The BCL-2 (B cell CLL/Lymphoma) family is comprised of approximately twenty proteins that collaborate to either maintain cell survival or initiate apoptosis1. Following cellular stress (e.g., DNA damage), the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family effectors BAK (BCL-2 antagonistic killer 1) and/or BAX (BCL-2 associated X protein) become activated and compromise the integrity of the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), though the process referred to as mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP)1. After MOMP occurs, pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., cytochrome c) gain access to the cytoplasm, promote caspase activation, and apoptosis rapidly ensues2.
In order for BAK/BAX to induce MOMP, they require transient interactions with members of another pro-apoptotic subset of the BCL-2 family, the BCL-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only proteins, such as BID (BH3-interacting domain agonist)3-6. Anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins (e.g., BCL-2 related gene, long isoform, BCL-xL; myeloid cell leukemia 1, MCL-1) regulate cellular survival by tightly controlling the interactions between BAK/BAX and the BH3-only proteins capable of directly inducing BAK/BAX activation7,8. In addition, anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein availability is also dictated by sensitizer/de-repressor BH3-only proteins, such as BAD (BCL-2 antagonist of cell death) or PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis), which bind and inhibit anti-apoptotic members7,9. As most of the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 repertoire is localized to the OMM, the cellular decision to maintain survival or induce MOMP is dictated by multiple BCL-2 family interactions at this membrane.
Large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) are a biochemical model to explore relationships between BCL-2 family interactions and membrane permeabilization10. LUVs are comprised of defined lipids that are assembled in ratios identified in lipid composition studies from solvent extracted Xenopus mitochondria (46.5% phosphatidylcholine, 28.5% phosphatidylethanoloamine, 9% phosphatidylinositol, 9% phosphatidylserine, and 7% cardiolipin)10. This is a convenient model system to directly explore BCL-2 family function because the protein and lipid components are completely defined and tractable, which is not always the case with primary mitochondria. While cardiolipin is not usually this high throughout the OMM, this model does faithfully mimic the OMM to promote BCL-2 family function. Furthermore, a more recent modification of the above protocol allows for kinetic analyses of protein interactions and real-time measurements of membrane permeabilization, which is based on LUVs containing a polyanionic dye (ANTS: 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid) and cationic quencher (DPX: p-xylene-bis-pyridinium bromide)11. As the LUVs permeabilize, ANTS and DPX diffuse apart, and a gain in fluorescence is detected. Here, commonly used recombinant BCL-2 family protein combinations and controls using the LUVs containing ANTS/DPX are described.
19 Related JoVE Articles!
Genome-wide Screen for miRNA Targets Using the MISSION Target ID Library
The Target ID Library is designed to assist in discovery and identification of microRNA (miRNA) targets. The Target ID Library is a plasmid-based, genome-wide cDNA library cloned into the 3'UTR downstream from the dual-selection fusion protein, thymidine kinase-zeocin (TKzeo). The first round of selection is for stable transformants, followed with introduction of a miRNA of interest, and finally, selecting for cDNAs containing the miRNA's target. Selected cDNAs are identified by sequencing (see Figure 1-3 for Target ID Library Workflow and details).
To ensure broad coverage of the human transcriptome, Target ID Library cDNAs were generated via oligo-dT priming using a pool of total RNA prepared from multiple human tissues and cell lines. Resulting cDNA range from 0.5 to 4 kb, with an average size of 1.2 kb, and were cloned into the p3΄TKzeo dual-selection plasmid (see Figure 4 for plasmid map). The gene targets represented in the library can be found on the Sigma-Aldrich webpage. Results from Illumina sequencing (Table 3
), show that the library includes 16,922 of the 21,518 unique genes in UCSC RefGene (79%), or 14,000 genes with 10 or more reads (66%).
Genetics, Issue 62, Target ID, miRNA, ncRNA, RNAi, genomics
Differentiation of a Human Neural Stem Cell Line on Three Dimensional Cultures, Analysis of MicroRNA and Putative Target Genes
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes under specific local microenvironments. In here, we present a set of methods used for three dimensional (3D) differentiation and miRNA analysis of a clonal human neural stem cell (hNSC) line, currently in clinical trials for stroke disability (NCT01151124 and NCT02117635, Clinicaltrials.gov). HNSCs were derived from an ethical approved first trimester human fetal cortex and conditionally immortalized using retroviral integration of a single copy of the c-mycERTAM
construct. We describe how to measure axon process outgrowth of hNSCs differentiated on 3D scaffolds and how to quantify associated changes in miRNA expression using PCR array. Furthermore we exemplify computational analysis with the aim of selecting miRNA putative targets. SOX5 and NR4A3 were identified as suitable miRNA putative target of selected significantly down-regulated miRNAs in differentiated hNSC. MiRNA target validation was performed on SOX5 and NR4A3 3’UTRs by dual reporter plasmid transfection and dual luciferase assay.
Developmental Biology, Issue 98, Clinical grade neural stem cells, miRNA profiling and effects, in vitro differentiation, three dimensional culture
Activation of Apoptosis by Cytoplasmic Microinjection of Cytochrome c
Institutions: University of North Carolina , University of North Carolina .
Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a conserved and highly regulated pathway by which cells die1
. Apoptosis can be triggered when cells encounter a wide range of cytotoxic stresses. These insults initiate signaling cascades that ultimately cause the release of cytochrome c
from the mitochondrial intermembrane space to the cytoplasm2
. The release of cytochrome c
from mitochondria is a key event that triggers the rapid activation of caspases, the key cellular proteases which ultimately execute cell death3-4
The pathway of apoptosis is regulated at points upstream and downstream of cytochrome c
release from mitochondria5
. In order to study the post-mitochondrial regulation of caspase activation, many investigators have turned to direct cytoplasmic microinjection of holocytochrome c
(heme-attached) protein into cells6-9
. Cytochrome c
is normally localized to the mitochondria where attachment of a heme group is necessary to enable it to activate apoptosis10-11
. Therefore, to directly activate caspases, it is necessary to inject the holocytochrome c
protein instead of its cDNA, because while the expression of cytochrome c
from cDNA constructs will result in mitochondrial targeting and heme attachment, it will be sequestered from cytosolic caspases. Thus, the direct cytosolic microinjection of purified heme-attached cytochrome c
protein is a useful tool to mimic mitochondrial cytochrome c
release and apoptosis without the use of toxic insults which cause cellular and mitochondrial damage.
In this article, we describe a method for the microinjection of cytochrome c
protein into cells, using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and primary sympathetic neurons as examples. While this protocol focuses on the injection of cytochrome c
for investigations of apoptosis, the techniques shown here can also be easily adapted for microinjection of other proteins of interest.
Cellular Biology, Issue 52, Microinjection, apoptosis, cytochrome c, fibroblasts, neurons
Identifying Targets of Human microRNAs with the LightSwitch Luciferase Assay System using 3'UTR-reporter Constructs and a microRNA Mimic in Adherent Cells
Institutions: SwitchGear Genomics.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression and play a role in many biological processes. More than 700 human miRNAs have been identified so far with each having up to hundreds of unique target mRNAs. Computational tools, expression and proteomics assays, and chromatin-immunoprecipitation-based techniques provide important clues for identifying mRNAs that are direct targets of a particular miRNA. In addition, 3'UTR-reporter assays have become an important component of thorough miRNA target studies because they provide functional evidence for and quantitate the effects of specific miRNA-3'UTR interactions in a cell-based system. To enable more researchers to leverage 3'UTR-reporter assays and to support the scale-up of such assays to high-throughput levels, we have created a genome-wide collection of human 3'UTR luciferase reporters in the highly-optimized LightSwitch Luciferase Assay System. The system also includes synthetic miRNA target reporter constructs for use as positive controls, various endogenous 3'UTR reporter constructs, and a series of standardized experimental protocols.
Here we describe a method for co-transfection of individual 3'UTR-reporter constructs along with a miRNA mimic that is efficient, reproducible, and amenable to high-throughput analysis.
Genetics, Issue 55, MicroRNA, miRNA, mimic, Clone, 3' UTR, Assay, vector, LightSwitch, luciferase, co-transfection, 3'UTR REPORTER, mirna target, microrna target, reporter, GoClone, Reporter construct
Electrochemotherapy of Tumours
Institutions: Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, University of Ljubljana.
Electrochemotherapy is a combined use of certain chemotherapeutic drugs and electric pulses applied to the treated tumour nodule. Local application of electric pulses to the tumour increases drug delivery into cells, specifically at the site of electric pulse application. Drug uptake by delivery of electric pulses is increased for only those chemotherapeutic drugs whose transport through the plasma membrane is impeded. Among many drugs that have been tested so far, bleomycin and cisplatin found their way from preclinical testing to clinical use. Clinical data collected within a number of clinical studies indicate that approximately 80% of the treated cutaneous and subcutaneous tumour nodules of different malignancies are in an objective response, from these, approximately 70% in complete response after a single application of electrochemotherapy. Usually only one treatment is needed, however, electrochemotherapy can be repeated several times every few weeks with equal effectiveness each time. The treatment results in an effective eradication of the treated nodules, with a good cosmetic effect without tissue scarring.
Medicine, Issue 22, electrochemotherapy, electroporation, cisplatin, bleomycin, malignant tumours, cutaneous lesions
Preparation of Pooled Human Platelet Lysate (pHPL) as an Efficient Supplement for Animal Serum-Free Human Stem Cell Cultures
Institutions: Medical University of Graz, Austria.
Platelet derived growth factors have been shown to stimulate cell proliferation efficiently in vivo1,2
and in vitro
. This effect has been reported for mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), fibroblasts and endothelial colony-forming cells with platelets activated by thrombin3-5
or lysed by freeze/thaw cycles6-14
before the platelet releasate is added to the cell culture medium. The trophic effect of platelet derived growth factors has already been tested in several trials for tissue engineering and regenerative therapy.1,15-17
Varying efficiency is considered to be at least in part due to individually divergent concentrations of growth factors18,19
and a current lack of standardized protocols for platelet preparation.15,16
This protocol presents a practicable procedure to generate a pool of human platelet lysate (pHPL) derived from routinely produced platelet rich plasma (PRP) of forty to fifty single blood donations. By several freeze/thaw cycles the platelet membranes are damaged and growth factors are efficiently released into the plasma. Finally, the platelet fragments are removed by centrifugation to avoid extensive aggregate formation and deplete potential antigens. The implementation of pHPL into standard culture protocols represents a promising tool for further development of cell therapeutics propagated in an animal protein-free system.
Cellular Biology, Issue 32, Pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL), platelet derived growth factors (PDGFs), cell culture, stem cells
Enhancement of Apoptotic and Autophagic Induction by a Novel Synthetic C-1 Analogue of 7-deoxypancratistatin in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma and Neuroblastoma Cells with Tamoxifen
Institutions: University of Windsor, Brock University.
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers amongst women in North America. Many current anti-cancer treatments, including ionizing radiation, induce apoptosis via DNA damage. Unfortunately, such treatments are non-selective to cancer cells and produce similar toxicity in normal cells. We have reported selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by the natural compound pancratistatin (PST). Recently, a novel PST analogue, a C-1 acetoxymethyl derivative of 7-deoxypancratistatin (JCTH-4), was produced by de novo synthesis and it exhibits comparable selective apoptosis inducing activity in several cancer cell lines. Recently, autophagy has been implicated in malignancies as both pro-survival and pro-death mechanisms in response to chemotherapy. Tamoxifen (TAM) has invariably demonstrated induction of pro-survival autophagy in numerous cancers. In this study, the efficacy of JCTH-4 alone and in combination with TAM to induce cell death in human breast cancer (MCF7) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells was evaluated. TAM alone induced autophagy, but insignificant cell death whereas JCTH-4 alone caused significant induction of apoptosis with some induction of autophagy. Interestingly, the combinatory treatment yielded a drastic increase in apoptotic and autophagic induction. We monitored time-dependent morphological changes in MCF7 cells undergoing TAM-induced autophagy, JCTH-4-induced apoptosis and autophagy, and accelerated cell death with combinatorial treatment using time-lapse microscopy. We have demonstrated these compounds to induce apoptosis/autophagy by mitochondrial targeting in these cancer cells. Importantly, these treatments did not affect the survival of noncancerous human fibroblasts. Thus, these results indicate that JCTH-4 in combination with TAM could be used as a safe and very potent anti-cancer therapy against breast cancer and neuroblastoma cells.
Cancer Biology, Issue 63, Medicine, Biochemistry, Breast adenocarcinoma, neuroblastoma, tamoxifen, combination therapy, apoptosis, autophagy
Isolation and Functional Analysis of Mitochondria from Cultured Cells and Mouse Tissue
Institutions: Elon University, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine.
Comparison between two or more distinct groups, such as healthy vs. disease, is necessary to determine cellular status. Mitochondria are at the nexus of cell heath due to their role in both cell metabolism and energy production as well as control of apoptosis. Therefore, direct evaluation of isolated mitochondria and mitochondrial perturbation offers the ability to determine if organelle-specific (dys)function is occurring. The methods described in this protocol include isolation of intact, functional mitochondria from HEK cultured cells and mouse liver and spinal cord, but can be easily adapted for use with other cultured cells or animal tissues. Mitochondrial function assessed by TMRE and the use of common mitochondrial uncouplers and inhibitors in conjunction with a fluorescent plate reader allow this protocol not only to be versatile and accessible to most research laboratories, but also offers high throughput.
Cellular Biology, Issue 97, Mitochondria, TMRE, cytokines, ALS, HEK cells, fluorescence, mitochondrial dysfunction, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c
High Throughput Quantitative Expression Screening and Purification Applied to Recombinant Disulfide-rich Venom Proteins Produced in E. coli
Institutions: Aix-Marseille Université, Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA) Saclay, France.
Escherichia coli (E. coli)
is the most widely used expression system for the production of recombinant proteins for structural and functional studies. However, purifying proteins is sometimes challenging since many proteins are expressed in an insoluble form. When working with difficult or multiple targets it is therefore recommended to use high throughput (HTP) protein expression screening on a small scale (1-4 ml cultures) to quickly identify conditions for soluble expression. To cope with the various structural genomics programs of the lab, a quantitative (within a range of 0.1-100 mg/L culture of recombinant protein) and HTP protein expression screening protocol was implemented and validated on thousands of proteins. The protocols were automated with the use of a liquid handling robot but can also be performed manually without specialized equipment.
Disulfide-rich venom proteins are gaining increasing recognition for their potential as therapeutic drug leads. They can be highly potent and selective, but their complex disulfide bond networks make them challenging to produce. As a member of the FP7 European Venomics project (www.venomics.eu), our challenge is to develop successful production strategies with the aim of producing thousands of novel venom proteins for functional characterization. Aided by the redox properties of disulfide bond isomerase DsbC, we adapted our HTP production pipeline for the expression of oxidized, functional venom peptides in the E. coli
cytoplasm. The protocols are also applicable to the production of diverse disulfide-rich proteins. Here we demonstrate our pipeline applied to the production of animal venom proteins. With the protocols described herein it is likely that soluble disulfide-rich proteins will be obtained in as little as a week. Even from a small scale, there is the potential to use the purified proteins for validating the oxidation state by mass spectrometry, for characterization in pilot studies, or for sensitive micro-assays.
Bioengineering, Issue 89, E. coli, expression, recombinant, high throughput (HTP), purification, auto-induction, immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), tobacco etch virus protease (TEV) cleavage, disulfide bond isomerase C (DsbC) fusion, disulfide bonds, animal venom proteins/peptides
F1FO ATPase Vesicle Preparation and Technique for Performing Patch Clamp Recordings of Submitochondrial Vesicle Membranes
Institutions: Yale University.
Mitochondria are involved in many important cellular functions including metabolism, survival1
, development and, calcium signaling2
. Two of the most important mitochondrial functions are related to the efficient production of ATP, the energy currency of the cell, by oxidative phosphorylation, and the mediation of signals for programmed cell death3
The enzyme primarily responsible for the production of ATP is the F1FO-ATP synthase, also called ATP synthase4-5
. In recent years, the role of mitochondria in apoptotic and necrotic cell death has received considerable attention. In apoptotic cell death, BCL-2 family proteins such as Bax enter the mitochondrial outer membrane, oligomerize and permeabilize the outer membrane, releasing pro-apoptotic factors into the cytosol6
. In classic necrotic cell death, such as that produced by ischemia or excitotoxicity in neurons, a large, poorly regulated increase in matrix calcium contributes to the opening of an inner membrane pore, the mitochondrial permeability transition pore or mPTP. This depolarizes the inner membrane and causes osmotic shifts, contributing to outer membrane rupture, release of pro-apoptotic factors, and metabolic dysfunction. Many proteins including Bcl-xL7
interact with F1FO ATP synthase, modulating its function. Bcl-xL interacts directly with the beta subunit of F1FO ATP synthase, and this interaction decreases a leak conductance within the F1FOATPasecomplex, increasing the net transport of H+ by F1FO during F1FO ATPase activity8
and thereby increasing mitochondrial efficiency. To study the activity and modulation of the ATP synthase, we isolated from rodent brain submitochondrial vesicles (SMVs) containing F1FO ATPase. The SMVs retain the structural and functional integrity of the F1FO ATPase as shown in Alavian et al
. Here, we describe a method that we have used successfully for the isolation of SMVs from rat brain and we delineate the patch clamp technique to analyze channel activity (ion leak conductance) of the SMVs.
Neuroscience, Issue 75, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biochemistry, Neurobiology, Anatomy, Physiology, F1FO ATPase, mitochondria, patch clamp, electrophysiology, submitochondrial vesicles, Bcl-xL, cells, rat, animal model
Development of automated imaging and analysis for zebrafish chemical screens.
Institutions: University of Pittsburgh Drug Discovery Institute, University of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh.
We demonstrate the application of image-based high-content screening (HCS) methodology to identify small molecules that can modulate the FGF/RAS/MAPK pathway in zebrafish embryos. The zebrafish embryo is an ideal system for in vivo high-content chemical screens. The 1-day old embryo is approximately 1mm in diameter and can be easily arrayed into 96-well plates, a standard format for high throughput screening. During the first day of development, embryos are transparent with most of the major organs present, thus enabling visualization of tissue formation during embryogenesis. The complete automation of zebrafish chemical screens is still a challenge, however, particularly in the development of automated image acquisition and analysis. We previously generated a transgenic reporter line that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of FGF activity and demonstrated their utility in chemical screens 1
. To establish methodology for high throughput whole organism screens, we developed a system for automated imaging and analysis of zebrafish embryos at 24-48 hours post fertilization (hpf) in 96-well plates 2
. In this video we highlight the procedures for arraying transgenic embryos into multiwell plates at 24hpf and the addition of a small molecule (BCI) that hyperactivates FGF signaling 3
. The plates are incubated for 6 hours followed by the addition of tricaine to anesthetize larvae prior to automated imaging on a Molecular Devices ImageXpress Ultra laser scanning confocal HCS reader. Images are processed by Definiens Developer software using a Cognition Network Technology algorithm that we developed to detect and quantify expression of GFP in the heads of transgenic embryos. In this example we highlight the ability of the algorithm to measure dose-dependent effects of BCI on GFP reporter gene expression in treated embryos.
Cellular Biology, Issue 40, Zebrafish, Chemical Screens, Cognition Network Technology, Fibroblast Growth Factor, (E)-2-benzylidene-3-(cyclohexylamino)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one (BCI),Tg(dusp6:d2EGFP)
Probe-based Real-time PCR Approaches for Quantitative Measurement of microRNAs
Institutions: The University of Sydney, The University of Sydney.
Probe-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a favoured method for measuring transcript abundance, since it is one of the most sensitive detection methods that provides an accurate and reproducible analysis. Probe-based chemistry offers the least background fluorescence as compared to other (dye-based) chemistries. Presently, there are several platforms available that use probe-based chemistry to quantitate transcript abundance. qPCR in a 96 well plate is the most routinely used method, however only a maximum of 96 samples or miRNAs can be tested in a single run. This is time-consuming and tedious if a large number of samples/miRNAs are to be analyzed. High-throughput probe-based platforms such as microfluidics (e.g.
TaqMan Array Card) and nanofluidics arrays (e.g.
OpenArray) offer ease to reproducibly and efficiently detect the abundance of multiple microRNAs in a large number of samples in a short time. Here, we demonstrate the experimental setup and protocol for miRNA quantitation from serum or plasma-EDTA samples, using probe-based chemistry and three different platforms (96 well plate, microfluidics and nanofluidics arrays) offering increasing levels of throughput.
Molecular Biology, Issue 98, microRNA, ncRNA, probe-based assays, high-throughput PCR, Nanofluidics / Open Arrays, reverse-transcription, pre-amplification, qPCR
Detection of miRNA Targets in High-throughput Using the 3'LIFE Assay
Institutions: Arizona State University, Arizona State University.
Luminescent Identification of Functional Elements in 3’UTRs (3’LIFE) allows the rapid identification of targets of specific miRNAs within an array of hundreds of queried 3’UTRs. Target identification is based on the dual-luciferase assay, which detects binding at the mRNA level by measuring translational output, giving a functional readout of miRNA targeting. 3’LIFE uses non-proprietary buffers and reagents, and publically available reporter libraries, making genome-wide screens feasible and cost-effective. 3’LIFE can be performed either in a standard lab setting or scaled up using liquid handling robots and other high-throughput instrumentation. We illustrate the approach using a dataset of human 3’UTRs cloned in 96-well plates, and two test miRNAs, let-7c
. We demonstrate how to perform DNA preparation, transfection, cell culture and luciferase assays in 96-well format, and provide tools for data analysis. In conclusion 3'LIFE is highly reproducible, rapid, systematic, and identifies high confidence targets.
Molecular Biology, Issue 99, microRNA, luciferase assay, 3' untranslated region, high-throughput, transfection, post-transcriptional gene regulation, cancer
Profiling of Estrogen-regulated MicroRNAs in Breast Cancer Cells
Institutions: University of Houston.
Estrogen plays vital roles in mammary gland development and breast cancer progression. It mediates its function by binding to and activating the estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα, and ERβ. ERα is frequently upregulated in breast cancer and drives the proliferation of breast cancer cells. The ERs function as transcription factors and regulate gene expression. Whereas ERα's regulation of protein-coding genes is well established, its regulation of noncoding microRNA (miRNA) is less explored. miRNAs play a major role in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes, inhibiting their translation or degrading their mRNA. miRNAs can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors and are also promising biomarkers. Among the miRNA assays available, microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) have been extensively used to detect and quantify miRNA levels. To identify miRNAs regulated by estrogen signaling in breast cancer, their expression in ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines were compared before and after estrogen-activation using both the µParaflo-microfluidic microarrays and Dual Labeled Probes-low density arrays. Results were validated using specific qPCR assays, applying both Cyanine dye-based and Dual Labeled Probes-based chemistry. Furthermore, a time-point assay was used to identify regulations over time. Advantages of the miRNA assay approach used in this study is that it enables a fast screening of mature miRNA regulations in numerous samples, even with limited sample amounts. The layout, including the specific conditions for cell culture and estrogen treatment, biological and technical replicates, and large-scale screening followed by in-depth confirmations using separate techniques, ensures a robust detection of miRNA regulations, and eliminates false positives and other artifacts. However, mutated or unknown miRNAs, or regulations at the primary and precursor transcript level, will not be detected. The method presented here represents a thorough investigation of estrogen-mediated miRNA regulation.
Medicine, Issue 84, breast cancer, microRNA, estrogen, estrogen receptor, microarray, qPCR
Assessment of Selective mRNA Translation in Mammalian Cells by Polysome Profiling
Institutions: University of Ottawa, Montreal Neurological Institute, University of Ottawa.
Regulation of protein synthesis represents a key control point in cellular response to stress. In particular, discreet RNA regulatory elements were shown to allow to selective translation of specific mRNAs, which typically encode for proteins required for a particular stress response. Identification of these mRNAs, as well as the characterization of regulatory mechanisms responsible for selective translation has been at the forefront of molecular biology for some time. Polysome profiling is a cornerstone method in these studies. The goal of polysome profiling is to capture mRNA translation by immobilizing actively translating ribosomes on different transcripts and separate the resulting polyribosomes by ultracentrifugation on a sucrose gradient, thus allowing for a distinction between highly translated transcripts and poorly translated ones. These can then be further characterized by traditional biochemical and molecular biology methods. Importantly, combining polysome profiling with high throughput genomic approaches allows for a large scale analysis of translational regulation.
Cellular Biology, Issue 92, cellular stress, translation initiation, internal ribosome entry site, polysome, RT-qPCR, gradient
Strategies for Tracking Anastasis, A Cell Survival Phenomenon that Reverses Apoptosis
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
Anastasis (Greek for “rising to life”) refers to the recovery of dying cells. Before these cells recover, they have passed through important checkpoints of apoptosis, including mitochondrial fragmentation, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c
into the cytosol, activation of caspases, chromatin condensation, DNA damage, nuclear fragmentation, plasma membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, cell surface exposure of phosphatidylserine, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Anastasis can occur when apoptotic stimuli are removed prior to death, thereby allowing dying cells to reverse apoptosis and potentially other death mechanisms. Therefore, anastasis appears to involve physiological healing processes that could also sustain damaged cells inappropriately. The functions and mechanisms of anastasis are still unclear, hampered in part by the limited tools for detecting past events after the recovery of apparently healthy cells. Strategies to detect anastasis will enable studies of the physiological mechanisms, the hazards of undead cells in disease pathology, and potential therapeutics to modulate anastasis. Here, we describe effective strategies using live cell microscopy and a mammalian caspase biosensor for identifying and tracking anastasis in mammalian cells.
Cellular Biology, Issue 96, Anastasis, apoptosis, apoptotic bodies, caspase, cell death, cell shrinkage, cell suicide, cytochrome c, DNA damage, genetic alterations, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), programmed cell death, reversal of apoptosis
Applying an Inducible Expression System to Study Interference of Bacterial Virulence Factors with Intracellular Signaling
Institutions: Friedrich-Alexander-Universität, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen.
The technique presented here allows one to analyze at which step a target protein, or alternatively a small molecule, interacts with the components of a signaling pathway. The method is based, on the one hand, on the inducible expression of a specific protein to initiate a signaling event at a defined and predetermined step in the selected signaling cascade. Concomitant expression, on the other hand, of the gene of interest then allows the investigator to evaluate if the activity of the expressed target protein is located upstream or downstream of the initiated signaling event, depending on the readout of the signaling pathway that is obtained. Here, the apoptotic cascade was selected as a defined signaling pathway to demonstrate protocol functionality. Pathogenic bacteria, such as Coxiella burnetii
, translocate effector proteins that interfere with host cell death induction in the host cell to ensure bacterial survival in the cell and to promote their dissemination in the organism. The C. burnetii
effector protein CaeB effectively inhibits host cell death after induction of apoptosis with UV-light or with staurosporine. To narrow down at which step CaeB interferes with the propagation of the apoptotic signal, selected proteins with well-characterized pro-apoptotic activity were expressed transiently in a doxycycline-inducible manner. If CaeB acts upstream of these proteins, apoptosis will proceed unhindered. If CaeB acts downstream, cell death will be inhibited. The test proteins selected were Bax, which acts at the level of the mitochondria, and caspase 3, which is the major executioner protease. CaeB interferes with cell death induced by Bax expression, but not by caspase 3 expression. CaeB, thus, interacts with the apoptotic cascade between these two proteins.
Infection, Issue 100, Apoptosis, Bax, Caspase 3, Coxiella burnetii, Doxycycline, Effector protein, Inducible expression, stable cell line, Tet system, Type IV Secretion System
Preparation and Pathogen Inactivation of Double Dose Buffy Coat Platelet Products using the INTERCEPT Blood System
Institutions: Örebro University Hospital.
Blood centers are faced with many challenges including maximizing production yield from the blood product donations they receive as well as ensuring the highest possible level of safety for transfusion patients, including protection from transfusion transmitted diseases. This must be accomplished in a fiscally responsible manner which minimizes operating expenses including consumables, equipment, waste, and personnel costs, among others.
Several methods are available to produce platelet concentrates for transfusion. One of the most common is the buffy coat method in which a single therapeutic platelet unit (≥ 2.0 x1011
platelets per unit or per local regulations) is prepared by pooling the buffy coat layer from up to six whole blood donations. A procedure for producing "double dose" whole blood derived platelets has only recently been developed.
Presented here is a novel method for preparing double dose whole blood derived platelet concentrates from pools of 7 buffy coats and subsequently treating the double dose units with the INTERCEPT Blood System for pathogen inactivation. INTERCEPT was developed to inactivate viruses, bacteria, parasites, and contaminating donor white cells which may be present in donated blood. Pairing INTERCEPT with the double dose buffy coat method by utilizing the INTERCEPT Processing Set with Dual Storage Containers (the "DS set"), allows blood centers to treat each of their double dose units in a single pathogen inactivation processing set, thereby maximizing patient safety while minimizing costs. The double dose buffy coat method requires fewer buffy coats and reduces the use of consumables by up to 50% (e.g.
pooling sets, filter sets, platelet additive solution, and sterile connection wafers) compared to preparation and treatment of single dose buffy coat platelet units. Other cost savings include less waste, less equipment maintenance, lower power requirements, reduced personnel time, and lower collection cost compared to the apheresis technique.
Medicine, Issue 70, Immunology, Hematology, Infectious Disease, Pathology, pathogen inactivation, pathogen reduction, double-dose platelets, INTERCEPT Blood System, amotosalen, UVA, platelet, blood processing, buffy coat, IBS, transfusion
Analysis of Apoptosis in Zebrafish Embryos by Whole-mount Immunofluorescence to Detect Activated Caspase 3
Institutions: University of Utah.
Whole-mount immunofluorescence to detect activated Caspase 3 (Casp3 assay) is useful to identify cells undergoing either intrinsic or extrinsic apoptosis in zebrafish embryos. The whole-mount analysis provides spatial information in regard to tissue specificity of apoptosing cells, although sectioning and/or colabeling is ultimately required to pinpoint the exact cell types undergoing apoptosis. The whole-mount Casp3 assay is optimized for analysis of fixed embryos between the 4-cell stage and 32 hr-post-fertilization and is useful for a number of applications, including analysis of zebrafish mutants and morphants, overexpression of mutant and wild-type mRNAs, and exposure to chemicals. Compared to acridine orange staining, which can identify apoptotic cells in live embryos in a matter of hours, Casp3 and TUNEL assays take considerably longer to complete (2-4 days). However, because of the dynamic nature of apoptotic cell formation and clearance, analysis of fixed embryos ensures accurate comparison of apoptotic cells across multiple samples at specific time points. We have also found the Casp3 assay to be superior to analysis of apoptotic cells by the whole-mount TUNEL assay in regard to cost and reliability. Overall, the Casp3 assay represents a robust, highly reproducible assay in which to analyze apoptotic cells in early zebrafish embryos.
Developmental Biology, Issue 82, zebrafish, embryo, apoptosis, Caspase 3, Immunofluorescence, whole-mount, cell death