glioma as undissociated tumor blocks to evaluate treatment effects. To validate this method, data with the current first-line chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide (TMZ), are described.
We used the freshly-removed surgical specimen of malignant glioma for our experiments. We performed intratumoral injection of TMZ or other drug candidates, followed by incubation and analysis on surgical specimens. Here, we sought to establish a tumor tissue explant method as a platform to determine the efficacy of novel anti-cancer therapies so that we may be able to overcome, at least, some of the current limitations and fill the existing gap between the current experimental data and the efficacy on an actual patient's tumor. This method may have the potential to accelerate identifying novel chemotherapeutic agents for solid cancer treatment.
Medicine, Issue 53, Glioblastoma multiforme, glioma, temozolomide, therapeutics, drug design
Monitoring Tumor Metastases and Osteolytic Lesions with Bioluminescence and Micro CT Imaging
Institutions: Caliper Life Sciences.
Following intracardiac delivery of MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2LN cells to Nu/Nu mice, systemic metastases developed in the injected animals. Bioluminescence imaging using IVIS Spectrum was employed to monitor the distribution and development of the tumor cells following the delivery procedure including DLIT reconstruction to measure the tumor signal and its location.
Development of metastatic lesions to the bone tissues triggers osteolytic activity and lesions to tibia and femur were evaluated longitudinally using micro CT. Imaging was performed using a Quantum FX micro CT system with fast imaging and low X-ray dose. The low radiation dose allows multiple imaging sessions to be performed with a cumulative X-ray dosage far below LD50. A mouse imaging shuttle device was used to sequentially image the mice with both IVIS Spectrum and Quantum FX achieving accurate animal positioning in both the bioluminescence and CT images. The optical and CT data sets were co-registered in 3-dimentions using the Living Image 4.1 software. This multi-mode approach allows close monitoring of tumor growth and development simultaneously with osteolytic activity.
Medicine, Issue 50, osteolytic lesions, micro CT, tumor, bioluminescence, in vivo, imaging, IVIS, luciferase, low dose, co-registration, 3D reconstruction
A Step Beyond BRET: Fluorescence by Unbound Excitation from Luminescence (FUEL)
Institutions: Institut Pasteur, Stanford School of Medicine, Institut d'Imagerie Biomédicale, Vanderbilt School of Medicine, The Walter & Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Institut Pasteur, Institut Pasteur.
Fluorescence by Unbound Excitation from Luminescence (FUEL) is a radiative excitation-emission process that produces increased signal and contrast enhancement in vitro
and in vivo
. FUEL shares many of the same underlying principles as Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET), yet greatly differs in the acceptable working distances between the luminescent source and the fluorescent entity. While BRET is effectively limited to a maximum of 2 times the Förster radius, commonly less than 14 nm, FUEL can occur at distances up to µm or even cm in the absence of an optical absorber. Here we expand upon the foundation and applicability of FUEL by reviewing the relevant principles behind the phenomenon and demonstrate its compatibility with a wide variety of fluorophores and fluorescent nanoparticles. Further, the utility of antibody-targeted FUEL is explored. The examples shown here provide evidence that FUEL can be utilized for applications where BRET is not possible, filling the spatial void that exists between BRET and traditional whole animal imaging.
Bioengineering, Issue 87, Biochemical Phenomena, Biochemical Processes, Energy Transfer, Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), FUEL, BRET, CRET, Förster, bioluminescence, In vivo
Synthesis and Operation of Fluorescent-core Microcavities for Refractometric Sensing
Institutions: University of Alberta.
This paper discusses fluorescent core microcavity-based sensors that can operate in a microfluidic analysis setup. These structures are based on the formation of a fluorescent quantum-dot (QD) coating on the channel surface of a conventional microcapillary. Silicon QDs are especially attractive for this application, owing in part to their negligible toxicity compared to the II-VI and II-VI compound QDs, which are legislatively controlled substances in many countries. While the ensemble emission spectrum is broad and featureless, an Si-QD film on the channel wall of a capillary features a set of sharp, narrow peaks in the fluorescence spectrum, corresponding to the electromagnetic resonances for light trapped within the film. The peak wavelength of these resonances is sensitive to the external medium, thus permitting the device to function as a refractometric sensor in which the QDs never come into physical contact with the analyte. The experimental methods associated with the fabrication of the fluorescent-core microcapillaries are discussed in detail, as well as the analysis methods. Finally, a comparison is made between these structures and the more widely investigated liquid-core optical ring resonators, in terms of microfluidic sensing capabilities.
Physics, Issue 73, Microfluidics, Optics, Quantum Dots, Optics and Photonics, fluid flow sensors (general), luminescence (optics), optical waveguides, photonics, condensed matter physics, microcavities, whispering gallery modes, refractometric sensor, fluorescence, microcapillary, quantum dots
Adaptation of Semiautomated Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC) Assays for Clinical and Preclinical Research Applications
Institutions: London Health Sciences Centre, Western University, London Health Sciences Centre, Lawson Health Research Institute, Western University.
The majority of cancer-related deaths occur subsequent to the development of metastatic disease. This highly lethal disease stage is associated with the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). These rare cells have been demonstrated to be of clinical significance in metastatic breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. The current gold standard in clinical CTC detection and enumeration is the FDA-cleared CellSearch system (CSS). This manuscript outlines the standard protocol utilized by this platform as well as two additional adapted protocols that describe the detailed process of user-defined marker optimization for protein characterization of patient CTCs and a comparable protocol for CTC capture in very low volumes of blood, using standard CSS reagents, for studying in vivo
preclinical mouse models of metastasis. In addition, differences in CTC quality between healthy donor blood spiked with cells from tissue culture versus patient blood samples are highlighted. Finally, several commonly discrepant items that can lead to CTC misclassification errors are outlined. Taken together, these protocols will provide a useful resource for users of this platform interested in preclinical and clinical research pertaining to metastasis and CTCs.
Medicine, Issue 84, Metastasis, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), CellSearch system, user defined marker characterization, in vivo, preclinical mouse model, clinical research
Methods for Culturing Human Femur Tissue Explants to Study Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Metastatic Niche
Institutions: Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine.
Bone is the most common site of breast cancer metastasis. Although it is widely accepted that the microenvironment influences cancer cell behavior, little is known about breast cancer cell properties and behaviors within the native microenvironment of human bone tissue.
We have developed approaches to track, quantify and modulate human breast cancer cells within the microenvironment of cultured human bone tissue fragments isolated from discarded femoral heads following total hip replacement surgeries. Using breast cancer cells engineered for luciferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression, we are able to reproducibly quantitate migration and proliferation patterns using bioluminescence imaging (BLI), track cell interactions within the bone fragments using fluorescence microscopy, and evaluate breast cells after colonization with flow cytometry. The key advantages of this model include: 1) a native, architecturally intact tissue microenvironment that includes relevant human cell types, and 2) direct access to the microenvironment, which facilitates rapid quantitative and qualitative monitoring and perturbation of breast and bone cell properties, behaviors and interactions. A primary limitation, at present, is the finite viability of the tissue fragments, which confines the window of study to short-term culture. Applications of the model system include studying the basic biology of breast cancer and other bone-seeking malignancies within the metastatic niche, and developing therapeutic strategies to effectively target breast cancer cells in bone tissues.
Medicine, Issue 97, Metastatic niche, bone microenvironment, breast cancer metastasis, human bone, osteotropism, ex vivo model, explant culture system, bioluminescence imaging
A Next-generation Tissue Microarray (ngTMA) Protocol for Biomarker Studies
Institutions: University of Bern.
Biomarker research relies on tissue microarrays (TMA). TMAs are produced by repeated transfer of small tissue cores from a ‘donor’ block into a ‘recipient’ block and then used for a variety of biomarker applications. The construction of conventional TMAs is labor intensive, imprecise, and time-consuming. Here, a protocol using next-generation Tissue Microarrays (ngTMA) is outlined. ngTMA is based on TMA planning and design, digital pathology, and automated tissue microarraying. The protocol is illustrated using an example of 134 metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Histological, statistical and logistical aspects are considered, such as the tissue type, specific histological regions, and cell types for inclusion in the TMA, the number of tissue spots, sample size, statistical analysis, and number of TMA copies. Histological slides for each patient are scanned and uploaded onto a web-based digital platform. There, they are viewed and annotated (marked) using a 0.6-2.0 mm diameter tool, multiple times using various colors to distinguish tissue areas. Donor blocks and 12 ‘recipient’ blocks are loaded into the instrument. Digital slides are retrieved and matched to donor block images. Repeated arraying of annotated regions is automatically performed resulting in an ngTMA. In this example, six ngTMAs are planned containing six different tissue types/histological zones. Two copies of the ngTMAs are desired. Three to four slides for each patient are scanned; 3 scan runs are necessary and performed overnight. All slides are annotated; different colors are used to represent the different tissues/zones, namely tumor center, invasion front, tumor/stroma, lymph node metastases, liver metastases, and normal tissue. 17 annotations/case are made; time for annotation is 2-3 min/case. 12 ngTMAs are produced containing 4,556 spots. Arraying time is 15-20 hr. Due to its precision, flexibility and speed, ngTMA is a powerful tool to further improve the quality of TMAs used in clinical and translational research.
Medicine, Issue 91, tissue microarray, biomarkers, prognostic, predictive, digital pathology, slide scanning
High Throughput Characterization of Adult Stem Cells Engineered for Delivery of Therapeutic Factors for Neuroprotective Strategies
Institutions: Iowa State University, Iowa State University, Iowa State University.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow are a powerful cellular resource and have been used in numerous studies as potential candidates to develop strategies for treating a variety of diseases. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize MSCs as cellular vehicles engineered for delivery of therapeutic factors as part of a neuroprotective strategy for rescuing the damaged or diseased nervous system. In this study we used mouse MSCs that were genetically modified using lentiviral vectors, which encoded brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), together with green fluorescent protein (GFP).
Before proceeding with in vivo
transplant studies it was important to characterize the engineered cells to determine whether or not the genetic modification altered aspects of normal cell behavior. Different culture substrates were examined for their ability to support cell adhesion, proliferation, survival, and cell migration of the four subpopulations of engineered MSCs. High content screening (HCS) was conducted and image analysis performed.
Substrates examined included: poly-L-lysine, fibronectin, collagen type I, laminin, entactin-collagen IV-laminin (ECL). Ki67 immunolabeling was used to investigate cell proliferation and Propidium Iodide staining was used to investigate cell viability. Time-lapse imaging was conducted using a transmitted light/environmental chamber system on the high content screening system.
Our results demonstrated that the different subpopulations of the genetically modified MSCs displayed similar behaviors that were in general comparable to that of the original, non-modified MSCs. The influence of different culture substrates on cell growth and cell migration was not dramatically different between groups comparing the different MSC subtypes, as well as culture substrates.
This study provides an experimental strategy to rapidly characterize engineered stem cells and their behaviors before their application in long-term in vivo
transplant studies for nervous system rescue and repair.
Medicine, Issue 95, Mesenchymal stem cells, high throughput screening, genetic modification, cell tracking, neurotrophic factors, high content screening, HCS, neuroprotection
Immunohistochemistry and Multiple Labeling with Antibodies from the Same Host Species to Study Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis
Institutions: Jena University Hospital.
Adult neurogenesis is a highly regulated, multi-stage process in which new neurons are generated from an activated neural stem cell via increasingly committed intermediate progenitor subtypes. Each of these subtypes expresses a set of specific molecular markers that, together with specific morphological criteria, can be used for their identification. Typically, immunofluorescent techniques are applied involving subtype-specific antibodies in combination with exo- or endogenous proliferation markers. We herein describe immunolabeling methods for the detection and quantification of all stages of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. These comprise the application of thymidine analogs, transcardial perfusion, tissue processing, heat-induced epitope retrieval, ABC immunohistochemistry, multiple indirect immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy and cell quantification. Furthermore we present a sequential multiple immunofluorescence protocol which circumvents problems usually arising from the need of using primary antibodies raised in the same host species. It allows an accurate identification of all hippocampal progenitor subtypes together with a proliferation marker within a single section. These techniques are a powerful tool to study the regulation of different progenitor subtypes in parallel, their involvement in brain pathologies and their role in specific brain functions.
Neuroscience, Issue 98, Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, antibodies, epitope retrieval, thymidine analogs, 5-Chloro-2′-deoxyuridine (CldU), 5-Iodo-2′-deoxyuridine (IdU), 5-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU), dentate gyrus, adult neurogenesis, free-floating, hippocampal progenitor cells
Non-enzymatic, Serum-free Tissue Culture of Pre-invasive Breast Lesions for Spontaneous Generation of Mammospheres
Institutions: George Mason University, Virginia Surgery Associates.
Breast ductal carcinoma in situ
(DCIS), by definition, is proliferation of neoplastic epithelial cells within the confines of the breast duct, without breaching the collagenous basement membrane. While DCIS is a non-obligate precursor to invasive breast cancers, the molecular mechanisms and cell populations that permit progression to invasive cancer are not fully known. To determine if progenitor cells capable of invasion existed within the DCIS cell population, we developed a methodology for collecting and culturing sterile human breast tissue at the time of surgery, without enzymatic disruption of tissue.
Sterile breast tissue containing ductal segments is harvested from surgically excised breast tissue following routine pathological examination. Tissue containing DCIS is placed in nutrient rich, antibiotic-containing, serum free medium, and transported to the tissue culture laboratory. The breast tissue is further dissected to isolate the calcified areas. Multiple breast tissue pieces (organoids) are placed in a minimal volume of serum free medium in a flask with a removable lid and cultured in a humidified CO2
incubator. Epithelial and fibroblast cell populations emerge from the organoid after 10 - 14 days. Mammospheres spontaneously form on and around the epithelial cell monolayer. Specific cell populations can be harvested directly from the flask without disrupting neighboring cells. Our non-enzymatic tissue culture system reliably reveals cytogenetically abnormal, invasive progenitor cells from fresh human DCIS lesions.
Cancer Biology, Issue 93, Breast, ductal carcinoma in situ, epidermal growth factor, mammosphere, organoid, pre-invasive, primary cell culture, serum-free, spheroid